Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-559fc8cf4f-lzpzj Total loading time: 0.268 Render date: 2021-02-26T18:27:36.735Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": false, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true }

Is wheat germ grass detrimental during radiotherapy?: a hypothesis

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  02 May 2016

Tejinder Kataria
Affiliation:
Radiation Oncology, Medanta – The Medicity, Gurgaon, Haryana, India
Deepak Gupta
Affiliation:
Radiation Oncology, Medanta – The Medicity, Gurgaon, Haryana, India
Sasikumar Sambasivam
Affiliation:
Radiation Oncology, Medanta – The Medicity, Gurgaon, Haryana, India
Nisha T. Vishnu
Affiliation:
Radiation Oncology, Medanta – The Medicity, Gurgaon, Haryana, India
Shikha Goyal
Affiliation:
Radiation Oncology, Medanta – The Medicity, Gurgaon, Haryana, India
Shyam Singh Bisht
Affiliation:
Radiation Oncology, Medanta – The Medicity, Gurgaon, Haryana, India
Trinanjan Basu
Affiliation:
Radiation Oncology, Medanta – The Medicity, Gurgaon, Haryana, India
Ashu Abhishek
Affiliation:
Radiation Oncology, Medanta – The Medicity, Gurgaon, Haryana, India
Kushal Narang
Affiliation:
Radiation Oncology, Medanta – The Medicity, Gurgaon, Haryana, India
Susovan Banerjee
Affiliation:
Radiation Oncology, Medanta – The Medicity, Gurgaon, Haryana, India
Corresponding
E-mail address:

Abstract

Background

Antioxidant therapies to control oxidative damage have already attracted worldwide attention in recent years. Extensive studies on phytochemicals in cell culture system and animal models have provided a wealth of information on the mechanism by which such nutraceuticals show their beneficial effect. Nutraceuticals include plant-derived factors (phytochemicals) and factors derived from animal sources as well as from microbial sources. The activities of nutraceuticals are broad and include antioxidation, modulation of enzyme activity and modification of natural hormonal activity (agonist or antagonist) to act as a precursor for one or more beneficial molecules. Antioxidants scavenge free radicals that cause cell damage. Antioxidant consumption during radiotherapy and its effects are still controversial. Some studies suggest that antioxidant supplementation during chemotherapy or radiotherapy may be beneficial and some, harmful. Wheat grass is rich in superoxide dismutase, an antioxidant enzyme. Radiotherapy causes tumour cell kill via activation of reactive oxygen species, specifically by the hydroxyl radical and needs the reactive species for effective tumour control. Wheat grass which is rich in free radical scavengers can interfere with reactive oxygen species generated by radiation for tumour cell kill and can be detrimental to the therapy per se.

Purpose

To hypothesise if the antioxidant properties of wheat grass could influence tumour activity, the effects of radiation therapy on tumour cells can be nullified when wheat grass is taken during radiotherapy.

Type
Educational Note
Copyright
© Cambridge University Press 2016 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below.

References

1. Das, L, Bhaumik, E, Raychaudhuri, U, Chakraborty, R. Role of nutraceuticals in human health. J Food Sci Technol 2012; 49: 173183.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
2. Lampe, J W. Health effects of vegetables and fruit: assessing mechanisms of action in human experimental studies. Am J Clin Nutr 1999; 70: 475S490SS.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
3. Marx, J L. Oxygen free radicals linked to many diseases. Science 1985; 235: 529531.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
4. Godsey, J, Grundmann, O. Review of various herbal supplements as complementary treatments for oral cancer. J Diet Suppl 2016; 13 (5): 538550.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
5. Norman, H, Butrum, R, Feldman, E et al. The role of dietary supplements during cancer therapy. J Nutr 2003; 133: 3794S3799S.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
6. Bairati, I, Meyer, F, Jobin, E et al. Antioxidant vitamins supplementation and mortality: a randomized trial in headand neck cancer patients. Int J Cancer 2006; 119: 22212224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
7. Greenlee, H, Hershman, D, Jacobson, J. Use of antioxidant supplements during breast cancer treatment: a comprehensive review. Breast Cancer Res Treat 2009; 115: 437452.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
8. Doughari, J H, Human, I S, Bennade, S, Ndakidemi, P A. Phytochemicals as chemotherapeutic agents and antioxidants: possible solution to the control of antibiotic resistant verocytotoxin producing bacteria. J Med Plants Res 2009; 3 (11): 839848.Google Scholar
9. Milner, J A. Functional foods: the US perspective. Am J Clin Nutr 2000; 71 (suppl): 1654 S1659 S.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
10. Eisenberg, D M, Davis, R B, Ettner, S L et al. Trends in alternative medicine use in United States, 1990–1997: results of a followup national survey. J Am Med Assoc 1998; 280: 15691575.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
11. Marcus, D M, Grollman, A P. Botanical medicine-the need for new regulations. New Eng J Med 2002; 347: 20732076.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
12. Tindle, H A, Davis, R B, Phillip, R S, Eisenberg, D M. Trends in use of complementary and alternative medicine by US adults:1997–2002. Altern Ther Health Med 2005; 11: 4249.Google ScholarPubMed
13. Wigmore, A. Be your own doctor: a positive guide to natural living. Avery 1982.Google Scholar
14. Cassileth, B. Contemporary unorthodox treatments in cancer medicine: a study of patients, treatments, and practitioners. Ann Intern Med 1984; 101: 105112.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
15. Bidlack, W R, Meskin, M S. Nutritional quackery: selling health misinformation,. Calif Pharmacist 1989; 36 (8): 34.Google Scholar
16. Jirathitikal, V. Inventor; Immunitor USA Inc., assignee. Drug for AIDS treatment. United States patent US 7384,637. 10 June 2008.Google Scholar
17. Mujoriya, R, Bodla, R B. A study on wheat grass and its nutritional value. Food Sci Qual Manag 2011; 2: 19.Google Scholar
18. Cassileth, B R, Brown, H. Unorthodox cancer medicine. CA Cancer J Clin 1988; 38 (3): 176186.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
19. Fang, Y Z, Yang, S, Wu, G. Free radicals, antioxidants, and nutrition. Nutrition 2002; 18 (10): 872879.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
20. Block, K, Koch, M, Mead, M, Tothy, P, Newman, R, Gyllenhaal, C. Impact of antioxidant supplementation on chemotherapeutic toxicity: a systematic review of the evidence from randomized controlled trails. Int J Cancer 2008; 123: 12271239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
21. Block, K, Koch, A, Mead, M, Tothy, P, Newman, R, Gyllenhaal, C. Impact of antioxidant supplementation on chemotherapeutic efficacy: a systematic review of theevidence from randomized controlled trials. Cancer Treat Rev 2007; 33: 407418.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
22. Conklin, K. Dietary antioxidants during cancer chemotherapy: impact on chemotherapeutic effectiveness and development of side effects. Nutr Cancer 2000; 37: 118.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
23. Mates, M J, Jimenez, S, Fransisca, M. Role of reactive oxygen species in apoptosis: implication for cancer therapy. Int J Biochem Cell Biol 2000; 32 (2): 157170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
24. Hall, E, Giaccia, A. Radiobiology for the Radiologist. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2006.Google Scholar
25. Kothari, S, Jain, A K, Mehta, S C et al. Hypolipidemic effect of fresh Triticum aestivum (wheat) grass juice in hypercholesterolemic rats. Acta Pol Pharm 2011; 68 (2): 291294.Google ScholarPubMed
26. Sethi, J, Yadav, M, Dahiya, K et al. Antioxidant effect of Triticum aestivium (wheat grass) in high-fat diet-induced oxidative stress in rabbits. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol 2010; 32 (4): 233235.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
27. Shyam, R, Singh, S N, Vats, P et al. Wheat grass supplementation decreases oxidative stress in healthy subjects: a comparative study with spirulina. J Altern Complement Med. 2007; 13 (8): 789791.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
28. Ben-Arye, E, Goldin, E, Wengrower, D et al. Wheat grass juice in the treatment of active distal ulcerative colitis: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Scand J Gastroenterol 2002; 37 (4): 444449.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
29. Ng, S C, Lam, Y T, Tsoi, K K et al. Systematic review: the efficacy of herbal therapy in inflammatory bowel disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2013; 38 (8): 854863.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
30. Marawaha, R K, Bansal, D, Kaur, S et al. Wheat grass juice reduces transfusion requirement in patients with Thalassemia major: a pilot study. Indian Pediatr 2004; 41 (7): 716720.Google ScholarPubMed
31. Choudhary, D R, Naithani, R, Panigrahi, I et al. Effect of wheat grass therapy on transfusion requirement in beta-Thalassemia major. Indian J Pediatr 2009; 76 (4): 375376.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
32. Singh, K, Pannu, M S, Singh, P et al. Effect of wheat grass tablets on the frequency of blood transfusions in Thalassemia major. Indian J Pediatr 2010; 77 (1): 9091.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
33. Bar-Sela, G, Tsalic, M, Fried, G et al. Wheat grass juice may improve hematological toxicity related to chemotherapy in breast cancer patients: a pilot study. Nutr Cancer 2007; 58 (1): 4348.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
34. Mukhopadhyay, S et al. The role of iron chelation activity of wheat grass juice in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome. J Clin Oncol 2009 ASCO Annual Meeting Proceedings (Post-Meeting Edition); 27 (15S): 7012.Google Scholar
35. Dey, S, Sarkar, R, Ghosh, P et al. Effect of wheat grass juice in supportive care of terminally ill cancer patients – a tertiary cancer centre experience from India. J Clin Oncol 2006 ASCO Meeting Proceedings Part I; 18 (1): 8634.Google Scholar
36. Lai, C N, Dabney, B, Shaw, C. Inhibition of in vitro metabolic activation of carcinogens by wheat sprout extracts. Nutr Cancer 1978; 1 (1): 2730.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
37. Lai, C N. Chlorophyll: the active factor in wheat sprout extract inhibiting the metabolic activation of carcinogens in vitro. Nutr Cancer 1979; 1 (3): 1921.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
38. Chiu, L C, Kong, C K, Ooi, V E. The chlorophyllin induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human breast cancer MCF 7 cells isassociated with ERK deactivation and Cyclin D1 depletion. Int J Mol Med 2005; 16 (4): 735740.Google Scholar
39. Egner, P A, Wang, J B, Zhu, Y R et al. Chlorophyllin intervention reduces aflatoxin-DNA adducts in individuals at high risk for liver cancer. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2001; 98 (25): 1460114606.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
40. Guo, D, Schut, H A, Davis, C D, Snyderwine, E G, Bailey, G S, Dashwood, R H. Protection by chlorophyllin and indole-3-carbinol against 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo 4,5-b, pyridine (PhIP)-induced DNA adducts and colonic aberrant crypts in the F344 rat. Carcinogenesis 1995; 16 (12): 29312937.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
41. Pratt, M M, Reddy, A P, Hendricks, J D, Pereira, C, Kensler, T W, Bailey, G S. The importance of carcinogen dose in chemoprevention studies: quantitative interrelationships between, dibenzo[a,l]pyrene dose, chlorophyllin dose, target organ DNA adduct biomarkers and final tumor outcome. Carcinogenesis 2007; 28 (3): 611624.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
42. Sarkar, D, Sharma, A, Talukder, G. Chlorophyll and chlorophyllin as modifiers of genotoxic effects. Mutat Res 1994; 318 (3): 239247.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
43. Tachino, N, Guo, D, Dashwood, W M, Yamane, S, Larsen, R, Dashwood, R. Mechanisms of the in vitro antimutagenic action of chlorophyllin against benzo[a]pyrene: studies of enzyme inhibition, molecular complex formation and degradation of the ultimate carcinogen. Mutat Res 1994; 308 (2): 191203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
44. Guengerich, F P, Kim, D H, Iwasaki, M. Role of human cytochrome P-450 IIE1 in the oxidation of many low molecular weight cancer suspects. Chem Res Toxicol 1991; 4: 168207.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
45. Finch, C E, Tanzi, R E. Genetics of aging. Science 1997; 278 (5337): 407411.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
46. Wheat, J, Currie, G. Herbal medicine for cancer patients: an evidence based review. Internet J Altern Med 2008; 5 (2): 23.Google Scholar
47. Mates, M J, Jimenez, S, Fransisca, M. Role of reactive oxygen species in apoptosis: implication for cancer therapy. Int J Biochem Cell Biol 2000; 32 (2): 157170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
48. Peryty, B, Szmczyk, T, Lesca, P. Mechanism of antimutagenicity of wheat sprout extract. Mut Res 1992; 269: 201215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
49. Zirkle, R E. The radiobiological importance of linear energy transfer. Radiat Biol 1954; 1 (Pt 1): 315350.Google Scholar
50. Hunter, N, Muirhead, C R. Review of relative biological effectiveness dependence on linear energy transfer for low-LET radiations. J Radiol Prot 2009; 29 (1): 5.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
51. Fridovich, I. The biology of oxygen radicals. Science 1978; 201 (4359): 875880.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
52. Brooker, R. Genetics. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2009.Google Scholar
53. Lawenda, B, Kelly, K, Ladas, E, Sagar, S, Vickers, A, Blumberg, J. Should supplemental antioxidant administration be avoided during chemotherapy and radiation therapy? J NCI Journal of the National Cancer Institute 2008; 100: 773783.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
54. Ladas, E, Kelly, K M. The antioxidant debate. Explore (NY) 2010; 6: 7585.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
55. Greenlee, H, Kwan, M, Kushi, L et al. Antioxidant supplement use after breast cancer diagnosis and mortality in the Life After Cancer Epidemiology (LACE) cohort. Cancer 2012; 118: 20482058.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed

Full text views

Full text views reflects PDF downloads, PDFs sent to Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle and HTML full text views.

Total number of HTML views: 10
Total number of PDF views: 53 *
View data table for this chart

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 26th February 2021. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Is wheat germ grass detrimental during radiotherapy?: a hypothesis
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Is wheat germ grass detrimental during radiotherapy?: a hypothesis
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Is wheat germ grass detrimental during radiotherapy?: a hypothesis
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *