Allen, Robert B., and Ebbeson, Ebbe B.. 1981. “Cognitive Processes in Person Perception: Retrieval of Personality Trait and Behavioral Information.” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology
17 (2): 119–41.
Allport, Gordon W.
1954. The Nature of Prejudice. Garden City, NJ: Doubleday Anchor Books.
Arrow, Kenneth J.
1972. “Models of Job Discrimination.” In Racial Discrimination in Economic Life, ed. Pascal, Anthony H.. Washington, DC: RAND, 83–102.
Banducci, Susan A., Karp, Jeffrey A., Thrasher, Michael, and Rallings, Colin. 2008. “Ballot Photographs as Cues in Low-Information Elections.” Political Psychology
29 (6): 903–17.
Berinsky, Adam J., Hutchings, Vincent L., Mendelberg, Tali, Shaker, Lee, and Valentino, Nicholas A.. 2011. “Sex and Race: Are Black Candidates More Likely to be Disadvantaged by Sex Scandals?” Political Behavior
33 (2): 179–202.
Berinsky, Adam J., Margolis, Michele, and Sances, Michael W.. 2013. “Separating the Shirkers from the Workers? Making Sure Respondents Pay Attention on Self-Administered Surveys.” American Journal of Political Science
58 (3): 709–53.
Bertrand, Marianne, and Mullainathan, Sendhil. 2004. “Are Emily and Greg More Employable than Lakisha and Jamal? A Field Experiment on Labor Market Discrimination.” The American Economic Review
94 (4): 991–1013.
Biernat, Monica. 2005. Standards and Expectancies: Contrast and Assimilation in Judgments of Self and Others. New York: Taylor and Francis.
Bobo, Lawrence D.
1999. “Prejudice as Group Position: Microfoundations of a Sociological Approach to Racism and Race Relations.” Journal of Social Issues
55 (3): 445–72.
Boudreau, Cheryl, Elmendorf, Christopher S., and MacKenzie, Scott A.. 2014. “Racial or Spatial Voting? The Effects of Candidate Ethnicity and Ethnic Group Endorsements in Low-Information Elections.” Paper Presented at the Behavioral Models of Politics Conference, Duke University (October 11, 2014).
Brewer, Marilyn B.
1988. “A Dual-Process Model of Impression Formation.” In Advances in Social Cognition, eds. Srull, Thomas K. and Wyer, Robert S.. Hilsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1–36.
Bullock, John G.
2011. “Elite Influence on Public Opinion in an Informed Electorate.” American Political Science Review
105 (3): 496–515.
Campbell, David E., Green, John C., and Layman, Geoffrey C.. 2011. “The Party Faithful: Partisan Images, Candidate Religion, and the Electoral Impact of Party Identification.” American Journal of Political Science
55 (1): 42–58.
Chong, Dennis, and Druckman, James N.. 2007. “A Theory of Framing and Opinion Formation in Competitive Elite Environments.” Journal of Communication
Citrin, Jack, Green, Donald P., and Sears, David O.. 1990. “White Reactions to Black Candidates: When Does Race Matter?” The Public Opinion Quarterly
54 (1): 74–96.
Cohen, Geoffrey L.
2003. “Party over Policy: The Dominating Impact of Group Influence on Political Beliefs.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
85 (5): 808–22.
Conover, Pamela Johnston, and Feldman, Stanley. 1989. “Candidate Perception in an Ambiguous World: Campaigns, Cues, and Inference Processes.” American Journal of Political Science
33 (4): 912–40.
Converse, Philip E.
1964. “The Nature of Belief Systems in Mass Publics.” In Ideology and Discontent, ed. Apter, David E.. New York: Free Press, 206–61.
Crawford, Jarret T., Jussim, Lee, Madon, Stephanie, Cain, Thomas R., and Stevens, Sean T.. 2011. “The Use of Stereotypes and Individuating Information in Political Person Perception.” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
37 (4): 529–42.
Delli-Carpini, Michael X., and Keeter, Scott. 1996. What Americans Know About Politics and Why It Matters. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Devine, Patricia G.
1989. “Stereotypes and Prejudice: Their Automatic and Controlled Components.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
56 (1): 5–18.
Devine, Patricia G., and Baker, Sara M.. 1991. “Measurement of Racial Stereotype Subtyping.” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
17 (1): 44–50.
Gilens, Martin. 1999. Why Americans Hate Welfare: Race, Media, and the Politics of Antipoverty Policy (Studies in Communication, Media, and Public Opinion). Chicago: University Of Chicago Press.
Grofman, Bernard, and Handley, Lisa. 1989. “Black Representation: Making Sense of Electoral Geography at Different Levels of Government.” Legislative Studies Quarterly
14 (2): 265–79.
Gurin, Patricia, Hatchet, Shirley, and Jackson, James S.. 1989. Hope and Independence: Blacks' Response to Electoral and Party Politics. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Hajnal, Zoltan L.
2001. “White Residents, Black Incumbents, and a Declining Racial Divide.” The American Political Science Review
95 (3): 603–17.
Hajnal, Zoltan L.
2006. Changing White Attitudes toward Black Political Leadership. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Hamilton, David L., and Sherman, Jeffrey W.. 1994. “Stereotypes.” In Handbook of Social Cognition, eds. Wyer, Robert S. and Srull, Thomas K.. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1–68.
Higgins, E. Tory. 1996. “Knowledge Activation: Accessibility, Applicability, and Salience.” In Social Psychology: Handbook of Basic Principles, eds. Higgins, E. Tory and Kruglanski, Arie W.. New York: Guilford Press, 133–68.
Higgins, E. Tory, Rholes, William S., and Jones, Carl R.. 1977. “Category Accessibility and Impression Formation.” Journal of Experimental Psychology
13 (2): 141–54.
Highton, Benjamin. 2004. “White Voters and African American Candidates for Congress.” Political Behavior
26 (1): 1–25.
Hurwitz, Jon, and Peffley, Mark. 2005. “Playing the Race Card in the Post–Willie Horton Era: the Impact of Racialized Code Words on Support for Punitive Crime Policy.” Public Opinion Quarterly
69 (1): 99–112.
Hutchings, Vincent L., and Valentino, Nicholas A.. 2004. “The Centrality of Race in American Politics.” Annual Review of Political Science
Iyengar, Shanto, Messing, Solomon, Bailenson, Jeremy, and Hahn, Kyu S.. 2010. “Do Explicit Racial Cues Influence Candidate Preference? The Case of Skin Complexion in the 2008 Campaign.” Paper Presented at the 2010 Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, 1–38.
Iyengar, Shanto, and Valentino, Nicholas A.. 2000. “Who Says What? Source Credibility as a Mediator of Campaign Advertising.” In Elements of Reason: Cognition, Choice, and the Bounds of Rationality, eds. Lupia, Arthur, McCubbins, Matthew D., and Popkin, Samuel. New York: Cambridge University Press, 108–29.
Jackson, Linda A., Sullivan, Linda A., and Hodge, Carole N.. 1993. “Stereotype Effects of Attributions, Predictions, and Evaluations: No Two Social Judgments are Quite Alike.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
65 (1): 69–84.
Jacobsmeier, Matthew L.
2015. “From Black and White to Left and Right: Race, Perceptions of Candidates’ Ideologies, and Voting Behavior in U.S. House Elections.” Political Behavior
37 (3): 595–621.
Jones, Philip Edward. 2014. “Revisiting Stereotypes of Non-White Politicians’ Ideological and Partisan Orientations.” American Politics Research
42 (2): 283–310.
Jussim, Lee. 2009. “Stereotypes.” In The Cambridge Dictionary of Psychology, ed. Matsumoto, David. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 520.
Jussim, Lee, Cain, Thomas R., Crawford, Jarret T., Harber, Kent, and Cohen, Florette. 2009. “The Unbearable Accuracy of Stereotypes.” In Handbook of Prejudice, Stereotyping, and Discrimination, ed. Nelson, Todd D.. Washington, DC: Psychology Press, 199–227.
Kam, Cindy D.
2005. “Who Toes the Party Line? Cues, Values, and Individual Differences.” Political Behavior
27 (2): 163–82.
Kam, Cindy D.
2007. “Implicit Attitudes, Explicit Choices: When Subliminal Priming Predicts Candidate Preference.” Political Behavior
29 (3): 343–67.
Kam, Cindy D.
2012. “Risk Attitudes and Political Participation.” American Journal of Political Science
56 (4): 817–36.
Kellstedt, Paul M.
2003. The Mass Media and the Dynamics of American Racial Attitudes. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Kinder, Donald R., and Dale-Riddle, Allison. 2012. The End of Race? Obama, 2008, and Racial Politics in America. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Kinder, Donald R., and Kalmoe, Nathan P.. 2009. “The Nature of Ideological Identification in Mass Publics: Formation and Consolidation.” Presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association.
Kinder, Donald R., and Sanders, Lynn M.. 1996. Divided by Color: Racial Politics and Democratic Ideals. Chicago: University Of Chicago Press.
Kirby, D. M., and Gardner, R. C.. 1972. “Ethnic Stereotypes: Norms on 208 Words Typically Used in Their Assessment.” Canadian Journal of Psychology/Revue Canadienne de Psychologie
26 (2): 140–54.
Koch, Jeffrey W.
2000. “Do Citizens Apply Gender Stereotypes to Infer Candidates’ Ideological Orientations?” Journal of Politics
62 (2): 414–29.
Koppell, Jonathan G. S., and Steen, Jennifer A.. 2004. “The Effects of Ballot Position on Election Outcomes.” Journal of Politics
66 (1): 267–81.
Kunda, Ziva, and Paul, Thagard. 1996. “Forming Impressions from Stereotypes, Traits, and Behaviors: a Parallel-Constraint-Satisfaction Theory.” Psychological Review
103 (2): 284–308.
Kurzban, Robert, Tooby, John, and Cosmides, Leda. 2001. “Can Race Be Erased? Coalitional Computation and Social Categorization.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Science
98 (26): 15387–92.
Levendusky, Matthew. 2009. The Partisan Sort. Chicago: University Of Chicago Press.
Lieske, Joel, and Hillard, Jan William. 1984. “The Racial Factor in Urban Elections.” The Western Political Quarterly
Linville, Patricia W., and Jones, Edward E.. 1980. “Polarized Appraisals of Out-Group Members.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
38 (5): 689–703.
Lippmann, Walter. 1922. Public Opinion. New York: Free Press.
Locksley, Anne, Borgida, Eugene, Brekke, Nancy, and Hepburn, Christine. 1980. “Sex Stereotypes and Social Judgment.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
39 (5): 821–31.
Lupia, Arthur. 1994. “Shortcuts versus Encyclopedias: Information and Voting Behavior in California Insurance Reform Elections.” American Political Science Review
Malhotra, Neil, Margalit, Yotam, and Mo, Cecilia Hyunjung. 2013. “Economic Explanations for Opposition to Immigration: Distinguishing Between Prevalence and Conditional Impact.” American Journal of Political Science
57 (2): 391–410.
Mattes, Kyle, Spezio, Michael, Kim, Hackjin, Todorov, Alexander, Adolphs, Ralph, and Alvarez, Michael R.. 2010. “Predicting Election Outcomes From Positive and Negative Trait Assessments of Candidate Images.” Political Psychology
31 (1): 41–58.
McDermott, Monika L.
1998. “Race and Gender Cues in Low-Information Elections.” Political Research Quarterly
Mendelberg, Tali. 2001. The Race Card: Campaign Strategy, Implicit Messages, and the Norm of Equality. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Miller, Joanne M., and Krosnick, Jon A.. 1998. “The Impact of Candidate Name Order on Election Outcomes.” Public Opinion Quarterly
62 (3): 291–330.
Payne, B. Keith, Krosnick, Jon A., Lelkes, Yphtach, Akhtar, Omair, and Tompson, Trevor. 2010. “Implicit and Explicit Prejudice in the 2008 American Presidential Election.” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology
Peffley, Mark, and Hurwitz, Jon. 2007. “Persuasion and Resistance: Race and the Death Penalty in America.” American Journal of Political Science
51 (4): 996–1012.
Peffley, Mark, Hurwitz, Jon, and Sniderman, Paul M.. 1997. “Racial Stereotypes and Whites’ Political Views of Blacks in the Context of Welfare and Crime.” American Journal of Political Science
41 (1): 30–60.
Price, Vincent, and Tewksbury, David. 1997. “News Values and Public Opinion: A Theoretical Account of Media Priming and Framing.” In Progress in Communication Sciences: Advances in Persuasion, vol. 13, eds. Barnett, George A. and Boster, Franklin J.. Greenwich, CT: Ablex, 173–212.
Rahn, Wendy M.
1993. “The Role of Partisan Stereotypes in Information Processing about Political Candidates.” American Journal of Political Science
37 (2): 472–96.
Reeves, Keith. 1997. Voting Hopes of Fears? White Voters, Black Candidates, and Racial Politics in America. New York: Oxford University Press.
Schneider, Monica C., and Bos, Angela L.. 2011. “An Exploration of the Content of Stereotypes of Black Politicians.” Political Psychology
32 (2): 205–33.
Sherman, Steven J., Castelli, Luigi, and Hamilton, David L.. 2002. “The Spontaneous Use of a Group Typology as an Organizing Principle in Memory.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Sigelman, Carol, Sigelman, Lee, Walkosz, Barbara, and Nitz, Michael. 1995. “Black Candidates, White Voters: Understanding Racial Bias in Political Perceptions.” American Journal of Political Science
39 (1): 243–65.
Smith, Eliot R., and Zárate, Michael A.. 1992. “Exemplar-Based Model of Social Judgment.” Psychological Review
99 (1): 3–21.
Strack, Fritz, Martin, Leonard L., and Schwarz, Norbert. 1988. “Priming and Communication: Social Determinants of Information Use in Judgments of Life Satisfaction.” European Journal of Social Psychology
Swain, Carol M.
1993. Black Faces, Black Interests: the Representation of African Americans in Congress. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Tajfel, Henri. 1981. Human Groups and Social Categories: Studies in Social Psychology. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Taylor, Shelley E.
1981. “A Categorization Approach to Stereotyping.” In Cognitive Processes in Stereotyping and Intergroup Behavior, ed. Hamilton, David L.. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 83–114.
Terkildsen, Nayda. 1993. “When White Voters Evaluate Black Candidates: The Processing Implications of Candidate Skin Color, Prejudice, and Self-Monitoring.” American Journal of Political Science
37 (4): 1032–53.
Tesler, Michael. 2012. “The Spillover of Racialization Into Health Care: How President Obama Polarized Public Opinion by Racial Attitudes and Race.” American Journal of Political Science
56 (3): 690–704.
Tesler, Michael, and Sears, David O.. 2010. Obama's Race: The 2008 Election and the Dream of a Post-Racial America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Valentino, Nicholas A., Brader, Ted, and Jardina, Ashley. 2013. “The Antecedents of Immigration Opinion among U.S. Whites: General Ethnocentrism or Media Priming of Latino Attitudes?” Political Psychology
34 (2): 149–66.
Valentino, Nicholas A., Hutchings, Vincent L., and White, Ismail K.. 2002. “Cues That Matter: How Political Ads Prime Racial Attitudes During Campaigns.” American Political Science Review
96 (1): 75–90.
Williams, Linda F.
1990. “White/Black Perceptions of Electability of Black Political Candidates.” In Black Electoral Politics, ed. Barker, Lucius J.. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers, 45–64.
Winter, Nicholas J. G.
2008. Dangerous Frames: How Ideas About Race and Gender Shape Public Opinion. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Zaller, John R.
1992. The Nature and Origins of Mass Opinion. New York: Cambridge University Press.