Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Diversity of a Different Kind: Gentrification and Its Impact on Social Capital and Political Participation in Black Communities

  • Benjamin J. Newman (a1), Yamil Velez (a2) and Shanna Pearson-Merkowitz (a3)

Abstract

The literature examining the effect of residential integration on political behavior primarily focuses on how whites react to the entrance of non-whites into their communities. Over the past few decades however, the process of “white return” to urban centers throughout the nation has created the opportunity to invert the standard approach to studying racial context by exploring how minorities react to the entrance of whites into their communities. We adapt realistic conflict theories to the case of gentrification, and offer a model of the effect of white in-migration on social capital (SC) and political engagement in black communities. We demonstrate that white population growth erodes SC in black neighborhoods only where the larger surrounding community is majority black, and where such growth is accompanied by rising housing costs. Further, we find that residing in a gentrifying context, by eroding social capital, ultimately results in the political demobilization of black citizens.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Address correspondence and reprint requests to: Benjamin J. Newman, University of California Riverside, CA. E-mail: bnewman@ucr.edu

References

Hide All
Albert, Adelin, and Anderson, J. A.. 1984. “On the Existence of Maximum Likelihood Estimates in Logistic Regression Models.” Biometrika 71: 110.
Alesina, Alberto, and La Ferrara, Eliana. 2000. “Participation in Heterogeneous Communities.” The Quarterly Journal of Economics 115 (3): 847904.
Auger, Deborah A. 1979. “The Politics of Revitalization in Gentrifying Neighborhoods The Case of Boston's South End.” Journal of the American Planning Association 45 (4): 515–22.
Betancur, John J. 2002. “The Politics of Gentrification the Case of West Town in Chicago.” Urban Affairs Review 37 (6): 780814.
Blalock, Hubert M. 1967. “Toward a theory of minority-group relations.” New York: Wiley.
Bobo, Lawrence. 1983. “Whites’ Opposition to Busing: Symbolic Racism or Realistic Group Conflict?Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 45 (6): 1196.
Bobo, Lawrence, and Gilliam, Frank D. Jr. 1990. “Race, Sociopolitical Participation, and Black Empowerment.” American Political Science Review 84 (2): 377–93.
Boyd, Michelle. 2005. “The Downside of Racial Uplift: Meaning of Gentrification in an African American Neighborhood.” City & Society 17 (2): 265–88.
Brady, Henry E, Verba, Sidney, and Schlozman, Kay Lehman. 1995. “Beyond SES: A resource model of political participation.American Political Science Review 89 (2): 271–94.
Brown-Saracino, Japonica. 2009. A neighborhood that never changes: Gentrification, social preservation, and the search for authenticity. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Campbell, David E. 2006. Why We Vote: How Schools and Communities Shape Our Civic Life. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Chernoff, Michael. 1980. “Social Displacement in a Renovating Neighborhood's Commercial District: Atlanta.” In Back to the City: Issues in Neighborhood Renovation, ed. Shirley, Laska and Spain, Daphne, pp. 204–19. New York: Pergamon.
Costa, Dora L., and Kahn, Matthew E.. 2003. “Civic Engagement and Community Heterogeneity: An Economist's Perspective.” Perspective on Politics 1 (1): 103–11.
DiStefano, Christine, Zhu, Min, and Mindrila, Diana. 2009. “Understanding and using factor scores: Considerations for the applied researcher.Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation 14(20): 111.
Fieldhouse, Edward, and Cutts, David. 2010. “Does Diversity Damage Social Capital? A Comparative Study of Neighbourhood Diversity and Social Capital in the US and Britain.” Canadian Journal of Political Science 43 (2): 289318.
Foster, Carl. 2012. “‘Gentrification’ in black and white.” The Washington Post, https://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/gentrification-in-black-and-white/2012/01/26/gIQA2qmqnQ_story.html (accessed January 1, 2015).
Fraser, James C. 2004. “Beyond Gentrification: Mobilizing Communities and Claiming Space.” Urban Geography 25.5: 437–57.
Freeman, Lance. 2005. “Displacement or Succession? Residential Mobility in Gentrifying Neighborhoods.” Urban Affairs Review 40 (4): 463–91.
Freeman, Lance. 2006. There goes the ‘Hood: Views of Gentrification from the Ground up. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Freeman, Lance, and Braconi, Frank. 2004. “Gentrification and Displacement New York City in the 1990s.” Journal of the American Planning Association 70 (1): 3952.
Gay, Claudine. 2006. “Seeing Difference: The Effect of Economic Disparity on Black Attitudes toward Latinos.” American Journal of Political Science 50 (4): 982–97.
Gelman, Andrew, Jakulin, Aleks, Pittau, Maria Grazia, and Su, Yu-Sung. 2008. “A weakly informative default prior distribution for logistic and other regression models.The Annals of Applied Statistics 2 (4): 1360–83.
Giles, Michael W., and Buckner, Melanie A.. 1993. “David Duke and Black Threat: An Old Hypothesis Revisited.” Journal of Politics 55 (3): 702–13.
Glick, Jonathan. 2008. “Gentrification and the Racialized Geography of Home Equity.” Urban Affairs Review 44 (2): 280–95.
Goldfield, David R. 1980. “Private Neighborhood Redevelopment and Displacement the Case of Washington, DC.” Urban Affairs Review 15 (4): 453–68.
Green, Donald P., Strolovitch, Dara Z., and Wong, Janelle S.. 1998. “Defended Neighborhoods, Integration, and Racially Motivated Crime.” American Journal of Sociology 104 (2): 372403.
Hooghe, Marc. 2007. “Social Capital and Diversity Generalized Trust, Social Cohesion and Regimes of Diversity.” Canadian Journal of Political Science 40 (03): 709–32.
Hopkins, Dan J. 2009. “The Diversity Discount: When Increasing Ethnic and Racial Diversity Prevents Tax Increases.” Journal of Politics 71 (1): 160–77.
Horton, John, and Calderon, Jose. 1995. The Politics of Diversity: Immigration, Resistance, and Change in Monterey Park, California. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Houstoun, L. O. Jr. 1976. “Neighborhood Change and City Policy.” Urban Land 35: 39.
Hwang, Jackelyn, and Sampson, Robert J. 2014. “Divergent pathways of gentrification racial inequality and the social order of renewal in Chicago neighborhoods.American Sociological Review 79 (4): 726–51.
Kaufmann, Karen. 2003. “Cracks in the Rainbow: Group Commonality as a Basis for Latino and African-American Political Coalitions.” Political Research Quarterly 56 (2): 199210.
Kesler, Christel, and Bloemraad, Irene. 2010. “Does Immigration Erode Social Capital? The Conditional Effects of Immigration-Generated Diversity on Trust, Membership, and Participation across 19 Countries, 1981–2000.” Canadian Journal of Political Science 43 (2): 319–47.
Key, Valdimer. 1949. Southern Politics in State and Nation. New York: Vintage.
King, Gary, Tomz, Michael, and Wittenberg, Jason. 2000. “Making the most of statistical analyses: Improving interpretation and presentation.American Journal of Political Science 44 (2): 347–61.
LaVeist, Thomas A. 1993. “Segregation, Poverty, and Empowerment: Health Consequences for African Americans.” The Milbank Quarterly 71: 4164.
Levy, Paul R., and Cybriwsky, Roman A.. 1980. The Hidden Dimensions of Culture and Class: Philadelphia. Back to the city: Issues in neighborhood renovation, 143–53.
Martin, Leslie. 2007. “Fighting for Control Political Displacement in Atlanta's Gentrifying Neighborhoods.” Urban Affairs Review 42 (5): 603–28.
Massey, Douglas S, and Denton, Nancy A.. 1993. American apartheid: Segregation and the making of the underclass. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Masuoka, Natalie. 2006. “Together They Become One: Examining the Predictors of Panethnic Group Consciousness among Asian Americans and Latinos.” Social Science Quarterly 87 (5): 9931011.
McClain, Paula D., Carter, Niambi M., DeFrancesco Soto, Victoria M., Lyle, Monique L., Grynaviski, Jeffrey D., Nunnally, Shayla C., Scotto, Thomas J., Alan Kendrick, J., Lackey, Gerald F., and Davenport Cotton, Kendra. 2006. “Racial Distancing in a Southern City: Latino Immigrants’ Views of Black Americans.” Journal of Politics 68 (3): 571–84.
Michener, Jamila. 2013. “Neighborhood disorder and local participation: Examining the political relevance of “Broken Windows”.Political Behavior 35 (4): 777806.
Morello, Carol, and Keating, Dan. 2011. “Number of black DC residents plummets as majority status slips away.” The Washington Post, https://www.washingtonpost.com/local/black-dc-residents-plummet-barely-a-majority/2011/03/24/ABtIgJQB_story.html (accessed January 1, 2015).
Muller, Dominique, Judd, Charles M., and Yzerbyt, Vincent Y.. 2005. “When Moderation is Mediated and Mediation is Moderated.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 89 (6): 852.
Muthén, LK, and Muthén, BO. 2007. “Mplus.” Statistical analysis with latent variables. Version 3.
Oliver, Eric J., and Mendelberg, Tali. 2000. “Reconsidering the environmental determinants of white racial attitudes.American Journal of Political Science 44 (3): 574–89.
Oliver, Eric J., and Wong, Janelle. 2003. “Intergroup Prejudice in Multiethnic Settings.” American Journal of Political Science 47 (4): 567–82.
Orr, Martin. 1999. Black Social Capital: The Politics of School Reform in Baltimore, 1986–1998. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas.
Patch, Jason. 2008. “Ladies and Gentrification: New Stores, Residents, and Relationships in Neighborhood Change.” Research in Urban Sociology 9: 103–26.
Portes, Alejandro. 2000. Social Capital: Its Origins and Applications in Modern Sociology. LESSER, Eric L. Knowledge and Social Capital. Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann, 4367.
Putnam, Robert D. 1995. “Tuning in, Tuning Out: The Strange Disappearance of Social Capital in America.” PS: Political Science and Politics 28 (4): 664–64.
Putnam, Robert D. 2001. Bowling alone: The collapse and revival of American community. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Putnam, Robert D. 2007. “E pluribus Unum: Diversity and Community in the Twenty-First Century the 2006 Johan Skytte Prize Lecture.” Scandinavian Political Studies 30 (2): 137–74.
Rieder, Jonathan. 1987. Canarsie: The Jews and Italians of Brooklyn Against Liberalism. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Sampson, Robert J., and Raudenbush, Stephen W.. 2004. “Seeing Disorder: Neighborhood Stigma and the Social Construction of “Broken Windows”.” Social Psychology Quarterly 67 (4): 319–42.
Shaw, Clifford Robe, and McKay, Henry Donald. 1942. Juvenile Delinquency and Urban Areas: A Study of Rates of Delinquents in Relation to Differential Characteristics of Local Communities in American Cities. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Shaw, Samuel, and Sullivan, Daniel Monroe. 2011. ““White Night”: Gentrification, Racial Exclusion, and Perceptions and Participation in the Arts.” City & Community 10 (3): 241–64.
Smith, Neil. 1996. The New Urban Frontier: Gentrification and the Revanchist City. London: Routledge.
Spence, Lester K, and McClerking, Harwood. 2010. “Context, black empowerment, and African American political participation.American Politics Research 38 (5): 909–30.
Suttles, Gerald D. 1972. The Social Construction of Communities. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Taylor, Donald M., and Moghaddam, Fathali M.. 1994. Theories of Intergroup Relations: International Social Psychological Perspectives. Westport: Greenwood Publishing Group.
van der Meer, Tom, and Tolsma, Jochem. 2014. “Ethnic Diversity and its Effects on Social Cohesion.” Annual Review of Sociology 40: 459–78.
Vedlitz, Arnold, and Johnson, Charles A.. 1982. “Community Racial Segregation, Electoral Structure, and Minority Representation.” Social Science Quarterly 63 (4): 729–36.
Vigdor, Jacob L. 2002. “Interpreting Ethnic Fragmentation Effects.” Economics Letters 75 (2): 271–76.
Wilson, James Q., and Kelling, George L.. 1982. “Broken Windows.” Atlantic Monthly 249 (3): 2938.
Zukin, Sharon. 2008. “Consuming Authenticity: From Outposts of Difference to Means of Exclusion.” Cultural Studies 22 (5): 724–48.
Zukin, Sharon, Trujillo, Valerie, Frase, Peter, Jackson, Danielle, Tim, Recuber, and Walker, Abraham. 2009. “New Retail Capital and Neighborhood Change: Boutiques and Gentrification in New York City.” City and Community 8 (1): 4764.

Keywords

Type Description Title
WORD
Supplementary materials

Newman supplementary material
Supplemental Appendix

 Word (86 KB)
86 KB

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed