Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Diversity, Leadership, and Authenticity in the Undocumented Youth Movement

  • Fanny Lauby (a1)

Abstract

The undocumented youth movement is diverse in terms of race, ethnicity, and immigration status. I argue that racial and immigration status diversity has a direct impact on the movement's ability to “expand the scope of conflict,” that is to say recruiting new members, reaching out to elected officials, and establishing representative leadership—elements that are critical to the sustainability and effectiveness of a movement. Findings also indicate that immigration status diversity plays a complex role. The presence of citizen allies brings both risks and benefits to the movement, as they reinforce the electoral connection sought by elected officials while at the same time jeopardizing the authenticity of the movement. Results are based on field research conducted between 2012 and 2015 in NJ and NY, including participant observation in state-level campaigns and interviews with over 130 immigrant youths, allies, and elected officials. This article contributes to the social movement literature by providing empirical evidence of the challenges present within diverse coalitions. It addresses the question of immigration status diversity, an issue that affects the immigration movement but speaks more broadly to the role of allies in social movements.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Address correspondence and reprint requests to: Fanny Lauby, Department of Political Science, William Paterson University, 300 Pompton Road, Wayne, NJ 07470. E-mail: laubyf@wpunj.edu

References

Hide All
Alba, Richard D., and Nee, Victor. 2003. Remaking the American Mainstream: Assimilation and Contemporary Immigration. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Albarracin, Julia, Munier, Nathan, and Bail, Kristin. 2017. “Do Independent Women Participate in Demonstrations More? Empowerment and Politics in Predicting Activism Among Mexican Women.” Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences 39 (3): 297315.
Arnold, Gretchen. 2011. “The Impact of Social Ties on Coalition Strength and Effectiveness: The Case of the Battered Women's Movement in St Louis.” Social Movement Studies 10 (2): 131–50.
Batalova, Jeanne, Hooker, Sarah, and Capps, Randy. 2014. DACA at the Two-Year Mark: A National and State Profile of Youth Eligible and Applying for Deferred Action. Migration Policy Institute: National Center on Immigrant Integration Policy, August 2014.
Berry, Jeffrey. 1997. The Interest Group Society. New York: Longman.
Brilliant, Mark. 2010. The Color of America Has Changed: How Racial Diversity Shaped Civil Rights Reform in California, 1941-1978. New York: Oxford University Press.
Burciaga, Edelina M., and Martinez, Lisa M.. 2017. “How Do Political Contexts Shape Undocumented Youth Movements? Evidence from Three Immigrant Destinations.” Mobilization 22 (4): 451–71.
Cebulko, Kara, and Silver, Alexis. 2016. “Navigating DACA in Hospitable and Hostile States: State Responses and Access to Membership in the Wake of Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals.” American Behavioral Scientist 60 (13): 1553–74.
Charmaz, Kathy. 2014. Constructing Grounded Theory. Los Angeles: Sage.
Chávez, Karma R. 2011. “Counter-Public Enclaves and Understanding the Function of Rhetoric in Social Movement Coalition-Building.” Communication Quarterly 59 (1): 118.
Dao, Loan Thi. 2017. “Out and Asian: How Undocu/DACAmented Asian Americans and Pacific Islander Youth Navigate Dual Liminality in the Immigrant Rights Movement.” Societies 7 (3): 1732.
DeSipio, Louis. 1996. “More Than the sum of its Parts: The Building Blocks of a Pan-Ethnic Latino Identity.” In The Politics of Minority Coalitions: Race, Ethnicity, and Shared Uncertainties, ed. Rich, Wilbur C. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 177–89.
Deterding, Nicole M., and Waters, Mary C.. 2018. “Flexible Coding of In-Depth Interviews: A Twenty-First-Century Approach.” Sociological Methods & Research. doi: 10.1177/0049124118799377.
Ebert, Kim, and Okamoto, Dina G.. 2013. “Social Citizenship, Integration and Collective Action: Immigrant Civic Engagement in the United States.” Social Forces 91 (4): 1267–92.
Enriquez, Laura E. 2014. “‘Undocumented and Citizen Students Unite’: Building a Cross-Status Coalition through Shared Ideology.” Social Problems 61 (2): 155–74.
Escudero, Kevin. 2016. “Dual Minority Mixed Race Activists and the Cultivation of Cross-Racial/Ethnic Coalitions in the Post-Loving Era.” Creighton Law Review 50: 725–37.
Fernandes, Sujatha. 2015. “The Making of the Dreamer: Storytelling Trainings and the Electoral Turn.” Paper Presented at the 2015 Annual Conference of the Eastern Sociological Society in New York, NY.
Foner, Nancy. ed. 2013. One Out of Three: Immigrant New York in the Twenty-First Century. New York: Columbia University Press.
Fraga, Luis, Garcia, John A., Hero, Rodney E., Jones-Correa, Michael, Martinez-Ebbers, Valerie, and Segura, Gary. 2009. Latino Lives in America: Making It Home. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Frey, William H. 2015. Diversity Explosion: How New Racial Demographics are Remaking America. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.
Gamson, William A. 1990. The Strategy of Social Protest. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Gilmore, Stephanie. 2008. Feminist Coalitions: Historical Perspectives on Second-Wave Feminism in the United States. Champaign: University of Illinois Press.
Gonzales, Roberto G. 2016. Lives in Limbo: Undocumented and Coming of Age in America. Oakland: University of California Press.
Gordon, Hava Rachel. 2007. “Allies Within and Without: How Adolescent Activists Conceptualize Ageism and Navigate Adult Power in Youth Social Movements.” Journal of Contemporary Ethnography 36 (6): 631–68.
Hampson, Fen Osler, and Reid, Holly. 2003. “Coalition Diversity and Normative Legitimacy in Human Security Negotiations.” International Negotiation 8 (1): 742.
Hirschman, Charles, and Massey, Douglas S.. 2008. “Places and Peoples: The New American Mosaic.” In New Faces in New Places: The Changing Geography of American Immigration, ed. Massey, Douglas, S. New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 121.
Hochschild, Jennifer L., and Mollenkopf, John H., eds. 2009. Bringing Outsiders In: Transatlantic Perspectives on Immigrant Political Incorporation. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Hochschild, Jennifer L., Weaver, Vesla M., and Burch, Traci. 2012. Creating a New Racial Order: How Immigration, Multiracialism, Genomics, and the Young can Remake Race in America. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Kasinitz, Philip, Mollenkopf, John H., Waters, Mary C., and Holdaway, Jennifer. 2008. Inheriting the City: The Children of Immigrants Come of Age. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Kraemer, Kelly Rae. 2007. “Solidarity in Action: Exploring the Work of Allies in Social Movements.” Peace and Change 32 (1): 2038.
Krinsky, John, and Reese, Ellen. 2006. “Forging and Sustaining Labor-Community Coalitions: The Workfare Justice Movement in Three Cities.” Sociological Forum 21 (4): 623–58.
Lauby, Fanny. 2016. “Leaving the ‘Perfect DREAMer’ behind? Narratives and Mobilization in Immigration Reform.” Social Movement Studies 15 (4): 374–87.
Le Espiritu, Yen. 1992. Asian American Panethnicity: Bridging Institutions and Identities, Vol. 187. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Lichter, Daniel T. 2013. “Integration or Fragmentation? Racial Diversity and the American Future.” Demography 50 (2): 359–91.
Masuoka, Natalie. 2006. “Together They Become One: Examining the Predictors of Panethnic Group Consciousness Among Asian Americans and Latinos.” Social Science Quarterly 87 (5): 9931011.
Matthews, Nancy A. 1989. “Surmounting a Legacy: The Expansion of Racial Diversity in a Local Anti-Rape Movement.” Gender & Society 3 (4): 518–32.
McAdam, Doug and Paulsen, R.. 1993. “Specifying the Relationship between Social Ties and Activism.” American Journal of Sociology 98: 735–54.
Michelson, Melissa R. 2003. “The Corrosive Effect of Acculturation: How Mexican Americans Lose Political Trust.” Social Science Quarterly 84 (4): 918–33.
Nakano, Dana Y. 2013. “An Interlocking Panethnicity: The Negotiation of Multiple Identities Among Asian American Social Movement Leaders.” Sociological Perspectives 56 (4): 569–95.
Nicholls, Walter J. 2013. The DREAMers: How the Undocumented Youth Movement Transformed the Immigrant Rights Debate. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Nienhusser, H. Kenny. 2015. “Undocumented Immigrants and Higher Education Policy: The Policymaking Environment of New York State.” The Review of Higher Education 38 (2): 271303.
Okamoto, Dina G. 2003. “Toward a Theory of Panethnicity: Explaining Asian American Collective Action.” American Sociological Review 68 (6): 811–42.
Okamoto, Dina G. 2010. “Organizing Across Ethnic Boundaries in the Post-Civil Rights era: Asian American Panethnic Coalitions.” In Strategic Alliances: Coalition Building and Social Movements, eds. Van Dyke, Nella, and McCammon, Holly. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 143–69.
Okamoto, Dina G. 2014. Redefining Race: Asian American Panethnicity and Shifting Ethnic Boundaries. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Okamoto, Dina and Ebert, Kim. 2010. “Beyond the Ballot: Immigrant Collective Action in Gateways and New Destinations in the United States.” Social Problems 57 (4): 529–58.
Okamoto, Dina, and Mora, G. Cristina. 2014. “Panethnicity.” Annual Review of Sociology 40: 219–39.
Patler, Caitlin. 2018. “‘Citizens but for Papers’: Undocumented Youth Organizations, Anti-Deportation Campaigns, and the Reframing of Citizenship.” Social Problems 65 (1): 96115.
Ramakrishnan, S. Karthick. 2005. Democracy in Immigrant America: Changing Demographics and Political Participation. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Reger, Jo, Myers, Daniel J., and Einwohner, Rachel L., eds. 2008. Identity Work in Social Movements. Vol. 30. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Rich, Wilbur C. 1996. The Politics of Minority Coalitions: Race, Ethnicity, and Shared Uncertainties. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.
Rucht, Dieter. 2004. “Movement Allies, Adversaries, and Third Parties.” In The Blackwell Companion to Social Movements, eds. Snow, David A., Soule, Sarah Anne, and Kriesi, Hanspeter. Oxford: Blackwell, 197216.
Schattschneider, Elmer E. 1960. The Semisovereign People. Chicago, IL: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
Schock, Kurt. 1999. “People Power and Political Opportunities: Social Movement Mobilization and Outcomes in the Philippines and Burma.” Social Problems 46 (3): 355–75.
Silver, Alexis. 2018. Shifting Boundaries: Immigrant Youth Negotiating National, State, and Small-Town Politics. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Stammers, Neil. 1999. “Social Movements and the Social Construction of Human Rights.” Human Rights Quarterly 21 (4): 9801008.
Taylor, Paul, Lopez, Mark H., Passel, Jeffrey S., and Motel, Seth. 2011. Unauthorized Immigrants: Length of Residency, Patterns of Parenthood. Washington, DC: Pew Research Center.
Taylor, Verta, and Whittier, Nancy E.. 1992. “Collective Identity in Social Movement Communities: Lesbian Feminist Mobilization.” In Waves of Protest: Social Movements Since the Sixties, eds. Freeman, Jo and Victoria, Johnson. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
Terriquez, Veronica. 2015. “Intersectional Mobilization, Social Movement Spillover, and Queer Youth Leadership in the Immigrant Rights Movement.” Social Problems 62 (3): 343–62.
Tilly, Charles. 2004. Social Movements. Boulder, CO: Paradigm Publishers.
Van Dyke, Nella, and McCammon, Holly. 2010. Strategic Alliances: Building Social Movement Coalitions. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Verba, Sydney, Schlozman, Kay L., and Brady, Henry E.. 1995. Voice and Equality: Civic Voluntarism in American Politics. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Whittier, Nancy. 2014. “Rethinking Coalitions: Anti-Pornography Feminists, Conservatives, and Relationships between Collaborative Adversarial Movements.” Social Problems 61 (2): 175–93.
Wilson, William Julius. 1999. The Bridge Over the Racial Divide: Rising Inequality and Coalition Politics. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Wong, Tom K., García, Angela S., and Valdivia, Carolina. 2018. “The Political Incorporation of Undocumented Youth.” Social Problems 66 (3): 356372.
Zepeda-Millán, Chris. 2014. “Perceptions of Threat, Demographic Diversity, and the Framing of Illegality: Explaining (Non)Participation in New York's 2006 Immigrant Protests.” Political Research Quarterly 67 (4): 880–88.

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed