1. See Linde, H. A. p. 118 (and note) for a review of states where advisory opinions can be issued. In Britain, there is a bar similar to that at the US Federal level, de Smith, S. A., judicial Review of Administrative Action, 4th edEvans, J. M. (Stevens and Sons, 1980) pp. 504–509. It is however sometimes simply ignored, e.g. Gillick v. West Norfolk and Wisbech A.H.A. and the D.H.S.S.  830.
2. See also Kastenmeier, R. W. and Remington, M. J., p. 84.
3. He cites Llewellyn, K. N., The Common Tradition: Deciding Appeals (Little Brown, 1960); Posner, R. A., The Federal Courts: Crisis and Reform (Harvard University Press, 1985); and, Hart, H. M. and Sacks, A., ‘The Legal Process: Basic Problems in the Making and Application of Law’ (Harvard Law School, 1958).
4. Gadamer, H.-G., Truth and Method (New York: Crossroad Publishing, 1982); Hirsch, E. D., Validity in Interpretation (Yale University Press); and Brest, P., ‘The Misconceived Quest for the Original Understanding’, 60 Boston University Law Review 204, 221–224 (1980).
5. Compare Laing, L. H., ‘The Transplantation of the British Parliament’, (1958) Parliamentary Affairs, vol. 11, 405–423; and Needler, M., ‘On the Dangers of Copying from the British’, (1962) Political Science Quarterly, vol. 77, 379–396. See also Bradshaw, K. and Pring, D., Parliament and Congress, (3rd ed) (Quartet Books, 1981).
6. Posner, R. A., The Federal Courts: Crisis and Reform (Harvard University Press, 1985).
7. And see Olson, M., The Logic of Collective Action: Public Goods and the Theory of Groups (Harvard University Press, 1965).
8. Hirschman, A. O., Shifting Involvements, Private Interest and Public Action, (Martin Robinson and Princeton University Press, 1982) p. 69.
9. Frankfurt, H. G., ‘Freedom of the will and the concept of the person’, 68 Journal of Philosophy (1971) pp. 5–20 and Sen, A. ‘Rational fools: a critique of the behavioural foundations of economic theory’, 6 Philosophy and Public Affairs (1977) p. 336.
10. Jacob, J. M., Doctors and Rules: A Sociology of Professional Values (Routledge, 1988) p. 76.
11. And see Katzmann, , p. 18.
12. And see also Davidson, R. H., pp. 100–102.
13. See Jacob, , Doctors and Rules, pp. 173 et seq.
14. Dicey, A. V., The Law of the Constitution, p. 407.
15. He cites Neustadt, R. E., Presidential Power: The Politics of Leadership (Wiley, 1960) p. 33.
16. Included in their references are The Documentary History of the Supreme Court of the United States, 1789–1800. vols. 2, 3 (Columbia Press, forthcoming).
17. Although it seems unlikely that the Founding Fathers would willingly follow the Stuart precedents it is useful to compare Havighurst, A. F., ‘The Judiciary and Politics in the Reign of Charles II, Pt. I 1660-76’, (1950) 66 Law Quarterly Review, 62 at pp. 65–66f. And see also on the independence of thejudiciary more generally at that time: Havighurst, A. F., ‘The Judiciary and Politics in the Reign of Charles Pt. II, 1676-85’, (1950) 66 Law Quarterly Review, 522; and Havighurst, A. F., ‘James II and the Twelve Men in Scarlet’, (1953) 69 Law Quarterly Review, 522. For more recent times see: Holdsworth, W., ‘The Constitutional Position of the Judges’, (1932) 48 Law Quarterly Review, 29–30; and, Holdsworth, W., ‘His Majesty's Judges’ (1932) 173 Law Times 336. In a Commonwealth context see: Lederman, W., ‘The Independence of the Judiciary’, (1956) vol. 36 Canadian Bar Review 769; de Smith, S. A., The New Commonwealth and its Constitutions (1964); Kamau, G. and Ojwang, J. B., ‘Judges and the Rule of Law in the Framework of Politics: the Kenya Case’,  Public Law 254–281; and SirHyatali, I., ‘The Protection of Judicial Independence’, (1983) Civil Justice Quarterly, vol. 2, 76–82. And see generally, Eckhoff, T., ‘Impartiality, Separation of Powers, Judicial Independence’, (1965) 9 Scandinavian Studies in Law, 11–48.
18. 42 Stat. 837. It was amended in 1939, 53 Stat. 1223 and several times thereafter. See Kastenmeier, R. W. and Remington, M. J., pp. 61–63.
19. As to the state courts, see Linde, H. A., pp. 119–20.
20. See Jacob, , Doctors and Rules, particularly pp. 188 et seq.