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Challenging Authority, Seeking Community, and Empowerment in the New Left, Black Power, and Feminism

  • W. J. Rorabaugh

Extract

In the 1960s three major sociopolitical movements, the New Left, Black Power, and feminism, arose in the United States. All three represented assaults on older ideas about the nature of authority, especially as expressed in a hierarchical fashion, all attached a premium to a sense of community, which was defined narrowly to include only members of each group, and all actively sought empowerment for themselves. The present essay examines this matrix. It begins by considering briefly the common historical background and early civil rights activity that influenced and to some extent linked all three movements. The essay then traces in turn each movement's beginning, development, and situation at the end of the Sixties. It explores how these movements shared certain values, expressed those ideas in different settings, and were interrelated in myriad, shifting ways. The overall complex interaction of these three movements suggests a common social critique that was greater than the sum of its parts.

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1. Abel, Lionel, The Intellectual Follies: A Memoir of the Literary Venture in New York and Paris (New York, 1984); Marcus, Greil, Lipstick Traces: A Secret History of the Twentieth Century (Cambridge, Mass., 1989); Kinsey, Alfred C., Sexual Behavior in the Human Male (Philadelphia, 1948). A good example of the new literature is Mailer, Norman, The Naked and the Dead (New York, 1948).

2. Recent surveys of the Sixties movements include Burns, Stewart, Social Movements of the 1960s: Searching for Democracy (Boston, 1990); Chalmers, David, And the Crooked Places Made Straight: The Struggle for Social Change in the 1960s (Baltimore, 1991). Older works are O'Neill, William L., Coming Apart: An Informal History of America in the 1960's (New York, 1971); Unger, Irwin, The Movement: A History of the New Left (New York, 1974); Viorst, Milton, Fire in the Streets: America in the 1960s (New York, 1979). An account that combines history and memoir is Gitlin, Todd, The Sixties: Years of Hope, Days of Rage (New York, 1987).

3. On the war, see Anderson, Karen, Wartime Women: Sex Roles, Family Relations, and the Status of Women During World War II (Westport, Conn., 1981); Campbell, D'Ann, Women at War with America: Private Lives in a Patriotic Era (Cambridge, Mass., 1984); Johnson, Marilynn S., The Second Gold Rush: Oakland and the East Bay in World War II (Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1993); Klein, Ethel, Gender Politics: From Consciousness to Mass Politics (Cambridge, Mass., 1984), 3542.

4. On the diaspora, see Lemann, Nicholas, The Promised Land: The Great Black Migration and How It Changed America (New York, 1991); Grossman, James R., Land of Hope: Chicago, Black Southerners, and the Great Migration (Chicago, 1989); Broussard, Albert S., Black San Francisco: The Struggle for Racial Equality in the West, 1900–1954 (Lawrence, Kan., 1993).

5. A good short introduction to the Cold War is Paterson, Thomas G., On Every Front: The Making of the Cold War (New York, 1979). See also Brands, H. W., The Devil We Knew: Americans and the Cold War (New York, 1993); LaFeber, Walter, America, Russia, and the Cold War, 1945–1992, 7th ed. (New York, 1993; orig. 1967). On containment, see Acheson, Dean, Present at the Creation: My Years in the State Department (New York, 1969). On the Third World, see Giddings, Paula, When and Where I Enter: The Impact of Black Women on Race and Sex in America (New York, 1984), 273. An early astute observer was Murray, Pauli, Song in a Weary Throat: An American Pilgrimage (New York, 1987), 107. The connection was frequently drawn in the Kennedy White House. Reeves, Richard, President Kennedy: Profile of Power (New York, 1993), 6062, 127, 131–34, 490, 517–19.

6. Garrow, David J., Bearing the Cross: Martin Luther King, Jr., and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (New York, 1986), 9091, 118, 124; Lewis, David L., King: A Biography, 2d ed. (Urbana, 1978; orig. 1970), 34, 36, 99105; John Lewis quoted in Williams, Juan, Eyes on the Prize: America's Civil Rights Years, 1954–1965 (New York, 1987), 139. In the Sixties a highly influential book on Algeria was Fanon, Frantz, The Wretched of the Earth (trans., New York, 1963; Paris, 1961).

7. Schultz, Bud and Schultz, Ruth, eds., It Did Happen Here: Recollections of Political Repression in America (Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1989); Gitlin, Sixties, 63–64. On specific areas, see Bernstein, Carl, Loyalties: A Son's Memoir (New York, 1989); Ginger, Ann F. and Christiano, David, eds., The Cold War Against Labor, 2 vols. (Berkeley, 1987); Schrecker, Ellen W., No Ivory Tower: McCarthyism and the Universities (New York, 1986); Ceplair, Larry and Englund, Steven, The Inquisition in Hollywood: Politics in the Film Community, 1930–1960 (Garden City, N.Y., 1980); and May, Lary, ed., Recasting America: Culture and Politics in the Age of the Cold War (Chicago, 1989). See also Gornick, Vivian, The Romance of American Communism (New York, 1977); Starobin, Joseph R., American Communism in Crisis, 1943–1957 (Cambridge, Mass., 1972); Wechsler, James A., The Age of Suspicion (New York, 1953); and Belfrage, Cedric, The American Inquisition, 1945–1960: A Profile of the “McCarthy Era” (Indianapolis, 1973).

8. Kelley, Robin D. G., Hammer and Hoe: Alabama Communists During the Great Depression (Chapel Hill, 1990); Honey, Michael K., Southern Labor and Black Civil Rights: Organizing Memphis Workers (Urbana, 1993); Miller, James, Democracy Is in the Streets: From Port Huron to the Siege of Chicago (New York, 1987), 121. On the important role of the Highlander School and its tainted reputation, see Horton, Myles, The Long Haul: An Autobiography (New York, 1990). On smears, see Durr, Virginia F., Outside the Magic Circle: The Autobiography of Virginia Foster Durr (University, Ala., 1985); Lewis, King, 110, 257. On the NAACP-communist conflict, see Record, Wilson, Race and Radicalism: The NAACP and the Communist Party in Conflict (Ithaca, 1964). See also Scales, Junius I. and Nickson, Richard, Cause at Heart: A Former Communist Remembers (Athens, Ga., 1987); Davis, Angela Y., Angela Davis: An Autobiography (New York, 1974), esp. 77112; Murray, Song in a Weary Throat, 152. Even King, a youthful Baptist minister, could not escape the charges. See Garrow, David J., The FBI and Martin Luther King, Jr.: From “Solo” to Memphis (New York, 1981). This book is based on the King-Levison FBI file, which Garrow obtained under the Freedom of Information Act.

9. On Berkeley, see Rorabaugh, W. J., Berkeley at War: The 1960s (New York, 1989), 56, 62, 71. On the South, see Murray, Song, 200–206, 208; Goldfield, David R., Black, White, and Southern: Race Relations and Southern Culture, 1940 to the Present (Baton Rouge, 1990). The voting statistic is in Hartmann, Susan M., From Margin to Mainstream: American Women and Politics Since 1960 (Philadelphia, 1989), 6.

10. Wilkins, Roy, Standing Fast: The Autobiography of Roy Wilkins (New York, 1982); Greenberg, Jack, Crusaders in the Courts: How a Dedicated Band of Lawyers Fought for the Civil Rights Revolution (New York, 1994); Tushnet, Mark V., Making Civil Rights Law. Thurgood Marshall and the Supreme Court, 1936–1961 (New York, 1994); Lewis, King, 117. On CORE, see Meier, August and Rudwick, Elliott, CORE: A Study in the Civil Rights Movement, 1942–1968 (New York, 1973).

11. On Parks, see Giddings, When and Where, 262–67. On King, the most detailed account is Garrow, Bearing the Cross; a fine short biography is Lewis, King. On nonviolence, see ibid., 34, 72, 85–87, 96–105. Still valuable is King, Martin L. Jr., Stride Toward Freedom: The Montgomery Story (New York, 1958).

12. Donner, Frank J., The Un-Americans (New York, 1961).

13. On culture, see Dickstein, Morris, Gates of Eden: American Culture in the Sixties (New York, 1977); Gitlin, Sixties, 31–54. For a bleaker assessment, see Sale, Kirkpatrick, SDS (New York, 1973), 1920. Also breaking barriers were the comedians Steve Allen, Lenny Bruce, Alexander King, and Mort Sahl. On the Beats, see Kerouac, Jack, On the Road (New York, 1957); and Ginsberg, Allen, Allen Verbatim: Lectures on Poetry, Politics, Consciousness, ed. Ball, Gordon (New York, 1974). Astute observations on the WASP establishment are in Alsop, Joseph W., l've Seen the Best of It: Memoirs (New York, 1992), 1778. On Mills, see Miller, Democracy, 79–91. See also Mills's important essay, “Letter to the New Left,” [London] New Left Review (September–October 1960). It was republished in the United States as “On the New Left,” Studies on the Left 2, no. 1 (1961). The publishing history is in Jacobs, Paul and Landau, Saul, eds., The New Radicals: A Report with Documents (New York, 1966), 101, which also reprints the essay. Other restless intellectuals included Paul Goodman, Michael Harrington, and Dwight Macdonald.

14. Gitlin, Sixties, 57–58; Miller, Democracy, 16, 47, 55–56; Harrison, Cynthia, On Account of Sex: The Politics of Women's Issues, 1945–1968 (Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1988), 6972; Hayden, Tom, Reunion: A Memoir (New York, 1988), 4546; Isserman, Maurice, If I Had a Hammer: The Death of the Old Left and the Birth of the New Left (New York, 1987), 194–98. See, in general, Bernstein, Irving, Promises Kept: John F. Kennedy's New Frontier (New York, 1991).

15. Miller, Democracy, 50–52; Hayden, Reunion, 32, 35, 79. On rejection of anticommunism, see Miller, Democracy, 112–17, 138; Sale, SDS, 56–57, 106; Gitlin, Sixties, 60–62; Isserman, Hammer, 173–74, 180–203. Still useful is Newfield, Jack, A Prophetic Minority (New York, 1966).

16. On sectarianism, see Isserman, Hammer. On Port Huron, see Miller, Democracy, 106–25; “The Port Huron Statement,” ibid., 329–74; Sale, SDS, 47–59. See also Hayden, Reunion, 84–102.

17. On left-fringe ties, see Gitlin, Sixties, 74–75; Miller, Democracy, 28, 43–45, 160–61, 179 (quote at 161). Dylan's importance can be understood best through his early songs, which others widely performed and recorded before Dylan became a star. Bob Dylan, The Freewheelin' Bob Dylan (1963) and The Times They Are A-Changin' (1964). See also Dylan, Bob, Lyrics, 1962–1985 (New York, 1985; orig. 1973). On drugs, see Miller, Democracy, 238; Sale, SDS, 204, 211, 264. See also Lasch, Christopher, The Culture of Narcissism: American Life in an Age of Diminishing Expectations (New York, 1978).

18. On civil rights roots, see Miller, Democracy, 49–50, 57–61, 121; Sale, SDS, 35–36, 82–84; Evans, Sara, Personal Politics: The Roots of Women's Liberation in the Civil Rights Movement and the New Left (New York, 1979), 103–5; Hayden, Reunion, 31–32, 46–48, 53–57, 60–72; Rorabaugh, Berkeley, 19, 22, 43, 46, 72–73, 83; Rossman, Michael, The Wedding Within the War (Garden City, N.Y., 1971), 8291. Examples are Robb Burlage, Tom Hayden, and Mario Savio.

19. On liberal origins, see Miller, Democracy, 23, 31–32, 71, 72, 74, 179, 219, 224–25; Sale, SDS, 89n; Evans, Personal Politics, 105–7; Gitlin, Sixties, 60, 66; Hayden, Reunion, 6. On the Cold War, see Miller, Democracy, 51, 108, 111–17, 120–22, 127–35; Hayden quote from Michigan Daily, September 22, 1960, ibid, 31; “The Port Huron Statement,” ibid., 329; Sale, SDS, 51–52, 55. On the Cuban Missile Crisis, see Miller, Democracy, 163–65.

20. Miller, Democracy, 35, 73–74, 116–17, 135–37; Sale, SDS, 89; Evans, Personal Politics, 120–24; Gitlin, Sixties, 67, 72–76.

21. Miller, Democracy, 139–40, 161–62; Sale, SDS, 60–68, 239–40; Breines, Wini, Community and Organization in the New Left, 1962–1968 (New York, 1982), 1317. See “The Port Huron Statement,” in Miller, Democracy, 329–74. See, in general, Isserman, Hammer.

22. On openness, see Miller, Democracy, 205–6; Sale, SDS, 90. On participatory democracy, see Miller, Democracy, 94–95, 142–48, 152–54, 207; “The Port Huron Statement,” ibid., 333. On male domination, see Evans, Personal Politics, 108–9, 116, 166–67.

23. On ERAP, see Miller, Democracy, 184, 190–217; Evans, Personal Politics, 129–55; Sale, SDS, 102–115, 131–50; Hartmann, Margin, 39; Breines, Community, 80–82. On Newark, see Tom Hayden, Reunion, 123–50, and on Chicago, see Gitlin, Todd and Hollander, Nanci, Uptown: Poor Whites in Chicago (New York, 1970). On black ideas, see Carson, Claborne, In Struggle: SNCC and the Black Awakening of the 1960s (Cambridge, Mass., 1981), 217; King, Mary, Freedom Song: A Personal Story of the 1960s Civil Rights Movement (New York, 1987), 499; Morgan, Robin, Going Too Far: The Personal Chronicle of a Feminist (New York, 1978), 102.

24. Rorabaugh, Berkeley; Buhle, Paul, ed., History and the New Left: Madison, Wisconsin, 1950–1970 (Philadelphia, 1990); on Kent, Ohio; Buffalo, N.Y.; State College, Pa.; and E. Lansing, Mich., see Heineman, Kenneth J., Campus Wars: The Peace Movement at American State Universities in the Vietnam Era (New York, 1993); Rossinow, Douglas C., “Break-through: White Youth Radicalism in Austin, Texas, 1956–1973,” Ph.D. diss., Johns Hopkins University, 1994.

25. Miller, Democracy, 226–37, 249–51, 255–59; Sale, SDS, 171–99, 208, 213–14, 219–21, 226–36. One of the fullest chronicles of the antiwar movement is by the Socialist Workers party's Halstead, Fred, Out Now! A Participant's Account of the American Movement Against the Vietnam War (New York, 1978).

26. On the draft, see Sale, SDS, 253–64, 302–4, 311–16, 319–24; Evans, Personal Politics, 170–73. On draft-card burning, see Rorabaugh, Berkeley, 92, 115; Sale, SDS, 322–24.

27. On women and the draft, see Evans, Personal Politics, 170–73, 179, 181–82, 185; Sale, SDS, 357; Hartmann, Margin, 40. On the poster, see Baez, Joan, And a Voice to Sing With: A Memoir (New York, 1987), 152–53; third illustration following p. 254. Baez's husband, David Harris, was a Resistance leader and went to jail. Harris, David, Dreams Die Hard: Three Men's Journey Through the Sixties (New York, 1982). On the Resistance, see Lynd, Alice, ed., We Won't Go: Personal Accounts of War Objectors (Boston, 1968); Ferber, Michael and Lynd, Staughton, The Resistance (Boston, 1971).

28. Miller, Democracy, 169, 172–74, 182; Sale, SDS, 155–56, 219, (Calvert) 318–19; Rorabaugh, Berkeley, 105.

29. On Chicago, see Miller, Democracy, 284–86, 295–306 (quote at 304); Sale, SDS, 472–77; Hayden, Reunion, 293–322; Gitlin, Todd,, The Whole World Is Watching: Mass Media in the Making and Unmaking of the New Left (Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1980). The fullest account is Farber, David, Chicago ʼ68 (Chicago, 1988). “We must name that system,” said Paul Potter in a speech (1965), excerpted in Miller, Democracy, 232–33 (quote at 232); see also Sale, SDS, 187–89. The theme was continued in a speech by Carl Oglesby, “Trapped in a System” (1965), in Teodori, Massimo, ed., The New Left: A Documentary History (Indianapolis, 1969), 1982–88. See also Sale, SDS, 242–45. For Oglesby's leftward movement, see his “Notes on a Decade Ready for the Dustbin” (1969), in Myers, R. David, ed., Toward a History of the New Left: Essays from Within the Movement (Brooklyn, 1989), 2148. On rising radicalism, see Miller, Democracy, 307–8; Sale, SDS, 203–6, 280–82, 310, 335–36, 363–64. The principal factions were the National Office (Weatherman), Progressive Labor, Revolutionary Youth Movement I, and Revolutionary Youth Movement II. For a complete account, see Sale, SDS, 557–66.

30. A full account of the PL takeover is in Sale, SDS, 557–99 (Walls quote at 566). Early warnings are in ibid., 210–11; Miller, Democracy, 67, 139.

31. Dylan's line is from “Subterranean Homesick Blues,” Bringing It All Back Home (1965). On Weatherman, see Jacobs, Harold, ed., Weatherman (Berkeley, 1970). The bombing is in Powers, Thomas, Diana: The Making of a Terrorist (Boston, 1971); Sale, SDS, 3–5. A fictionalized but psychologically correct account is offered in the film, A Small Circle of Friends (1980). On male domination, see Ti-Grace Atkinson, “The Sacrifice of Lambs” (1969), in Amazon Odyssey (New York, 1974), 29; Ferree, Myra M. and Hess, Beth B., Controversy and Coalition: The New Feminist Movement (Boston, 1985), 5761; Morgan, Going Too Far, 4 (quote), 82–83, 115.

32. Miller, Democracy, 297; Sale, SDS, 275–76, 347–48; Theoharis, Athan G. and Cox, John S., The Boss: J. Edgar Hoover and the American Inquisition (Philadelphia, 1988), 345–47, 361, 381. In general, see Blackstock, Nelson, COINTELPRO: The FBI's Secret War on Political Freedom (New York, 1988). For details in one case, see Hayden, Reunion, xvii–xviii, 199–201, 283–95, 300–317, 339–45, and other FBI entries in the index. For infiltrators' accounts, see Divale, William T., I Lived Inside the Campus Revolution (New York, 1970); Payne, Cril, Deep Cover: An FBI Agent Infiltrates the Radical Underground (New York, 1979); Luce, Phillip A., The New Left (New York, 1966), and The New Left Today: America's Trojan Horse (Washington, D.C., 1971). Luce pretended to be a defector.

33. Miller, Democracy, 151–52; Morgan, Going Too Far, 61. See, in general, Sale, SDS. All youth movements suffer from impatience. See Feuer, Lewis S., The Conflict of Generations: The Character and Significance of Student Movements (New York, 1969).

34. On Greensboro, see Chafe, William H., Civilities and Civil Rights: Greensboro, North Carolina, and the Black Struggle for Freedom (New York, 1980); Wolff, Miles, Lunch at the 5 & 10, rev ed. (Chicago, 1990; originally published 1970). On the response, see Giddings, When and Where, 274; Miller, Democracy, 34–35. On SCLC see Giddings, When and Where, 268; Garrow, Bearing the Cross. On women, see Hartmann, Margin, 24, 29–30. On the civil rights movement in general, see Bloom, Jack M., Class, Race, and the Civil Rights Movement (Bloomington, 1987); Blumberg, Rhoda L., Civil Rights: The 1960s Freedom Struggle, rev. ed. (Boston, 1991); Branch, Taylor, Parting the Waters: America in the King Years, 1954–1963 (New York, 1988); Meier and Rudwick, CORE; Weisbrot, Robert, Freedom Bound: A History of America's Civil Rights Movement (New York, 1990). An excellent anthology is Raines, Howell, My Soul Is Rested: Movement Days in the Deep South Remembered (New York, 1977).

35. On the founding, see Giddings, When and Where, 274; Hartmann, Margin, 26–28; King, Freedom Song, 43–46; Lewis, King, 115–16; Miller, Democracy, 56. In general, see Carson, In Struggle, esp. 19–21. On Baker, see Dallard, Shyrlee, Ella Baker: A Leader Behind the Scenes (Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1990). For an excellent account by a student activist, see Moody, Anne, Coming of Age in Mississippi (New York, 1968). Still useful is Zinn, Howard, SNCC (Boston, 1964).

36. On Mississippi, see Brauer, Carl M., John F. Kennedy and the Second Reconstruction (New York, 1977), 109, 180–204; Carson, In Struggle, 45–51, 77–81, 85–89; King, Freedom Song, 121–53, Reeves, President Kennedy, 354–64. A splendid, full recent account is Dittmer, John, Local People: The Struggle for Civil Rights in Mississippi (Urbana, 1994), esp. 90214. On Evers's assassination, see Branch, Parting the Waters, 824–25, 827–33; Garrow, Bearing the Cross, 269. On the recent trial and conviction, see Nossiter, Adam, Of Long Memory: Mississippi and the Murder of Medgar Evers (Reading, Mass., 1994). The March on Washington is in Carson, In Struggle, 91–95; Giddings, When and Where, 313–14; King, Freedom Song, 182–85; Lewis, King, 214–31; Murray, Song, 353–54.

37. On Moses, see Burner, Eric R., And Gently He Shall Lead Them: Robert Parris Moses and Civil Rights in Mississippi (New York, 1994). On the Summer Project, see Belfrage, Sally, Freedom Summer (New York, 1965); Carson, In Struggle, 96–123; Chafe, William H., Never Stop Running: Allard Lowenstein and the Struggle to Save American Liberalism (New York, 1993), 187210; King, Freedom Song, 367–436; Dittmer, Local People, 239–71; Sutherland, Elizabeth, ed., Letters from Mississippi (New York, 1965); Rothschild, Mary A., “White Women Volunteers in the Freedom Summers,Feminist Studies 5, no. 3 (Fall 1979); Von Hoffman, Nicholas, Mississippi Notebook (New York, 1964). The numbers are in McAdam, Doug, Freedom Summer (New York, 1988), 4, 7, 9. On the Philadelphia, Mississippi, murders, see Mars, Florence, Witness in Philadelphia (Baton Rouge, 1977). Mississippi Burning (1988) was a much criticized Hollywood film of this event.

38. On the Civil Rights Act, see Graham, Hugh D., The Civil Rights Era: Origins and Development of National Policy (New York, 1990), 7499, 125–52; Carson, In Struggle, 123–29; Garrow, Bearing the Cross, 337. See also Stern, Mark, Calculating Visions: Kennedy, Johnson, and Civil Rights (New Brunswick, 1992). On the 1964 convention, see Garrow, Bearing the Cross, 345–51; Giddings, When and Where, 293–95; King, Freedom Song, 343–52; Lewis, King, 252–53. On Voting Rights, see Garrow, Bearing the Cross, 389, 395, 400, 406–8, 411; Graham, Civil Rights, 162–76; Lewis, King, 269, 277, 283–85, 294. On the long-term consequences, see Parker, Frank R., Black Votes Count: Political Empowerment in Mississippi (Chapel Hill, 1990). On Selma, see Garrow, David J., Protest at Selma: Martin Luther King, Jr., and the Voting Rights Act of 1965 (New Haven, 1978); Lewis, King, 264–93.

39. On Watts, see Conot, Robert, Rivers of Blood, Years of Darkness (New York, 1967).

40. On nationalism, see Breitman, George, The Last Year of Malcolm X: The Evolution of a Revolutionary (New York, 1967), 147; Carson, In Struggle, 204–5, 217, 219–20; King, Freedom Song, 533; Bracey, John H. Jr., Meier, August, and Rudwick, Elliott, eds., Black Nationalism in America (Indianapolis, 1970) On Jones, see Jones, Hettie, How I Became Hettie Jones (New York, 1990). Lewis, David L., W. E. B. Du Bois: Biography of a Race (New York, 1993); Duberman, Martin B., Paul Robeson (New York, 1988). On music, see The Rolling Stone Rock Almanac (New York, 1983).

41. On Black Muslims, see Giddings, When and Where, 318; Lomax, Louis E., When the Word Is Given: A Report on Elijah Muhammad, Malcolm X, and the Black Muslim World (Cleveland, 1963).

42. On Malcolm X, see Malcolm, X, The Autobiography of Malcolm X (New York, 1965); Breitman, Last Year. See also Malcolm, X, Malcolm X Speaks: Selected Speeches and Statements, ed. Breitman, George (New York, 1965).

43. On the laws, see Carson, In Struggle, 141–42, 235. On disintegration, see ibid., 137, 181, 186; Garrow, Bearing the Cross, 423–24; Hayden, Reunion, 162–63; King, Freedom Song, 432, 442, 476; Lewis, King, 248–51, 286–87. On the Great Society, see Matusow, Allen J., The Unraveling of America: A History of Liberalism in the 1960s (New York, 1984), 217–71.

44. On NWRO, see Freeman, Politics, 73–74; Giddings, When and Where, 304; Hartmann, Margin, 36–38. See also West, Guida, The National Welfare Rights Movement: The Social Protest of Poor Women (New York, 1981). The sociologists Cloward and Piven argued that such pressure, including an all-out effort by eligible poor people to receive benefits, would force the political system to respond to poverty in a serious way. Ibid., 23–32, 37; Hartmann, Margin, 36; Richard A. Cloward and Frances Fox Piven, “A Strategy to End Poverty,” The Nation, May 1966. On the Poor People's Campaign, see Garrow, Bearing the Cross, 582–83, 591, 595–99, 607–9; Giddings, When and Where, 304, 312; Hayden, Reunion, 259–61; Matusow, Unraveling, 396–97. See also Abernathy, Ralph, And the Walls Came Tumbling Down: An Autobiography (New York, 1989).

45. Carson, In Struggle, 128, 175–90; Evans, Personal Politics, 95–98; Garrow, Bearing the Cross, 424; King, Freedom Song, 494–96; Sale, SDS, 125n. See also Forman, James, The Making of Black Revolutionaries: A Personal Account (New York, 1972); Haines, Herbert H., Black Radicals and the Civil Rights Mainstream, 1954–1970 (Knoxville, 1988); Sellers, Cleveland, The River of No Return: The Autobiography of a Black Militant and the Life and Death of SNCC (New York, 1973).

46. Carson, In Struggle, 219; Evans, Personal Politics, 97; Garrow, Bearing the Cross, 481–83, 492; Giddings, When and Where, 315; Hartmann, Margin, 33; Hayden, Reunion, 162; King, Freedom Song, 500–501, 503–4, 506–7; Murray, Song, 402. On separatism, see Carson, In Struggle, 191–211; King, Freedom Song, 502–4, 510. In general, see Carmichael, Stokely and Hamilton, Charles V., Black Power: The Politics of Liberation in America (New York, 1967); Carmichael, Stokely, Stokely Speaks: Black Power Back to Pan-Africanism (New York, 1971).

47. On black power, see Carson, In Struggle, 127–28, 209–10, 215–28; Garrow, Bearing the Cross, 481–82, 484–85, 487–88, 490–92, 532–34. See also William L. Van Deburg, New Day in Babylon: The Black Power Movement and American Culture, 1965–1975 (Chicago, 1992). On the Great Society, see Matusow, Unraveling, 217–71; Carson, In Struggle, 169; Garrow, Bearing the Cross, 535; Hayden, Reunion, 261.

48. Matusow, Unraveling, 110–13, 124–26, 244–70; Carson, In Struggle, 238–39; 258–60; Garrow, Bearing the Cross, 538–41, 545; Miller, Democracy, 271; West, Welfare, 20–22.

49. Carson, In Struggle, 216, 223, 233–34; Garrow, Bearing, 481–82; Hayden, Reunion, 163.

50. On Carmichael, see Carson, In Struggle, 227, 230, 237–38, 243, 251; Giddings, When and Where, 315; Hayden, Reunion, 163–65. On Brown, see ibid., 163; Giddings, When and Where, 315; Carson, In Struggle, 244, 252–57, 259–60. On Karenga, see ibid., 281, 283, 288; Davis, Autobiography, 161, 194; Giddings, When and Where, 316.

51. Giddings, When and Where, 317; Davis, Autobiography, 163–85. In general, see Cleaver, Eldridge, Post-Prison Writings and Speeches, ed. Scheer, Robert (New York, 1969); Newton, Huey P., Revolutionary Suicide (New York, 1973); Seale, Bobby, A Lonely Rage: The Autobiography of Bobby Seale (New York, 1978). See also Brown, Elaine, A Taste of Power: A Black Woman's Story (New York, 1992). Two useful surveys are Major, Reginald, A Panther Is a Black Cat (New York, 1971); Marine, Gene, The Black Panthers (New York, 1969). On the appeal to the white Left, see Gitlin, Sixties, 348–51; Hayden, Reunion, 308–9; Morgan, Going Too Far, 94. A droll treatment is provided in Wolfe, Tom, Radical Chic and Mau-Mauing the Flak Catchers (New York, 1970).

52. Ferree and Hess, Controversy, 47; Hartmann, Margin, 33; bell hooks, Ain't I a Woman: Black Women and Feminism (Boston, 1981), 59.

53. Carson, In Struggle, 222, 224, 226; Hayden, Reunion, 161, 164; Murray, Song in a Weary Throat, 391, 395–96. On COINTELPRO, see Carson, In Struggle, 284, 288. See also U.S. Senate, Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities, Supplementary Detailed Staff Reports of Intelligence Activities and Rights of Americans, Book 3 (Washington, D.C., 1976), 185–224 (commonly called the Church Report).

54. Stampp, Kenneth M., The Peculiar Institution: Slavery in the Ante-Bellum South (New York, 1956), vii. Stampp's statement attracted little notice until the 1960s, when he felt compelled to add an explanatory note. In recent editions the note has been incorporated in the text.

55. On race and gender, see Gornick, Vivian, “The Next Great Moment in History Is Theirs” (1969), in her Essays in Feminism (New York, 1978), 59; King, Freedom Song, 468, 470–71. On women in civil rights, see ibid., 261–62, 469–70; Giddings, When and Where, 278–81, 285–87. On Hamer, see ibid., 287–90; Carson, In Struggle, 73–74; King, Freedom Song, 140–44.

56. On the 1950s, see Freeman, Jo, The Politics of Women's Liberation: A Case Study of an Emerging Social Movement and Its Relation to the Policy Process (New York, 1975), 2427, 32; Harrison, Account, xi, 171–72; May, Elaine T., Homeward Bound: American Families in the Cold War Era (New York, 1988). For a different interpretation, see Rupp, Leila J. and Taylor, Verta, Survival in the Doldrums: The American Women's Rights Movement, 1945 to the 1960s (New York, 1987), 194–95.

57. Freeman, Politics, 17, 24, 29–34; Klein, Gender Politics, 50–55. On divorce, see ibid., 69–74, 79; Hartmann, Margin, 23. Two books spurred change: de Beauvoir, Simone, The Second Sex (trans., New York, 1953; orig. Paris, 1949); and Friedan, Betty, The Feminine Mystique (New York, 1963).

58. Roosevelt also opposed the ERA. Harrison, Account, 73–80, 83, 85–87, 109–37; Freeman, Politics, 52; Reeves, Kennedy, 433; Rupp and Taylor, Survival, 166–74.

59. On the ERA, see Harrison, Account, 125–26, 129, 134; Murray, Song in a Weary Throat, 351–52; Rupp and Taylor, Survival, 169, 171. On the Equal Pay Act, see Freeman, Politics, 171, 175–76; Harrison, Account, 87, 89–105; Rupp and Taylor, Survival, 175. On networks, see Freeman, Politics, 48, 52, 65–67; Harrison, Account, 165. The two groups are ibid., 159, 174.

60. On Friedan, see Harrison, Account, 159, 171–72; King, Freedom Song, 78. On state commissions, see Harrison, Account, 161, 185. On Title VII, see ibid., 177–81; Freeman, Politics, 54, 171; Murray, Song in a Weary Throat, 357; Rupp and Taylor, Survival, 176–78. The most complete account is Brauer, Carl M., “Women Activists, Southern Conservatives, and the Prohibition of Sex Discrimination in Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act,Journal of Southern History 49 (1983): 3756. See also Graham, Civil Rights, 134–40.

61. Ferree and Hess, Controversy, 54; Freeman, Politics, 179, 181, 184–85; Harrison, Account, 187, 192; Murray, Song in a Weary Throat, 366; Rupp and Taylor, Survival, 179. In general, see Graham, Civil Rights, 205–32. On newspaper ads, see Freeman, Politics, 77–79; Harrison, Account, 188–90.

62. Freeman, Politics, 54–55; Giddings, When and Where, 303–4; Graham, Civil Rights, 225–28; Harrison, Account, 191–97; Murray, Song in a Weary Throat, 366–68; Rupp and Taylor, Survival, 180. For the inside story, see Friedan, Betty, It Changed My Life: Writings on the Women's Movement (New York, 1976), 75911.

63. Freeman, Politics, 56, 75–76, 80–81, 97–99; Harrison, Account, 197–208; Rupp and Taylor, Survival, 181–83; “NOW Bill of Rights” (1967), in Morgan, Robin, ed., Sisterhood Is Powerful (New York, 1970), 512–14.

64. On Murray, see Giddings, When and Where, 304; Harrison, Account, 126, 134; Rupp and Taylor, Survival, 173; and in general, Murray, Song in a Weary Throat. On black women, see Ferree and Hess, Controversy, 58; Freeman, Politics, 40–42; Giddings, When and Where, 302, 307; Hartmann, Margin, 32; King, Freedom Song, 462–64; Morgan, Sisterhood, xxvi, xxviii.

65. Evans, Personal Politics, 46, 78–81; King, Freedom Song, 75–76, 124, 126, 464–66.

66. Evans, Personal Politics, 56–57; Hartmann, Margin, 32; King, Freedom Song, 172, 288, 442–55.

67. On ideas, see Ferree and Hess, Controversy, 45–47; Freeman, Politics, 28; King, Freedom Song, 76–78, 172. On religion, see ibid., 54–55, 274–76; Evans, Personal Politics, 28–36. On southerners, see Chappell, David L., Inside Agitators: White Southerners in the Civil Rights Movement (Baltimore, 1994).

68. On pressure, see Evans, Personal Politics, 79, 94; Freeman, Politics, 143–44; King, Freeman Song, 488, 492–96, 510–18, 530–33; Morgan, Going Too Far, 14. On ideas, see Freeman, Politics, 28, 51; Morgan, Going Too Far, 102–3. On Waveland, see Evans, Personal Politics, 85–88 (Carmichael quote at 87); Freeman, Politics, 57; Giddings, When and Where, 302; King, Freedom Song, 442–55. The memo is reprinted at 567–69.

69. On early SDS, see Evans, Personal Politics, 108; Gitlin, Sixties, 364–65, 368; Hayden, Reunion, 107–8. On WSP, see Gitlin, Sixties, 92–93, 99, 181, 265, 293; Hartmann, Margin, 41–42; Swerdlow, Amy, Women Strike for Peace: Traditional Motherhood and Radical Politics in the 1960s (Chicago, 1993).

70. On rights activists, see Evans, Personal Politics, 89, 97–99; Giddings, When and Where, 303; Hartmann, Margin, 33; King, Freedom Song, 499. On Urbana, see Evans, Personal Politics, 101, 156–57, 162–66; Freeman, Politics, 57; Giddings, When and Where, 303; Gitlin, Sixties, 369–70; Sale, SDS, 252. On the 1967 meeting, see Freeman, Politics, 58; Gitlin, Sixties, 370–71; Sale, SDS, 362. The cartoon is in New Left Notes, 10 July 1967. On NCNP, see Evans, Personal Politics, 196–98; Freeman, Politics, 60.

71. Evans, Personal Politics, 124, 200, 205–6, 214–15. On Freeman, see Freeman, Politics, vii–xi, 109–11. On consciousness-raising, see ibid., 117; Gitlin, Sixties, 371; Hayden, Reunion, 421.

72. On Miss America, see Freeman, Politics, 112–13, 150; Morgan, Sisterhood, 521–24; Morgan, Going Too Far, 62–67. On the press, see ibid., 63. On WITCH, see ibid., 71–81; Morgan, Sisterhood, 538–53; Evans, Personal Politics, 224; Gitlin, Sixties, 362–64 (quote at 363), 373. Rat is in Morgan, Going Too Far, 116 (“Goodbye to All That” [1970]), 123–30 (quote at 130).

73. Ferree and Hess, Controversy, 27, 35; Freeman, Politics, 9; Harrison, Account, ix, 220; King, Freedom Song, 458; Morgan, Sisterhood, xxii.

74. Gornick, “Next Great Moment,” 21–22; Morgan, Sisterhood, xxiii; Atkinson, Amazon Odyssey (1968 speech quoted), 5. A good introduction to radical feminism is Echols, Alice, Daring to Be Bad: Radical Feminism in America, 1967–1975 (Minneapolis, 1989).

75. Freeman, Politics, 103–8; Morgan, Going Too Far, 60–61. “We are all still imprisoned by Marx,” wrote Ti-Grace Atkinson in Amazon Odyssey, xxiii.

76. Freeman, Politics, 108; Evans, Personal Politics, 66–68.

77. Perhaps the most vivid exception in terms of violence was Valerie Solanis, “Excerpts from the SCUM (Society for Cutting Up Men) Manifesto,” (1968), in Morgan, Sisterhood, 514–19. In June 1968, Solanis put her theory into practice by shooting Andy Warhol. Atkinson, Amazon Odyssey, 107n.

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Challenging Authority, Seeking Community, and Empowerment in the New Left, Black Power, and Feminism

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