## References

An, Y., Lee, J., Jo, J., Jung, B.-K., Lee, H., Chung, K.-J., Na, Y.-S., Hahm, T. S. & Hwang, Y. S.
2017
Efficient ECH-assisted plasma start-up using trapped particle configuration in the versatile experiment spherical torus. Nucl. Fusion
57 (1), 016001.

Belyakov, V. A., Lobanov, K. M., Makarova, L. P., Mineev, A. B. & Vasiliev, V. I.
2003
Plasma initiation stage analysis in tokamaks with transmak code. Plasma Devices Operations
11 (3), 193–201.

Boozer, A. H.
2015
Theory of runaway electrons in ITER: equations, important parameters, and implications for mitigation. Phys. Plasmas
22 (3), 032504.

Boozer, A. H.
2017
Runaway electrons and ITER. Nucl. Fusion
57 (5), 056018.

Chattopadhyay, P. K., Pal, R., Ray, N. R. & Gupta, P. K.
1996
Breakdown and preionization experiments in the SINP tokamak. Nucl. Fusion
36 (9), 1205.

Connor, J. W. & Hastie, R. J.
1975
Relativistic limitations on runaway electrons. Nucl. Fusion
15 (3), 415.

Dimock, D. L., Eubank, H. P., Hinnov, E., Johnson, L. C. & Meservey, E. B.
1973
The ontogeny of a tokamak discharge. Nucl. Fusion
13 (2), 271.

Erckmann, V. & Gasparino, U.
1994
Electron cyclotron resonance heating and current drive in toroidal fusion plasmas. Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion
36 (12), 1869.

Esposito, B., Martin-Solis, J. R., Poli, F. M., Mier, J. A., Sanchez, R. & Panaccione, L.
2003
Dynamics of high energy runaway electrons in the Frascati Tokamak upgrade. Phys. Plasmas
10 (6), 2350–2360.

Farina, D.2017 Nonlinear collisionless Electron Cyclotron absorption in the pre-ionization stage. In *44th EPS Conference on Plasma Physics*, P2.145.

Formisano, A., Albanese, R., Ambrosino, G., de Magistris, M., Vries, P. D., Gribov, Y., Ledda, F., Martone, R., Mattei, M., Minucci, S.
et al.
2017
3d analysis of magnetic field lines to assess the impact of stray fields at breakdown in
$\{\text{ITER}\}$
. Fusion Engng Des
123, 597–602.
Gilgenbach, R. M., Read, M. E., Hackett, K. E., Lucey, R. F., Granatstein, V. L., England, A. C., Loring, C. M., Wilgen, J. B., Isler, R. C., Peng, Y.-K.M.
et al.
1981
Electron cyclotron/upper hybrid resonant pre-ionization in the isx-b tokamak. Nucl. Fusion
21 (3), 319.

Granucci, G., Garavaglia, S., Ricci, D., Artaserse, G., Belli, F., Bin, W., Calabrò, G., Cavinato, M., Farina, D., Figini, L.
et al.
2015
Experiments and modeling on FTU tokamak for EC assisted plasma start-up studies in ITER-like configuration. Nucl. Fusion
55 (9), 093025.

Gribov, Y., Humphreys, D., Kajiwara, K., Lazarus, E. A., Lister, J. B., Ozeki, T., Portone, A., Shimada, M., Sips, A. C. C. & Wesley, J. C.
2007
Chapter 8: Plasma operation and control. Nucl. Fusion
47 (6), S385.

Gusev, V. K., Burtseva, T. A., Dech, A. V., Gavrilov, G. A., Golant, V. E., Krikunov, S. V., Levin, R. G., Minaev, V. B., Mineev, A. B., Minyaev, O. A.
et al.
2001
Plasma formation and first OH experiments in the GLOBUS-M tokamak. Nucl. Fusion
41 (7), 919.

Hada, K., Nagasaki, K., Masuda, K., Kobayashi, S., Ide, S., Isayama, A. & Kajiwara, K.
2015
One-dimensional analysis of ECRH-assisted plasma start-up in JT-60SA. Fusion Sci. Technol.
67 (4), 693–704.

Hammond, K. C., Raman, R. & Volpe, F. A.
2017
Application of townsend avalanche theory to tokamak startup by coaxial helicity injection. Nucl. Fusion
58 (1), 016013.

Holly, D. J., Prager, S. C., Shepard, D. A. & Sprott, J. C.
1981
Tokamak start-up with electron–cyclotron heating. Nucl. Fusion
21 (11), 1483.

Hutchinson, I. H. & Strachan, J. D.
1974
Particle drifts and the transition to containment in the LT-3 tokamak. Nucl. Fusion
14 (5), 649.

Innocenti, M. E., Beck, A., Ponweiser, T., Markidis, S. & Lapenta, G.
2015
Introduction of temporal sub-stepping in the multi-level multi-domain semi-implicit particle-in-cell code Parsek2d-MLMD. Comput. Phys. Commun.
189 (suppl C), 47–59.

Innocenti, M. E., Lapenta, G., Markidis, S., Beck, A. & Vapirev, A.
2013
A multi level multi domain method for particle in cell plasma simulations. J. Comput. Phys.
238 (suppl C), 115–140.

ITER Physics Expert Group on Disruptions, Plasma Control, Mhd, ITER Physics Expert Group on Energetic Particles, Heating, Drive, Current, on Diagnostics, ITER Physics Expert Group & Editors, ITER Physics Basis
1999
Chapter 8: Plasma operation and control. Nucl. Fusion
39 (12), 2577.

Iyengar, A. N. S., Pal, R., Lahiri, S. & Mukhopadhyay, S.
1998
Runaway electron studies in the startup phase of very low edge safety factor (qa) (VLQ) discharges in the SINP tokamak. Nucl. Fusion
38 (8), 1177.

Jackson, G. L., Austin, M. E., Degrassie, J. S., Hyatt, A. W., Lohr, J., Luce, T. C., Prater, R. & West, W. P.
2010a
Plasma initiation and start-up studies in the DIII-D tokamak with second-harmonic EC assist. Fusion Sci. Technol.
57 (1), 27–40.

Jackson, G. L., Casper, T. A., Luce, T. C., Humphreys, D. A., Ferron, J. R., Hyatt, A. W., Lazarus, E. A., Moyer, R. A., Petrie, T. W., Rudakov, D. L.
et al.
2008
ITER startup studies in the DIII-D tokamak. Nucl. Fusion
48 (12), 125002.

Jackson, G. L., Casper, T. A., Luce, T. C., Humphreys, D. A., Ferron, J. R., Hyatt, A. W., Leuer, J. A., Petrie, T. W., Turco, F. & West, W. P.
2009
Simulating ITER plasma startup and rampdown scenarios in the DIII-D tokamak. Nucl. Fusion
49 (11), 115027.

Jackson, G. L., Politzer, P. A., Humphreys, D. A., Casper, T. A., Hyatt, A. W., Leuer, J. A., Lohr, J., Luce, T. C., Van Zeeland, M. A. & Yu, J. H.
2010b
Understanding and predicting the dynamics of tokamak discharges during startup and rampdown. Phys. Plasmas
17 (5), 056116.

Jardin, S. C., Bell, M. G. & Pomphrey, N.
1993
TSC simulation of ohmic discharges in TFTR. Nucl. Fusion
33 (3), 371.

Jayakumar, R., Fleischmann, H. H. & Zweben, S. J.
1993
Collisional avalanche exponentiation of runaway electrons in electrified plasmas. Phys. Lett. A
172 (6), 447–451.

Jiang, W., Peng, Y., Zhang, Y. & Lapenta, G.
2016
Numerical modeling of tokamak breakdown phase driven by pure ohmic heating under ideal conditions. Nucl. Fusion
56 (12), 126017.

Jiang, W., yu Wang, H., hua Bi, Z. & nian Wang, Y.
2011
Implicit and electrostatic particle-in-cell/monte carlo model in two-dimensional and axisymmetric geometry: II. Self-bias voltage effects in capacitively coupled plasmas. Plasma Sources Sci. Technol.
20 (3), 035013.

Kim, H.-T., Fundamenski, W., Sips, A. C. C.& Contributors, EFDA-JET
2012
Enhancement of plasma burn-through simulation and validation in jet. Nucl. Fusion
52 (10), 103016.

Kim, H.-T., Sips, A. C. C.& Contributors, EFDA-JET
2013a
Physics of plasma burn-through and DYON simulations for the jet ITER-like wall. Nucl. Fusion
53 (8), 083024.

Kim, H.-T., Sips, A. C. C. & Fundamenski, W.
2013b
$\{\text{PSI}\}$
effects on plasma burn-through in
$\{\text{JET}\}$
. J. Nucl. Mater.
438 (suppl (0)), S1271–S1274; Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Plasma-Surface Interactions in Controlled Fusion Devices.
Lee, J., Kim, J., An, Y., Yoo, M.-G., Hwang, Y. S. & Na, Y.-S.
2017
Study on ECH-assisted start-up using trapped particle configuration in KSTAR and application to ITER. Nucl. Fusion
57 (12), 126033.

Leuer, J. A. & Wesley, J. C.
1993
ITER plasma start-up modeling. In 15th IEEE/NPSS Symposium on Fusion Engineering, 1993, vol. 2, pp. 629–633.

Lloyd, B.
1998
Overview of ECRH experimental results. Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion
40 (8A), A119.

Lloyd, B., Carolan, P. G. & Warrick, C. D.
1996
ECRH-assisted start-up in ITER. Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion
38 (9), 1627.

Lloyd, B. & Edlington, T.
1986
Low voltage start-up in the cleo tokamak using ECRH. Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion
28 (6), 909.

Lloyd, B., Jackson, G. L., Taylor, T. S., Lazarus, E. A., Luce, T. C. & Prater, R.
1991
Low voltage ohmic and electron cyclotron heating assisted startup in DIII-D. Nucl. Fusion
31 (11), 2031.

Martín-Solís, J. R., Esposito, B., Sánchez, R., Poli, F. M. & Panaccione, L.
2006
Enhanced production of runaway electrons during a disruptive termination of discharges heated with lower hybrid power in the Frascati Tokamak Upgrade. Phys. Rev. Lett.
97, 165002.

Mesyats, G. A.
2006
Similarity laws for pulsed gas discharges. Physics-Uspekhi
49 (10), 1045.

Ono, M., Bell, M. G., Bell, R. E., Bigelow, T., Bitter, M., Blanchard, W., Darrow, D. S., Fredrickson, E. D., Gates, D. A., Grisham, L. R.
et al.
2001
Overview of the initial NSTX experimental results. Nucl. Fusion
41 (10), 1435.

Papoular, R.
1976
The genesis of toroidal discharges. Nucl. Fusion
16 (1), 37.

Peng, Y., Zhang, Y., Mao, W., Yang, Z., Hu, X. & Jiang, W.
2018
Numerical characterization of plasma breakdown in reversed field pinches. Nucl. Fusion
58 (2), 026007.

Putvinski, S., Barabaschi, P., Fujisawa, N., Putvinskaya, N., Rosenbluth, M. N. & Wesley, J.
1997
Halo current, runaway electrons and disruption mitigation in ITER. Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion
39 (12B), B157.

Raizer, Y. P. & Allen, J. E.
1997
Gas Discharge Physics, vol. 2. Springer.

Rosenbluth, M. N. & Putvinski, S. V.
1997
Theory for avalanche of runaway electrons in tokamaks. Nucl. Fusion
37 (10), 1355.

Sand, F., Waelbroeck, F. & Waidmann, G.
1973
Pre-ionization and pre-heat conditions for a compact toroidal plasma experiment in the millitorr pressure range. Nucl. Fusion
13 (3), 373.

Senda, I., Shoji, T., Tsunematsu, T., Matsukawa, M. & Ushigusa, K.
1999
Simulation studies of plasma initiation and disruption in JT-60U. Fusion Engng Des.
45 (1), 15–29.

Shevchenko, V. F., O’Brien, M. R., Taylor, D., Saveliev, A. N.& Team, MAST
2010
Electron bernstein wave assisted plasma current start-up in mast. Nucl. Fusion
50 (2), 022004.

Shinya, T., Takase, Y., Yajima, S., Moeller, C., Yamazaki, H., Tsujii, N., Yoshida, Y., Ejiri, A., Togashi, H., Toida, K.
et al.
2017
Plasma current start-up experiments using outboard- and top-launch lower hybrid wave on the TST-2 spherical tokamak. Nucl. Fusion
57 (3), 036006.

Sips, A. C. C., Casper, T. A., Doyle, E. J., Giruzzi, G., Gribov, Y., Hobirk, J., Hogeweij, G. M. D., Horton, L. D., Hubbard, A. E., Hutchinson, I.
et al.
2009
Experimental studies of ITER demonstration discharges. Nucl. Fusion
49 (8), 085015.

Sips, A. C. C., Giruzzi, G., Ide, S., Kessel, C., Luce, T. C., Snipes, J. A., Stober, J. K.& The Integrated Operation Scenario Topical Group of the ITPA
2015
Progress in preparing scenarios for operation of the international thermonuclear experimental reactor. Phys. Plasmas
22 (2), 021804.

Smith, H. M. & Verwichte, E.
2008
Hot tail runaway electron generation in tokamak disruptions. Phys. Plasmas
15 (7), 072502.

Sometani, T. & Fujisawa, N.
1978
Breakdown experiment on a tokamak. Plasma Phys.
20 (11), 1101.

Song, X., Duan, X. R., Song, X. M., Zheng, G. Y., Wang, S., Li, B., Bai, X. Y., Song, Sh.D., Wang, C. & Sun, J.
2017
Experimental results of plasma breakdown and flux optimization on HL-2A tokamak. Fusion Engng Des
125, 195–198.

Song, X., Song, X. M., Xia, F., Mao, R., Wang, C., Zhang, J. H. & Chen, L. Y.
2014
Study of plasma startup on HL-2A tokamak. IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci.
42 (3), 439–442.

Steinmetz, K., Noterdaeme, J. M., Wagner, F., Wesner, F., Bäumler, J., Becker, G., Bosch, H. S., Brambilla, M., Braun, F., Brocken, H.
et al.
1987
Observation of a high-confinement regime in a tokamak plasma with ion cyclotron resonance heating. Phys. Rev. Lett.
58, 124–127.

Strachan, J. D.
1976
Runaway electron transport in the LT-3 tokamak. Nucl. Fusion
16 (5), 743.

Sykes, A., Akers, R. J., Appel, L. C., Arends, E. R., Carolan, P. G., Conway, N. J., Counsell, G. F., Cunningham, G., Dnestrovskij, A., Dnestrovskij, Yu. N.
et al.
2001
First results from mast. Nucl. Fusion
41 (10), 1423.

Toi, K., Ohkubo, K., Kawahata, K., Kawasumi, Y., Matsuoka, K., Noda, N., Ogawa, I., Ogawa, Y., Sato, K., Tanahashi, S.
et al.
1988
Plasma current startup by lower hybrid waves in the JIPP T-IIU tokamak. Nucl. Fusion
28 (1), 147.

Tsutsui, H. & Shimada, R.
1998
2d-simulations of breakdown in tokamak by collisional ionization model. Bull.-Res. Laboratory Nucl. Reactors
22, 80–80.

de Vries, P. C., Sips, A. C. C., Kim, H. T., Lomas, P. J., Maviglia, F., Albanese, R., Coffey, I., Joffrin, E., Lehnen, M., Manzanares, A.
et al.
2013
Characterisation of plasma breakdown at jet with a carbon and ITER-like wall. Nucl. Fusion
53 (5), 053003.

yu Wang, H., Jiang, W. & nian Wang, Y.
2010
Implicit and electrostatic particle-in-cell/monte carlo model in two-dimensional and axisymmetric geometry: I. Analysis of numerical techniques. Plasma Sources Sci. Technol.
19 (4), 045023.

Yoneda, R., Hanada, K., Nakamura, K., Idei, H., Yoshida, N., Hasegawa, M., Onchi, T., Kuroda, K., Kawasaki, S., Higashijima, A.
et al.
2017
Effect of magnetic structure on RF-induced breakdown in quest. Phys. Plasmas
24 (6), 062513.

Yoo, M.-G., Lee, J., Kim, Y.-G. & Na, Y.-S.
2017
Development of 2d implicit particle simulation code for ohmic breakdown physics in a tokamak. Comput. Phys. Commun.
221 (suppl C), 143–159.

Yoo, M., Na, Y.-s., Kim, J., An, Y., Jung, B., Hwang, Y., Shim, S., Lee, H. & Hahm, T.
2014
On ohmic breakdown physics in a tokamak. In Proc. 25th IAEA Fusion Energy Conf. (St. Petersburg, Russia, 17 October 2014).

Yoshino, R. & Seki, M.
1997
Low electric field img (0.08v/m) plasma-current start-up in JT-60U. Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion
39 (1), 205.

Zeng, L., Chen, Z. Y., Dong, Y. B., Koslowski, H. R., Liang, Y., Zhang, Y. P., Zhuang, H. D., Huang, D. W. & Gao, X.
2017
Runaway electron generation during disruptions in the j-text tokamak. Nucl. Fusion
57 (4), 046001.