Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Experiments relevant to astrophysical jets

  • P. M. Bellan (a1)

Abstract

This paper summarizes the results of an experimental program at Caltech wherein magnetohydrodynamically driven plasma jets are created and diagnosed. The theory modelling these jets, the main experimental results and their relevance to astrophysical jets are presented. The model explains how the jets are driven and why they self-collimate. Characteristic kink and Rayleigh–Taylor instabilities are shown to occur and the ramifications of these instabilities are discussed. Extending the experimental results to the astrophysical situation reveals a shortcoming in ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) that must be remedied by replacing the ideal MHD Ohm’s law by the generalized Ohm’s law. It is shown that when the generalized Ohm’s law is used and the consequences of weak ionization are taken into account, an accretion disk behaves much like the electrodes, mass source and power supply used in the experiment.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Experiments relevant to astrophysical jets
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Experiments relevant to astrophysical jets
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Experiments relevant to astrophysical jets
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

Email address for correspondence: pbellan@caltech.edu

References

Hide All
Abertazzi, R., Ciardi, A., Nakatsutsumi, M., Vinci, T., Beard, J., Bonito, R., Billette, J., Borghesi, M., Burkley, Z., Chen, S. N. et al. 2014 Laboratory formation of a scaled protostellar jet by coaligned poloidal magnetic field. Science 346 (6207), 325328.
Bellan, P. M. 2000 Spheromaks: A Practical Application of Magnetohydrodynamic Dynamos and Plasma Self-Organization. Imperial College Press.
Bellan, P. M. 2003 Why current-carrying magnetic flux tubes gobble up plasma and become thin as a result. Phys. Plasmas 10, 19992008.
Bellan, P. M. 2006 Fundamentals of Plasma Physics. Cambridge University Press.
Bellan, P. M. 2007 Consideration of the relationship between Kepler and cyclotron dynamics leading to prediction of a nonmagnetohydrodynamic gravity-driven Hamiltonian dynamo. Phys. Plasmas 14, 122901.
Bellan, P. M. 2008 Dust-driven dynamos in accretion disks. Astrophys. J. 687, 311339.
Bellan, P. M. 2016a Integrated accretion disc angular momentum removal and astrophysical jet acceleration mechanism. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 458 (4), 44004421.
Bellan, P. M. 2016b Orbits of magnetized charged particles in parabolic and inverse electrostatic potentials. J. Plasma Phys. 82, 615820101.
Bellan, P. M. 2017 Model for how an accretion disk drives astrophysical jets and sheds angular momentum. Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 60 (1), 014006.
Bellan, P. M. 2018a Experiments and models of MHD jets and their relevance to astrophysics and solar physics. Phys. Plasmas 25, 055601.
Bellan, P. M. 2018b Magnetic Helicity, Spheromaks, Solar Corona Loops, and Astrophysical Jets. World Scientific.
Bodin, H. 1990 The Reversed Field Pinch. Nucl. Fusion 30 (9), 17171737.
Bogovalov, S. & Tsinganos, K. 1999 On the magnetic acceleration and collimation of astrophysical outflows. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 305 (1), 211224.
Chai, K. B., Zhai, X. & Bellan, P. M. 2016 Extreme ultra-violet burst, particle heating, and whistler wave emission in fast magnetic reconnection induced by kink-driven Rayleigh–Taylor instability. Phys. Plasmas 23, 032122.
Chew, G., Goldberger, M. & Low, F. 1956 The Boltzmann equation and the one-fluid hydromagnetic equations in the absence of particle collisions. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 236 (1204), 112118.
Dreicer, H. 1959 Electron and ion runaway in a fully ionized gas I. Phys. Rev. 115 (2), 238249.
Grad, H. & Rubin, H. 1958 MHD equilibrium in an axisymmetric toroid. In Proceedings of the 2nd U.N. Conf. on the Peaceful uses of Atomic Energy, vol. 31, p. 190. IAEA.
Hsu, S. C. & Bellan, P. M. 2002 A laboratory plasma experiment for studying magnetic dynamics of accretion discs and jets. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 334, 257261.
Hsu, S. C. & Bellan, P. M. 2003 Experimental identification of the kink instability as a poloidal flux amplification mechanism for coaxial gun spheromak formation. Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 215002.
Jarboe, T. R. 1994 Review of spheromak research. Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 36, 945990.
Kruskal, M. & Schwarzschild, M. 1954 Some instabilities of a completley ionized plasma. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 223 (1154), 348360.
Kruskal, M. & Tuck, J. L. 1958 The instability of a pinched fluid with a longitudinal magnetic field. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 245 (1241), 222237.
Kumar, D. & Bellan, P. M. 2009 Nonequilibrium Alfvenic plasma jets associated with spheromak formation. Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 105003.
Kumar, D., Moser, A. L. & Bellan, P. M. 2010 Energy efficiency analysis of the discharge circuit of caltech spheromak experiment. IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 38, 4752.
Lebedev, S. V., Ciardi, A., Ampleford, D. J., Bland, S. N., Bott, S. C., Chittenden, J. P., Hall, G. N., Rapley, J., Jennings, C., Sherlock, M. et al. 2005 Production of radiatively cooled hypersonic plasma jets and links to astrophysical jets. Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 47, B465B479.
Lewis, H. R. & Bellan, P. M. 1990 Physical constraints on the coefficients of Fourier expansions in cylindrical coordinates. J. Math. Phys. 31, 25922596.
Li, C. K., Tzeferacos, P., Lamb, D., Gregori, G., Norreys, P. A., Rosenberg, M. J., Follett, R. K., Froula, D. H., Koenig, M., Seguin, F. H. et al. 2016 Scaled laboratory experiments explain the kink behaviour of the Crab Nebula jet. Nature Commun. 7, 13081.
von der Linden, J. & You, S. 2017 Sausage instabilities on top of kinking lengthening current-carrying magnetic flux tubes. Phys. Plasmas 24 (5), 052105.
Livio, M. 2011 Astrophysical jets. In Gamma Ray Bursts 2010 (ed. McEnery, J. E., Racusin, J. L. & Gehrels, N.), AIP Conference Proceedings, vol. 1358. American Institute of Physics.
Lynden-Bell, D. 2003 On why discs generate magnetic towers and collimate jets. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 341, 13601372.
Marshall, R. S. & Bellan, P. M. 2017 Hard X-ray bursts observed in association with magnetic reconnection in a solar-relevant lab experiment. In Bulletin of the American Physical Society, 59th Annual Meeting of the APS Division of Plasma Physics, October 23–27, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, American Physical Society.
Moser, A. L.2012 Dynamics of magnetically driven plasma jets: an instability of an instability, gas cloud impacts, shocks, and other deformations. PhD thesis, Caltech.
Moser, A. L. & Bellan, P. M. 2012a Magnetic reconnection from a multiscale instability cascade. Nature 482, 379381.
Moser, A. L. & Bellan, P. M. 2012b Observations of magnetic flux compression in jet impact experiments. Astrophys. Space Sci. 337, 593596.
Pandey, B. P. & Wardle, M. 2008 Hall magnetohydrodynamics of partially ionized plasmas. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 385, 22692278.
Pudritz, R. E., Hardcastle, M. J. & Gabuzda, D. C. 2012 Magnetic fields in astrophysical jets: from launch to termination. Space Sci. Rev. 169 (1), 2772.
Rosenbluth, M. & Bussac, M. 1979 MHD Stability of Spheromak. Nucl. Fusion 19 (4), 489503.
Ryutov, D. D., Drake, R. P. & Remington, B. A. 2000 Criteria for scaled laboratory simulations of astrophysical MHD phenomena. Astrophys. J. Suppl. 127, 465468.
Ryutov, D. D., Remington, B. A., Robey, H. F. & Drake, R. P. 2001 Magnetohydrodynamic scaling: from astrophysics to the laboratory. Phys. Plasmas 8, 18041816.
Schmidt, G. 1979 Physics of High Temperature Plasmas. Academic Press.
Seo, B. & Bellan, P. M. 2017 Spatially transla1table optical fiber-coupled heterodyne interferometer. Rev. Sci. Instrum. 88 (12), 123504.
Shafranov, V. 1956 Stability of a cylndrical gasous conductor in a magnetic field. Soviet Atomic Energy 5, 3841.
Shafranov, V. D. 1966 Plasma equilibrium in a magnetic field. In Reviews of Plasma Physics, vol. 2, p. 103. Consultants Bureau.
Shikama, T. & Bellan, P. M. 2013 Development of a polarization resolved spectroscopic diagnostic for measurements of the vector magnetic field in the Caltech coaxial magnetized plasma jet experiment. Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84 (2), 023507.
Song, P., Vasyliunas, V. M. & Ma, L. 2005 Solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling: neutral atmosphere effects on signal propagation. J. Geophys. Res.-Space Phys. 110 (A9), A09309.
Stenson, E. V. & Bellan, P. M. 2012 Magnetically driven flows in arched plasma structures. Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 075001.
Suzuki-Vidal, F., Lebedev, S. V., Bland, S. N., Hall, G. N., Swadling, G., Harvey-Thompson, A. J., Chittenden, J. P., Marocchino, A., Ciardi, A., Frank, A. et al. 2010 Generation of episodic magnetically driven plasma jets in a radial foil $Z$ -pinch. Phys. Plasmas 17 (11), 112708.
Suzuki-Vidal, F., Lebedev, S. V., Ciardi, A., Bland, S. N., Hall, G. N., Swadling, G., Harvey-Thompson, A. J., Burdiak, G., Grouchy, P. de, Chittenden, J. P. et al. 2014 Laboratory astrophysics experiments with magnetically driven plasma jets. J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 511, 012050.
Taylor, J. B. 1974 Relaxation of toroidal plasma and generation of reverse magnetic-fields. Phys. Rev. Lett. 33, 11391141.
Vlahakis, N. & Tsinganos, K. 1999 A class of exact MHD models for astrophysical jets. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 307 (2), 279292.
Wassell, E. J., Grady, C. A., Woodgate, B., Kimble, R. A. & Bruhweiler, F. C. 2006 An asymmetric outflow from the Herbig Ae star HD 163296. Astrophys. J. 650 (2), 985997.
Woltjer, L. 1958 On hydromagnetic equilibrium. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 44 (9), 833841.
You, S., Yun, G. S. & Bellan, P. M. 2005 Dynamic and stagnating plasma flow leading to magnetic-flux-tube collimation. Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 045002.
Yun, G. S. & Bellan, P. M. 2010 Plasma tubes becoming collimated as a result of magnetohydrodynamic pumping. Phys. Plasmas 17 (6), 062108.
Zhai, X. & Bellan, P. M. 2016 A hybrid Rayleigh–Taylor-current-driven coupled instability in a magnetohydrodynamically collimated cylindrical plasma with lateral gravity. Phys. Plasmas 23, 032121.
Zhai, X., Li, H., Bellan, P. M. & Li, S. T. 2014 Three-dimensional MHD simulation of the Caltech plasma jet experiment: first results. Astrophys. J. 791, 40.
MathJax
MathJax is a JavaScript display engine for mathematics. For more information see http://www.mathjax.org.

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed