Skip to main content Accessibility help

Phylogenetic and biogeographic analysis of deiphonine trilobites

  • Curtis R. Congreve (a1) and Bruce S. Lieberman (a1)


Cladistic parsimony analysis of the subfamily Deiphoninae Raymond, 1913 was conducted to produce a hypothesis of relationship for the group. The genera Deiphon Barrande, 1850 and Onycopyge Woodward, 1880 are found to be monophyletic, while the genus Sphaerocoryphe Angelin, 1854, as it was previously defined, is paraphyletic. A modified Brooks Parsimony Analysis using the phylogenetic hypothesis reveals patterns of biogeography, in particular, vicariance and geodispersal, during the Ordovician-Silurian. The analysis yields three major conclusions about deiphonine biogeography: Eastern Laurentia and Baltica were close enough during the late Ordovician to exchange taxa via sea level rise and fall; chance dispersal occurred between Northwestern Laurentia and Australia; and deiphonine trilobites likely originated in Baltica or Eastern Laurentia.



Hide All
Adrain, J. M. 1998. Systematics of the Acanthoparyphinae (Trilobita), with species from the Silurian of arctic Canada. Journal of Paleontology, 72:698718.
Angelin, N. P. 1854. Palaeontologia Scandinavica 1: Crustacea formationis transitionis, 2:2192.
Armstrong, H. A. and Owen, A. W. 2001. Terrane evolution of the paratectonic Caledonides of Northern Britain. Journal of the Geological Society, London, 158:475486.
Barrande, J. 1850. Versuch einer Klassification der Trilobiten. Sitzungberichte der Akademie der Wissenschaften Wien, 5:304324.
Bradley, J. H. 1930. Fauna of the Kimmswick Limestone of Missouri and Illinois. Contributions from the Walker Museum. 2(6):219290.
Bremer, K. 1994. Branch support and tree stability. Cladistics, 10:295304.
Brooks, D. R. 1985. Historical ecology: a new approach to studying the evolution of ecological associations. Annals of the Mississippi Botanical Garden, 72:660680.
Brooks, D. R., Thorson, T. B., and Mayes, M. A. 1981. Freshwater stingrays (Potamotrygonidae) and their helminth parasites: testing hypotheses of evolution and coevolution, p. 147175. In Funk, V.A. and Brooks, D. R. (eds.). Advances in Cladistics: Proceedings of the First Meeting of the Willi Hennig Society. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx.
Chatterton, B. D. E. 1980. Ontogenetic studies of Middle Ordovician trilobites from Esbataottine Formation, Mackenzie Mountains, Canada. Palaeontographica, Abteilung A. 171:173.
Chatterton, B. D. E. and Perry, D. G. 1984. Silurian trilobites from the Mackenzie Mountains northwestern Canada. Palaeontographica, Abteilung A, 184:178.
Fitch, W.M. 1971. Toward defining the course of evolution: minimum change for a specific taxa topology. Systematic Zoology, 20:406416.
Foerste, A. F. 1894. Fossils of the Clinton Group in Ohio and Indiana. Geological Survey of Ohio, 7(2):516601.
Fortey, R. A. and Cocks, L. R. M. 1992. The early Palaeozoic of the North Atlantic region as a test case for the use of fossils in continental reconstruction. Tectonophysics, 206:147158.
Goloboff, P., Farris, J., and Nixon, K. 2003. T.N.T.: Tree Analysis Using New Technology. Program and documentation, available from the authors, and
Harper, D. A. T. 1992. Ordovician provincial signals from Appalachian-Caledonian terranes. Terra Nova, 4:204209.
Hawle, I. and Corda, A. J. C. 1847. Prodom einer Monographie der böhmischen Trilobiten. Prague, 177 p.
Hembree, D. I. 2006. Amphisbaenian paleobiogeography: evidence of vicariance and geodispersal patterns. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 235:334348.
Hillis, D. M. 1991. Discriminating Between Phylogenetic Signal and Random Noise in DNA Sequences, p. 278294. In Miyamoto, M. M. and Cracraft, J. (eds.). Phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequences. Oxford University Press, USA.
Holloway, D. J. and Campbell, K. S. W. 1974. The Silurian trilobite Onycopyge Wood ward. Palaeontology, 17:409421.
Ingham, J. K. 1974. The Upper Ordovician trilobites from the Cautley and Dent districts of Westmorland and Yorkshire Part 2. The Palaeontographical Society, London, p. 5987.
Kruger, H. H. 1994. Uber die mittelordovizische Trilobitengattung Hemisphaerocoryphe. Archiv fu"r Geschiebekunde (Hamburg). 1:469484.
Kutorga, S. 1854. Einige Sphaerexochus und Cheirurus aus den siluischen Kalksteinschichten des Gouvernement St. Petersburg. Verhandlungen der Kaiserlichen mineralogischen Gesellschaft zu St. Petersburg Jahr 1853.
Lane, P. D. 1971. British Cheiruridae (Trilobita). Palaeontographical Society, London, 95 p.
Lee, S.-B., Lee, D.-C., and Chol, D. K. 2008. Cambrian-Ordovician trilobite family Missisquoiidae Hupé, 1955: Systematic revision and palaeogeographical considerations based on cladistic analysis. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 260:315341.
Lieberman, B. S. 2000. Paleobiogeography: Using Fossils to Study Global Change, Plate Tectonics, and Evolution. Plenum/Kluwer Academic, New York, 208 p.
Lieberman, B. S. 2003. Biogeography of the Trilobita during the Cambrian radiation; deducing geological processes from trilobite evolution, p. 5972. In Lane, P. D., Siveter, D. J., and Fortey, R. A. (eds.) Trilobites and their relatives. Special Papers in Palaeontology 70.
Lieberman, B. S. and Eldredge, N. 1996. Trilobite biogeography in the Middle Devonian: geological processes and analytical methods. Paleobiology, 22:6679.
Lu, Y. 1975. Ordovician trilobite faunas of central and southwestern China. Palaeontologia Sinica, New Series B, 11:1484.
Maddison, W. P. and Maddison, D. R. 2007. Mesquite: a modular system for evolutionary analysis. Version 2.0.
Männil, R. M. 1958. Trilobity semeystvo Cheiruridae i Encrinuridae iz Estonii. Eesti NSV teaduste akadeemia geoloogia Instituuti Uurimused, 3:165212.
Moore, R. C. 1959. Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology; Arthropoda O(1). The University of Kansas Press and the Geological Society of America, Lawrence, KS.
Öpik, A. A. 1937. Trilobiten aus Estland. Acta et Commentationes Universitatis Tartuensis (Dorpatensis) A, 32(3):1163.
Owen, A. W., Tripp, R. P., and Morris, S. F. 1986. The trilobite fauna of the Raheen Formation (upper Caradoc), County Waterford, Ireland. Bulletin of the British Museum Natural History (Geology Series), 40:91122.
Portlock, J. E. 1843. Report on the geology of the County of Londonderry and parts of Tyrone and Fermanagh. Andrew Milliken, Dublin and London.
Rambout, A. 2008. FigTree v.1.1.2.
Ramsköld, L. 1983. Silurian cheirurid trilobites from Gotland. Palaeontology, 26:175210.
Raymond, P. E. 1905. Trilobites of the Chazy limestone. Annals of the Carnegie Museum, 3(2):271306
Raymond, P. E., 1913. Subclass Trilobita, p. 692729. In Eastman, C. R. (ed.), Textbook of Palaeontology 2nd Ed.The MacMillan Company, New York.
Reed, F. R. C. 1896. The fauna of the Keisley Limestone, Part. I. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London, 55:718772.
Rode, A. L. and Lieberman, B. S. 2005. S. Paleobiogeographic patterns in the Middle and Late Devonian emphasizing Laurentia. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 222:272284.
Scotese, C. R. 2007. PaleoGIS.
Scotese, C. R. and McKerrow, W. S. 1991. Ordovician plate tectonic reconstructions, p. 271282. In Barnes, C. R. and Williams, S. H. (eds.). Geological Survey of Canada Paper 90–9.
Shaw, F. C. 1968. Early Middle Ordovician Chazy trilobites of New York. New York State Museum and Science Service Memoir 17, University of the State of New York, Albany, 163 p.
Slocom, A. W. 1913. New trilobites from the Maquoketa beds of Fayette County, Iowa. Publications of the Field Museum (Geology), p. 4383.
Snajdr, M. 1980. New Silurian trilobites from the Barrandian area (Czechoslovakia). Vestnik Ustredniho Ustavu Geologickeho Prague, 55:105110.
Sokal, R. R. and Rohlf, F. J. 1995. The Principles and Practice of Statistics in Biological Research (third ed.), W.H. Freeman, New York.
Speyer, S. E. and Chatterton, B. D. E. 1989. Trilobite larvae and larval ecology. Historical Biology, 3:2760.
Swofford, D. 1998. PAUP v.4.0.
Tait, J., Bachtadse, V., and Soffel, H. C. 1995. Upper Ordovician palaeogeography of the Bohemian Massif: implications for Armorica. Geophysical Journal International, 122:211218.
Torsvik, T. H., Tait, J., Moralev, V. M., McKerrow, W. S., Sturt, B. A., and Roberts, B. A. 1995. Ordovician palaeogeography of Siberia and adjacent continents. Journal of the Geological Society, London, 152:279287.
Torskvik, T. H., Smethurst, M. A., Meert, J. G., van der Voo, R., McKerrow, W. S., Brasier, M. D., Sturt, B. A., and Walderhaug, H. J. 1996. Continental break-up and collision in the Neoproterozoic and Palaeozoic—A tale of Baltica and Laurentia. Earth-Science Reviews, 40:229258.
Trench, A. and Torsvik, T. H. 1992. The closure of the Iapetus Ocean and Tornquist Sea: new palaeomagnetic constraints. Journal of the Geological Society, London, 149:867870.
Tripp, R. P. 1954. Caradocian trilobites from mudstones at Craighead Quarry, near Girvan, Ayrshire. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 62:655689.
Tripp, R. P. 1962. Trilobites from the “Confinis” Flags (Ordovician) of the Girvan district, Ayrshire. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 65:140.
Tripp, R. P., Rudkin, D. M., and Evitt, W. R. 1997. Silicified trilobites of the genus Sphaerocoryphe from the Middle Ordovician of Virginia. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 34:770788.
Warburg, E. 1925. The trilobites of the Leptaena Limestone in Dalarne. Bulletin of the Geological Institution of the University of Upsala, 17(4):1446, pls. 1–11.
Walter, O. T. 1924. Trilobites of Iowa and some related Paleozoic forms. Iowa Geological Survey, 31:1256.
Webby, B. D. 1974. Upper Ordovician trilobites from Central New South Wales. Palaeontology, 17:203252
Weller, S. 1907. The palaeontology of the Niagaran Limestone in the Chicago area. The Trilobita. Bulletin of the Chicago Academy of Science, 4(2):163281.
Whittard, W. F. 1934. A revision of the trilobite genera Deiphon and Onycopyge. Journal of Natural History, 14:505533.
Whittington, H. B. 1968. The Ordovician trilobites of the Bala area, Merioneth. Part 4. Palaeontographical Society Monography, p. 3362.
Whittington, H. B., Chatterton, B. D. E., Speyer, S. E., Fortey, R. A., Owens, R. M., Chang, W. T., Dean, W. T., Jell, P. A., Laurie, J. R., Palmer, A. R., Repina, L. N., Rushton, A. W. A., Shergold, J. H., Clarkson, E. N. K., Wilmot, N. V., and Kelly, S. R. A. 1997. Part O; Arthropoda 1; Trilobita, revised; Volume 1, Introduction, order Agnostida, order Redlichiida. In Kaesler, R. L. (ed.). Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology. The University of Kansas Press and the Geological Society of America, Lawrence, KS.
Wiley, E. O. 1979. An annotated Linnean hierarchy, with comments on natural taxa and competing systems. Systematic Zoology, 28:308337.
Wiley, E. O. 1988. Parsimony analysis and vicariance biogeography. Systematic Zoology, 37:271290.
Woodward, H. 1880. A new genus of trilobites Onycopyge liversidgei from New South Wales. Geological Magazine, new series, 2nd decade, 7:9799.
Zhou, Z., Dean, W. T., Yuan, W., and Zhou, T. 1998. Ordovician trilobites from the Dawangou Formation, Kalpin, Xinjiang, north-west China. Palaeontology, 41(4):693735.
Zhou, Z. Y. and Zhen, Y. Y. 2008. Trilobite-constrained Ordovician biogeography of China with reference to faunal connections to Australia. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, 129:183195.

Phylogenetic and biogeographic analysis of deiphonine trilobites

  • Curtis R. Congreve (a1) and Bruce S. Lieberman (a1)


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed