Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Cambrian Trilobites from the Parahio and Zanskar Valleys, Indian Himalaya

  • Shanchi Peng (a1), Nigel C. Hughes (a2), Noel A. Heim (a2), Bryan K. Sell (a2), Xuejian Zhu (a1), Paul M. Myrow (a3) and Suraj K. Parcha (a4)...

Abstract

New collections of trilobites from the type section of the Parahio Formation in the Parahio Valley, Spiti, and from the Parahio, Karsha, and Kurgiakh formations in the Zanskar Valley, permit biozonation based on material precisely located within measured stratigraphic sections. Specimens preserved in limestone with mild tectonic deformation clarify the features of several Himalayan taxa known previously only from severely deformed specimens preserved in shale. A total of 75 trilobite taxa from the Cambrian of Spiti and Zanskar can be referred, questionably at least, at the generic level or below, and 61 of these are present in our new collections. This new material is assigned with confidence to 29 existing species, and to 12 new species. Three new genera, Haydenaspis, Bhargavia, and Himalisania, are established; new species include Haydenaspis parvatya, Prozacanthoides lahiri, Probowmania bhatti, Xingrenaspis parthiva, X. shyamalae, Bhargavia prakritika, Kaotaia prachina, Gunnia smithi, Sudanamonocarina sinindica, Proasaphiscus simoni, Koldinia odelli, and Torifera jelli. Ten additional Himalayan forms are assigned at the generic level only, and another 11 are questionably assigned to genera or species. The zonation proposed includes 6 zones and 3 levels, including the Haydenaspis parvatya level, the Oryctocephalus indicus level, the Kaotaia prachina Zone, the Paramecephalus defossus Zone, the Oryctocephalus salteri Zone, the Iranoleesia butes level, the Sudanomocarina sinindica Zone, the Lejopyge acantha Zone, and the Proagnostus bulbus Zone. The sections span from the upper part of the informal Stage 4, Series 2 of the Cambrian System, about 511 Ma old, to the Proagnostus bulbus zone of the Guzhangian Stage near the top of Series 3, dated at about 501 Ma. This time interval is represented by about 2000 m of section, which is thick compared to similar intervals elsewhere and is consistent with high rates of sedimentation along the Himalayan margin at the time. The fauna resembles others from equatorial peri-Gondwanaland, with closest similarity to that of South China. It also bears strong affinity to the North China fauna. Juvenile trilobites are described for the first time from India. A new Chinese species, Monanocephalus liquani, is also described.

Copyright

References

Hide All
Ahlberg, P. 1989. Cambrian shelly fauna and biostratigraphy of Scandinavia, p. 147. In Ahlberg, P. (ed.), Guide to excursions in Scania and Vaestergoetland, Southern Sweden. IV. Field conference of the Cambrian Stage Subdivision Working Group, International Subcommission on Cambrian Stratigraphy. Sweden 24–31 August 1998. Lund Publications in Geology. Volume 141, Lund.
Sulan, An, Duan, Jihe, and Zhang, Meisheng. 1996. Ontogeny of Shantungaspis aclis . Journal of Changchun University of Earth Science, 26 (supplement): 1317. (In Chinese)
Angelin, N. P. 1851–1878. Palaeontologia Scandinavica. Pars 1. Crustacea Formations Transitionis [fasc. 1 (1851): Palaeontologia Suecica, p. 124, pls 1–24; fasc. 2 (1854): Palaeontologia Scandinavica p. i–ix, 21–92, pls. 25–41 (Academiae Regiae Scientarum Suecanae: Holmiae); republished in combined and revised form (1878): Lindström, G., ed., x+96p, 41 pls]. Norstedt and Söner, Stockholm.
Axheimer, N. and Ahlberg, P. 2003. A core drilling through Cambrian strata at Almbacken, Scania, South Sweden: trilobites and stratigraphical assessment. Geologiska Föreningens i Stockholm Förhandlingar, 125:139156.
Axheimer, N., Eriksson, M. E., Alberg, P., and Bengtsson, A. 2006. The middle Cambrian cosmopolitan key species Lejopyge laevigata and its biozone: new data from Sweden. Geological Magazine, 143:447455.
Babcock, L. E., Peng, S., Geyer, G., and Shergold, J. H. 2005. Changing perspectives on Cambrian chronostratigraphy and progress toward subdivision of the Cambrian System. Geoscience Journal, 9:101106.
Beecher, C. E. 1897. Outline of a natural classification of the trilobites. American Journal of Science (series 3), 49:307311.
Beyrich, E. 1845. Ueber einige böhmische Trilobiten. G. Reimer Berlin, 47 p.
Bhargava, O. N., Kumar, G., and Gupta, S. S. 1982. Cambrian trace fossils from the Spiti Valley, Himachal Himalaya. Journal of the Geological Society of India, 23:183191.
Bhatt, D. K. and Kumar, G. 1980. Discovery of conodonts in the Cambrian of Spiti, Tethys Himalaya. Current Science, 49:357358.
Blaker, M. R. and Peel, J. S. 1997. Lower Cambrian trilobites from North Greenland. Meddelelser om Gr⊘nland Geoscience, 35, 145 p.
Brock, G. A., Engelbretsen, M. J., Jago, J. B., Kruse, P. D., Laurie, J. R., Shergold, J. H., Shi, G. R., and Sorauf, J. E. 2000. Palaeobiogeographic affinities of Australian Cambrian faunas. Memoirs of the Association of Australasian Palaeontologists, 23:161.
Br⊘gger [Brögger], W. C. 1878. Om Paradoxides skifrene ved Krekling. Nyt Magazin for Naturvidenskaberne, 24:188.
Butts, C., 1926. The Palaeozoic rocks. p. 41230, pls. 3–76. In Adams, G. I., Butts, C., Stephanson, L. W., and Cooke, W. (eds.), Geology of Alabama. Geological Survey of Alabama Special Report, 14:1–312.
Chang, S., Wang, G., and Jin, Z. 1980. A study of the Lower and Middle Cambrian Series of the South Liaodong Peninsula. Bulletin of the Shenyang Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources, 1:115131. (In Chinese with English abstract)
Chang, W.-T. 1957 (see Zhang, W. 1957)
Chang, W.-T. 1959 (see Zhang, W. 1959)
Chang, W.-T. 1963 (see Zhang, W. 1963)
Chang, W.-T. 1964 (see Zhang, W. 1964)
Chang, W.-T. 1998 (see Zhang, W. 1998)
Chang, W.-Y. 1937. Cambrian trilobites of Anhui. Contributions from the National Research Institute of Geology, Academia Sinica, 6:2948.
Chernysheva, N. E. 1960. Trilobita. p. 17194, pls. 1–12. In Orlov, Yu. A. (ed.) Osnovy Paleontologii apravochnik dlya palaeontologov i geologov SSSR, 8, Chlenbistonogie, trilobitoobraznye i rakoobraznye. [Fundamentals of Paleontology, vol. 8, Arthropoda trilobites and crustaceans.] Akademiia. Nauk SSSR, Ministerrstvo Geologii I Okhrany Nedr SSSR, Moscow. 515 p. (In Russian)
Chernysheva, N. E. 1961. Stratigrafiya Kembriya Aldanskoi anteklizy i paleontologicheskoe obosnovanie vydeleniya Amginskogo yarusa [Cambrian stratigraphy of the Aldan Antecline and the paleontological basis for separation of the Amga Stage]. Trudy Vsesoyuznogo Nauchno-Issledobatelskogo Geologicheskogo Instituta (VSEGEI), new series 49:1347. (In Russian)
Chien, Y.-Y. 1961 (see Yiyuan, Qian, 1961)
Choi, D. K. and Kim, E. Y. 2006. Occurrence of Changshania (Trilobita, Cambrian) in the Taebaeksan Basin, Korea and its stratigraphic and paleogeographic significance. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 242:343354.
Chu, C.-L. 1959 (see Zhaoling, Zhu, 1959)
Dalman, J. W. 1828. Nya Svenska Palaeder. Årsberättelse om Nyare Zoologiska Arbeten och Upptäcker. Kongliga Svenska Vetenskaps-Akademiens Handlingar, 1828:134135.
Dames, W. 1883. Kambrische Trilobiten von Liao tung, p. 333. In Richthofen, F. F., China. Ergebnisse iegener Reisen und darauf gegundete Studien. Volume 4, palaeontology. Dietrich Reimer, Berlin. 792p.
Dawson, J. W. 1868. Acadian geology. 2nd ed. Macmillan, London. 694 p.
Deiss, C. 1939. Cambrian stratigraphy and trilobites of northwestern Montana. Geological Society of America Special Papers, 18:1135.
Duan, J. 1966. Study on Cambrian stratigraphy and trilobite fauna from northeastern Hebei and western Liaoning (summery). Scientific Papers of Changchun College of Geology, 4:143148. (In Chinese)
Duan, J., and An, S. 2001. Early Cambrian Siberian fauna from Yichun of Heilongjiang Province. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica, 40:362370. (In Chinese with English abstract)
Duan, J., An, S., Liu, P., Peng, X., and Zhang, L. 2005. The Cambrian stratigraphy, fauna and palaeogeography in the eastern part of North China Plate. Yayuan Publishing House, Hong Kong, 255 p. (In Chinese)
Dungrakoti, B. D., Sinha, P. K., and Das, B. K. 1974. Trilobites from Zanskar Valley, Ladakh District, Jammu and Kashmir State. Indian Minerals, 28,114115.
Dungrakoti, B. D., Das, B. K., and Sinha, P. K. 1977. Record of additional fossils from the formation of Zanskar, Ladakh District, Jammu and Kashmir. Records of the Geological Survey of India, 109:161165.
Dwight, W. B. 1889. Recent explorations in the Wappinger Valley limestone and other formations of Dutchess County, New York. American Journal of Science, 3rd series, 28:139149.
Dzevanovsky, Y. K. and Chernysheva, N. E. 1950. Kembrijskie otlozheniya verkhnego Priangarya, ikh fauna i polozhenie v obshchem razreze kembriya tsentralnykh chasti Sibirskoi platformy (Yakutiya) [Cambrian deposits of upper Preangara, their fauna and location of type section for the Cambrian of the central part of the Siberian Platform (Yakutia)]. (Vostsibneftegeologiya: Irkutsk) 45 p. (In Russian)
Egorova, L. I. 1967. Some trilobites from the Lower and Middle Cambrian of the Siberian Platform. Paleontologicheskiy Zhurnal, 1967: 6878. (In Russian)
Egorova, L. I. and Savitskiy, V. E. 1969. Stratigrafiia i biofatsii kembriia Sibirskoi platformy (Zapadnoe Prianabar'e) [Stratigraphy and biofacies of the Cambrian of the Siberian Platform (western Pre-Anabar)]. Sibirskogo Nauchno-issledovatel'skogo Instituta Geologii, Geofiziki i Mineral'nogo Syr'ya, Seriya Paleontologiya i Stratigrafiya 43: 1407. (In Russian)
Egorova, L. I., Xiang, L., Li, S., Nan, R., and Guo, Z. 1963. Cambrian trilobite faunas of Guizhou and western Hunan. Institute of Geological and Mineral Resources, Special Paper, Series B, Stratigraphy and Palaeontology, 3 (1): 1117. (In Chinese)
Egorova, L. I., Shabanov, Y. Y., Pegel, T. V., Savitsky, V. E., Suchov, S. S., and Chernysheva, N. E. 1982. Mayskii Yarus stratotipicheskoi mestnosti (srednii kembrii yugo-vostoka sibirskoi platformy) [Maya Stage of Type Locality (Middle Cambrian of the Silurian platform)]. Izdatelystvo “Nauka”, Moscow. Mezhvedomstvennyy stratigraficheskiy komitet SSSR, 8, 146 p. (In Russian)
Ergaliev, G. K. 1980. Trilobity srednego i verkhnego Kembriya Malogo Karatau [Middle and Upper Cambrian trilobites from Malyi Karatau]. AcademeyI Nauk Kazakhskoi SSR, Alma-Ata, 211 p.
Ergaliev, G. K. and Pokrovskaya, N. V. 1977. Nizhnekembriyskie trilobity Malogo Karatau [Lower Cambrian trilobites of the Maly Karatau]. Izdatelstvo Nauka, Alma-Ata, 97 p. (In Russian)
Ergaliev, G. K., Zhemchuzhnikov, V. A., Ergaliev, F. G., Popov, L. E., Ghobadi Pour, M., and Bassett, M. G. 2008. Trilobite biostratigraphy and biodiversity patterns through the Middle-Upper Cambrian transition in the Kyrshabakty section, Malyi Karatau, southern Kazakhstan, p. 9198. In Rábano, I., Gozalo, R., and Garcia-Bellido, D. (eds.), Advances in Trilobite Research. Cuadernos del Museo Geominero, No 9. Instituto Geológico y Minero de España, Madrid.
Endo, R. and Resser, C. E. 1937. The Sinian and Cambrian formations and fossils of southern Manchoukuo. Manchurian Science Museum Bulletin, 1:1474.
Etheridge, R. Jr. 1902. Official contributions to the palaeontology of South Australia. No. 13: Evidence of further Cambrian trilobites. South Australian Parliamentary Papers 3–4.
Fortey, R. A. 1994. Late Cambrian trilobites from the Sultanate of Oman. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Abhandlungen, 194: 2553.
Fortey, R. A. and Hughes, N. C. 1998. Brood pouches in trilobites. Journal of Paleontology, 72:638649.
Fortey, R. A. and Rushton, A. W. A. 1976. Chelidonocephalus trilobite fauna from the Cambrian of Iran. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Geology Series, 27:321340.
Fortey, R. A. and Wilmot, N. V. 1991. Trilobite cuticle thickness in relation to palaeoenvironment. Paläontologische Zeitschrift, 65:141151.
Fritz, W. H. 1972. Lower Cambrian trilobites from the Sekwi Formation type section, Mackenzie Mountains, northwestern Canada. Canadian Geological Survey Bulletin 212, 90 p.
Gatehouse, C. G. 1968. Early Middle Cambrian trilobites of the Litchfield area, Northern Territories. Bulletin of the Bureau of Mineral Resources Geology and Geophysics, 80:4564.
Geyer, G. 1990. Die marokkanischen Ellipsocephalidae (Trilobita: Redlichiida). Beringeria, 3:1363.
Geyer, G. and Landing, E. 2001. Middle Cambrian of Avalonian Massachusetts: stratigraphy and correlation of the Braintree trilobites. Journal of Paleontology, 75:116135.
Gogin, I. Y. and Pegel, T. V. 1997. Trilobity srednego i verkhnego Kembriya zapandoy chasti Sette-Dabana [Trilobites of the Middle and Upper Cambrian from the western part of Sette-Dabana]. p. 100132, pls. 22–33. In Gogin, I. Y., Koren, T. N., and Pegel, T. V. (ed.) Atlas zonalnykh kompleksov vedushchikh grupp rannepaleozoyskoy fauny cevera rossii, graptolity, trilobity [Atlas of the zonal complexes of leading groups of early Palaeozoic fauna in northern Russia]. VSEGEI, St. Petersburg. 212 p. (In Russian)
Goncharova, B. I., Pokrovskaya, N. V., Poletaeva, O. K., Romanenko, E. V., Semashko, A. K., and Tomashpolskaya, V. D. 1972. Novye Kembriiskie trilobity Sibiri i Srednei Azii [New Cambrian trilobites from Siberia and central Asia]. p. 214236, pls. 53–54. In Zanina, I. E. (ed.) Novye vidy drevnix rastenii i bespozvonochnyx SSSR [New genera of fossil plants and invertebrates], Izdatelstvo Nauka, Moscow. 371 p. (In Russian)
Gozalo, R., Mayoral, E., Gámez Vintaned, J. A., Dies, M. E., and Muñiz, F. 2003. A new occurrence of the genus Tonkinella in northern Spain and the Middle Cambrian intercontinental correlation. Geologica Acta, 1:121126.
Guo, H. and An, S. 1982. Lower Cambrian trilobites of the Benxi area, Liaoning. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica, 21:615631. (In Chinese with English abstract)
Guo, H. and Zan, S. 1991. Lower and Early Middle Cambrian biostratigraphy in the Liaodong Peninsula, China. Journal of Changchun University of Earth Science, 21:112. (In Chinese with English abstract)
Guo, H., Zan, S., and Luo, K. 1996. Cambrian stratigraphy and trilobites of eastern Liaoning. Jiling University Press, Changchun, 184 p. (In Chinese with English abstract)
Hall, J. and Whitfield, R. P. 1877. Paleontology. United States Geological Survey of the 40th Parallel Report, Number 4, Part 2, p. 198302.
Harrington, H. J. and Leanza, A. F. 1957. Ordovician trilobites of Argentina. Special Publications, Department of Geology, University of Kansas, 1:1276.
Harrington, H. J., Henningsmoen, G., Howell, B. F., Jaanusson, V., Lochman-Balk, C., Moore, R. C., Poulsen, C., Rasetti, F., Richter, E., Richter, R., Schmidt, H., Sdzuy, K., Struve, W., Tripp, R. Weller, J. M., and Whittington, H. B., 1959. Systematic descriptions. p. O170O560. In Moore, R. C. (ed.). Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology. Part O. Arthropoda 1. Geological Society of America and University of Kansas Press, Boulder, Colorado and Lawrence, Kansas, 560 p.
Hawle, I. and Corda, A. J. C. 1847. Prodrom einer Monographic der böhmischen Trilobiten. Abhandlungen der köngligische böhemischen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften, V. Folge, 5:1176.
Hayden, H. H. 1904. The Geology of Spiti with parts of Bashahr and Rupshu. Memoirs of the Geological Survey of India, 36:1121.
Hicks, H. 1872. On some undescribed fossils from the Menevian Group. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society (London), 28:173185.
Holm, G. and Westergård, A. H. 1930. A Middle Cambrian fauna from Bennett Island. Zapiski Akademii Nauk Soyuza SSR, po Otdeleniyu Fiziko-Matematicheskikh Nauk [Mémories de l'Academie de Sciences de L'USSR, Leningrad], 21(8):125.
Howell, B. F. 1935. Some New Brunswick Cambrian agnostians. Bulletin of the Wagner Free Institute of Science, 10:1316.
Howell, B. F. 1937. Cambrian Centropleura vermontensis fauna of northwestern Vermont. Bulletin of the Geological Society of America 48:11471210.
Hughes, N. C. 1995. Trilobite taphonomy and taxonomy: a problem and some implications. Palaios, 10:283285.
Hughes, N. C. 1997. Cambrian trilobite biostratigraphy for the Himalaya. Current Science, 73:736737.
Hughes, N. C. 2006. Discussion of “Biostratigraphic studies and correlations of the Middle Cambrian of northwestern Kashmir Himalaya” by S. K. Parcha. Journal of the Geological Society of India, 65:83–196. Journal of the Geological Society of India, 65:539540.
Hughes, N. C. and Jell, P. A. 1992. A statistical/computer-graphic method for assessing variation in tectonically deformed fossils and its application to Cambrian trilobites from Kashmir. Lethaia, 25:317330.
Hughes, N. C. and Jell, P. A. 1999. The biostratigraphy and biogeography of Himalayan Cambrian trilobites, p. 109116. In Macfarlane, A., Sorkhabi, R. B., and Quade, J. (eds.), Himalaya and Tibet: Mountain Roots to Mountain Tops. Geological Society of America Special Paper 328, Boulder, Colorado.
Hughes, N. C., Chapman, R. E., and Adrain, J. M., 1999. The stability of thoracic segmentation in trilobites: a case study in developmental and ecological constraints. Evolution and Development, 1:2435.
Hughes, N. C., Minelli, A., and Fusco, G., 2006. The ontogeny of trilobite segmentation segmentation: a comparative approach. Paleobiology, 32:602627.
Hughes, N. C., Myrow, P. M., Mckenzie, N. R., Harper, D. A. T. H., Bhargava, O. N., Tangri, S. K., Ghalley, K. S., and Fanning, C. M. In press. Cambrian rocks and faunas of the Black Mountain klippe, Bhutan. Geological Magazine.
Hughes, N. C., Peng, S., Bhargava, O. N., Ahulwalia, A. D., Walia, S., Myrow, P. M., and Parcha, S. K. 2005. The Cambrian biostratigraphy of the Tal Group, Lesser Himalaya, India, and early Tsanglangpuan (late early Cambrian) trilobites from the Nigali Dhar syncline. Geological Magazine, 142:5780.
Hupé, P. 1953. Classification des Trilobites. Annales de Paléontologie, 39:61168.
Illing, V. C. 1916. Paradoxidian fauna of the Stockingford Shales. Journal of the Geological Society of London, 71 (for 1915):386450.
Ivshin, N. K. 1953. [Middle Cambrian trilobites of Kazakhstan.] Pt. 1. Akademii Nauk Kazakhskoe SSR, Alma-Ata. 226 p. (In Russian)
Ivshin, N. K. 1956. [Upper Cambrian trilobites of Kazakhstan.] Pt. 1. Akademii Nauk Kazakhskoe SSR, Alma-Ata. 98 p. (In Russian)
Ivshin, N. K. 1978. [Biostratigraphy and trilobites of the Lower Cambrian of central Kazakhstan.] Institute of Geological Sciences, Kazakhskoy, SSR, Izdatel'stvo “Nauka”, 127 p. (In Russian)
Jaekel, O. 1909. Über die Agnostiden. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Geologischen Gesellschaft, 61:380401.
Jago, J. B. 1976a. Late Middle Cambrian agnostid trilobites from northwestern Tasmania. Palaeontology, 19:133172.
Jago, J. B. 1976b. Late Middle Cambrian agnostid trilobites from the Gunns Plains area, northwestern Tasmania. Papers and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Tasmania, 110:118.
Jago, J. B., Bao, J.-S., and Baillie, P. W. 2004. Late Middle Cambrian trilobites from St Valentines Peak and Native Trach Tier, northwestern Tasmania. Alcheringa, 28:2152.
Jago, J. B. and Bentley, C. J. 2007. Late Middle Cambrian trilobites from Christmas Hills, northwestern Tasmania. Memoirs of the Australasian Association of Palaeontologists 34:283309.
Jago, J. B. and Brown, A. V. 2001. Late Middle Cambrian trilobites from Trail Ridge, southwestern Tasmania. Papers and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Tasmania, 135:114.
Jell, P. A. 1986. An early Late Cambrian trilobite faunule from Kashmir. Geological Magazine, 123:487492.
Jell, P. A. and Adrain, J. M. 2003. Available generic names for trilobites. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum, 48:331551.
Jell, P. A. and Hughes, N. C. 1997. Himalayan Cambrian trilobites. Special Papers in Palaeontology, 58:1113.
Jell, P. A. and Robison, R. A. 1978. Revision of a late Middle Cambrian trilobite faunule from northwestern Queensland. University of Kansas Paleontological Contributions Paper, 90:121.
Khalfina, L. L. (ed.) 1960. Biostratigrafiya Paleozoya Sayano-Altayskoy Gornoy oblasti. Tom 1: Nizhniy Paleozoy [Palaeozoic biostratigraphy of the Sayan-Altay mountain range. Vol 1: Lower Palaeozoic]. Trudy Sibirskogo Nauchno-Issledovatelskogo Instituta Geologii, Geofiziki i Mineralnogo Syrya, 19:1498. (In Russian)
Kim, T. 1980. Bulletin of the Kim Il Sung University (Geology Series). 3. (Not seen)
Kim, T. 1987. Trilobita. p. 865, 168–176, pls. 8–26. In Kim, T.-S., Hong, U.-K. and Yun, H.-C., Fossils of Korea. Kwahak, Paekkwa Sajon Chulpansa, Pyongyang, North Korea, 193 p. (In Korean)
King, W. B. R. 1923. Cambrian fossils from the Dead Sea. Geological Magazine, 60:507514.
King, W. B. R. 1937. Cambrian trilobites from Iran (Persia). Palaeontologia Indica, 12, Memoir 5 (New Series): 122.
King, W. B. R. 1955. Iranoleesia, a new trilobite name. Geological Magazine 92:86.
Kobayashi, T. 1934. Middle Cambrian trilobites from Kashmir. American Journal of Science, 27:295302.
Kobayashi, T. 1935. The Cambro-Ordovician formations and faunas of South Chosen. Palaeontology. Part 3. Cambrian faunas of South Chosen with a special study on the Cambrian trilobite genera and families. Journal of the Faculty of Science, Imperial University of Tokyo, Section II, 4 (2):49344.
Kobayashi, T. 1936. Three contributions to the Cambro-Ordovician faunas I. The Dikelokephalinae (nov.), its distribution, migration. Japanese Journal of Geology and Geography, 13 (1–2): 163178.
Kobayashi, T. 1937. Restudy of Dames's types of the Cambrian trilobites from Liaotung. Journal of the Geological Society of Japan, 44:421437.
Kobayashi, T. 1939. On the agnostids (Part 1). Journal of the Faculty of Science. Tokyo University, Section 2, 5:69198.
Kobayashi, T. 1942. Studies on Cambrian trilobite genera and families (IV). Japanese Journal of Geology and Geography, 18(4):197212.
Kobayashi, T. 1943. Cambrian faunas of Siberia. Journal of the Faculty of Science of the Imperial University of Tokyo, section 2: Geology, 6:271334.
Kobayashi, T. 1944. The Cambrian formation in the Middle Yangtze Valley and some trilobites contained therein. Japanese Journal of Geology and Geography, 19:89105.
Kobayashi, T. 1955. Notes on Cambrian fossils from Yentzuyai, Tawenkou, in Shantung. Transactions and Proceedings of the Palaeontological Society of Japan, new series, 20:8998.
Kobayashi, T. 1962. The Cambro-Ordovician formations and faunas of South Korea, Part 9. Palaeontology 8: The Machari fauna. Journal of the Faculty of Science, University of Tokyo, section 2, 14(1):1152.
Kobayashi, T. 1967. The Cambro-Ordovician formations and faunas of South Korea, Part 10. Stratigraphy of the Chosen Group in Korea and South Manchuria and its relation to the Cambro-Ordovician formations of other areas. Section C. The Cambrian of eastern Asia and other parts of the continent. Journal of the Faculty of Science, University of Tokyo, section 2, 16(3):381535.
Kobayashi, T. 1987. The trilobite provinciality of the Tethys Sea in the Cambrian period. Proceedings of the Imperial Academy of Japan, Series B, 63:119122.
Kraskov, L. N. 1977. Novye predctaviteli tseratopigid i olenid iz pozdnego kembriya Yuzhnogo Kazakhstana [New representatives of Ceratopygidae and Olenidae from southern Kazakhstan]. p 5660. v. kn: novye vidyi drevnikh rastenii i bespozvonochnyikh SSSR, 4 [In New genera or fossil plants and invertebrates USSR 4]. Nauka, Moscow. 214 p. (In Russian)
Kruse, P. D. 1990. Cambrian palaeontology of the eastern Wiso and western Georgina Basins. Report of the Northern Territory Geological Survey, 7:158.
Kruse, P. D. 1998. Cambrian palaeontology of the Daly Basin. Report of the Northern Territory Geological Survey, 9:168.
Kumar, A. 1998. Record of well preserved trilobites from the Cambrian of Zanskar. Journal of the Geological Society of India, 51:671678.
Lazarenko, N. P. and Nikiforov, N. I. 1968. Kompleksy trilobitov iz otlozheniy verkhnego Kembriya Reki Kulyumbe (severo-zapad Sibirskoi platformy) [Trilobite complex in Upper Cambrian deposits on the River Kulyum (northwestern Siberian Platform)]. Uchenie Zapiski Paleontologiya i Biostratigrafiya, 23:2080. (In Russian)
Laurie, J. R. 1990. On the Middle Cambrian agnostoid species Agnostus fallax Linnarsson, 1869. Alcheringa, 14:317324.
Laurie, J. R. 2004. Early Middle Cambrian trilobite faunas from NTGS Elkendra 3 corehole, southern Georgina Basin, Northern Territory. Association of Australasian Palaeontologists Memoir, 30:221260.
Laurie, J. R. 2006. Early Middle Cambrian trilobites from Pacific Oil & Gas Baldwin 1 well, southern Georgina Basin, Northern Territory. Memoir of the Association of Australasian Palaeontologists, 32:127204.
Lee, S.-C, 1978 (see Shanji, Li, 1978)
Lermontova, E. V. 1940. Klass trilobity [Class Trilobita]. p. 112162. In Vologdin, A. G. (ed.) Atlas rukovodiashchikh form iskopaemuikh faun SSSR. 1 Kembrii [Atlas of characteristic forms of the fossil faunas of the USSR. (1) Cambrian] (Gosgeolizdat: Moscow, Leningrad). (In Russian)
Lermontova, E. V. 1951. Nizhnekembriiskie trilobity I brakhiopody Vostochnoi Sibiri [Lower Cambriantrilobiyrs and brachiopods from eastern Siberia]. Vsesoiuznyi Nauchno-Issledovatel'skii Geologicheskii Institut (VSEGEI), Gosudarstvennoe Izdatel'stvo, Moscow. 218 p. (In Russian)
Li, Q., 2006. Cambrian trilobite fauna of Huainan, North Anhui. Unpublished thesis for Master's degree. Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, 104 p. (In Chinese)
Li, S. 1978. Trilobita. p. 179284, 568–583, pls. 89–114. In Palaeontological atlas of Southwest China, Sichuan Volume 1. Sinian to Devonian. Geological Publishing House, Beijing. 617 p. (In Chinese)
Lieberman, B. S. 2004. Revised biostratigraphy, systematics, and paleobiogeography of the trilobites from the Middle Cambrian Nelson Limestone, University of Kansas Paleontological contributions, n.s., 14, 23 p.
Lin, H. 2008. Early Cambrian (Chungchussuan, Tsanglangpuan and Lungwangmiaoan), p. 3676. In Zhou, Z. and Zhen, Y. (eds.), Trilobite Record of China. Science Press, Beijing.
Lin, T. 1965. A Cambrian trilobite fauna from Mufushan, Nanking. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica, 13:552559. (In Chinese with English summary)
Li$nnán, E., Dies, M. E., and Gozalo, R. A. 2003. Review of the genus Kingaspis (Trilobita, Lower Cambrian) from Spain and its bio-stratigraphical consequences. Revista Espanola de Paleontologia, 18:314.
Linnarsson, J. G. O. 1869. Om Vestergotlands Cambriska och Siluriska Aflagringar. Kungliga Svenska Vetenskapsakademiens Handlingar, 8(2):189.
Liu, Y. 1982. Trilobites, p. 290347. In Li, S. (ed.), Palaeontological Atlas of Hunan. Ministry of Geological and Mineral Resources, People's Republic of China, Geological Memior. Series 2, vol 1. Geological Publishing House, Beijing. 996 p. (In Chinese)
Lochman, C. and Duncan, D. 1944. Early Upper Cambrian faunas of central Montana. Geological Society of America Special Papers, 54:1181.
Lorenz, T. 1906. Beiträge zur geologie und palaeontologie von Ostasien unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Provinz Schantung in China. 2. Palaeontologischer Teil. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Geologischen Gesellschaft, 58:67122.
Lu, Y. 1945. Early Middle Cambrian faunas from Meitan. Bulletin Geological Society of China, 25:85199.
Lu, Y., 1954. Two new trilobite genera of the Kushan Formation. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica 2: 409438. (In Chinese with English summary)
Lu, Y. and Chien, Y. [Qian]. 1964. Cambrian trilobites. p. 2639. In Wang, Y. (ed.), A handbook of index fossils from South China. Science Press, Beijing. 173 p. (In Chinese)
Lu, Y. and Lin, H. 1989. The Cambrian trilobites of western Zhejiang. Palaeontologia Sinica, series B 25 (178): 1287.
Lu, Y., Zhang, W., Qian, Y., Zhu, Z., Lin, H., Zhou, Z., Qian, Y., Zhang, S., and Wu, H. 1974a. Cambrian trilobites. p. 82107. In Nanjing Institute of Geology and Paleontology (ed.). A Handbook of the Stratigraphy and Palaeontology of Southwest China. Science Press, Beijing. 379 p. (In Chinese)
Lu, Y., Zhang, W. [Chang, W. T.], Zhu, Z. [Chu, C. L.], Qian, Y. [Chien, Y. Y.], and Xiang, L. [Hsiang, L. W.]. 1965. Chinese fossils of all groups, Trilobita, 2 volumes. Science Press, Beijing, 766 p. (In Chinese)
Lu, Y. and Zhu, Z. 2001. Trilobites from the Middle Cambrian Hsuchuangian Stage of Zhangxia, Changqing County, Shandong Province. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica, 40:279293. (In Chinese with English abstract)
Lu, Y., Chu, Z. [Zhu], and Chien, Y. [Qian]. 1962. Cambrian trilobites p. 2535. In Wang, Y. (ed.), A handbook of Index fossils from the Yangtze Region. Science Press, Beijing, 188 p. (In Chinese)
Lu, Y., Chu, Z. [Zhu], and Chien, Y. [Qian]. 1963. Trilobites. Science Press, Beijing, 186 p. (In Chinese)
Lu, Y., Chu, Z. [Zhu], and Chien, Y. [Qian]., Lin, H., Zhou, Z., and Yuan, K. 1974b. Bio-environmental control hypothesis and its application to the Cambrian biostratigraphy and palaeozoogeography. Memoir of the Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, Academia Sinica, 5:27110. (In Chinese)
Lu, Y., Chu, Z. [Zhu], and Zhang, J. 1988. Trilobites of the Maochuang Formation and its age. Memoirs of the Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, Academia Sinica, 24:331353. (In Chinese with English abstract)
Ludvigsen, R. and Westrop, S. R. 1983. Trilobite biofacies of the Cambrian-Ordovician boundary interval in northern North America. Alcheringa, 7:301319.
Luo, H. 1974. Cambrian trilobites, p. 597694. In Palaeontological Atlas of Yunnan Province. Kunming, vol. 1, text, 864; vol. 2, plates. (In Chinese)
Luo, H., Jiang, Z., and Tang, L. 1994. Stratotype section for Lower Cambrian stages in China. Yunnan Science and Technology Press: Kunming. 183 p. (In Chinese)
Mansuy, H. 1916. Faunes Cambriennes de l'Extrême-Orient méridional. Mémoires du Service Géologique de L'Indochine, 5 (1):144.
Matthew, G. F. 1887. Illustrations of the fauna of the St. John Group. 4. Part 1. Description of a new species of Paradoxides (Paradoxides regina). Part 2. The smaller trilobites with eyes (Ptychopariidae and Ellipsocephalidae). Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada 5(4):115166.
Matthew, G. F. 1899. Studies on Cambrian faunas No. 3. Upper Cambrian fauna of Mount Stephen. Transactions, Royal Society of Canada, 2nd series, 5(4):3966.
Matthew, G. F. 1892. Protolenus - a new genus of Cambrian trilobites. Bulletin of the Natural History Society of New Brunswick, 10:3437.
Moore, R. C. (ed.) 1959. Treatise on invertebrate paleontology, pt. O, Arthropoda 1. Geological Society of America and University of Kansas Press, Lawrence, 560 p.
Myrow, P. M., Snell, K. E., Hughes, N. C., Paulsen, T. S., Heim, N. A., and Parcha, S. K. 2006a. Cambrian stratigraphy and depositional history of the northern Indian Himalaya, Spiti Valley, north-central India. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 118:491510.
Myrow, P. M., Thompson, K. R., Hughes, N. C., Paulsen, T. S., Sell, B. K., and Parcha, S. K. 2006b. Cambrian depositional history of the Zanskar Valley region of Indian Himalaya: Tectonic implications. Journal of Sedimentary Research, 76:364381.
Myrow, P. M., Hughes, N. C., Searle, M. P., Fanning, C. M., Peng, S.-C., and Parcha, S. K. 2009. Stratigraphic correlation of Cambrian-Ordovician deposits along the Himalaya: implications for the age and nature of rocks in the Mt. Everest region. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 120:323332.
Nan, R. 1976. p. 333352. In Palaeontological Atlas of North China, Part 1, Inner Mongolia. Geological Publishing House, Beiging, 502 p. (In Chinese)
Nan, R. 1980. Trilobita. Pp. 484519. In Shenyang Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources (ed.), Palaeontological Atlas of Northeast China, 1. Geological Publishing House, Beijing, 731 p. (In Chinese)
Nan, R. and Chang, S. 1982a. Lower Cambrian trilobites from Shiqiao Formation, southern Liaoning. Bulletin of the Shenyang Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources, 4:715. (In Chinese with English abstract)
Nan, R. and Chang, S. 1982b. New trilobites from Middle Cambrian Dangshi Formation in southern Liaodong Peninsula. Bulletin of the Shenyang Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources, 4:2937. (In Chinese with English abstract)
Nazarov, B. B. 1973. Trilobites of the Mayian Stage in the southeastern Siberian Platform. Paleontologicheskiy Zhurnal, volume for 1973, p. 6373 (also English translation in Paleontological Journal, 7:57–65)
Öpik, A. A. 1961. The geology and palaeontology of the headwaters of the Burke River, Queensland. Bureau of Mineral Resources Geology and Geophysics Australia Bulletin, 53:1249.
Öpik, A. A. 1967. The Mindyallan fauna of northwestern Queensland. Bureau of Mineral Resources Geology and Geophysics Bulletin, 74:1404.
Öpik, A. A. 1975. The Cymbric Vale fauna of New South Wales and Early Cambrian biostratigraphy. Bureau of Mineral Resources Geology and Geophysics Australia Bulletin, 159:178.
Öpik, A. A. 1979. Middle Cambrian agnostids: Systematics and biostratigraphy. Bureau of Mineral Resources Geology and Geophysics Australia Bulletin, 172:1188.
Palmer, A. R. 1954. An appraisal of the Great Basin Middle Cambrian trilobites described before 1900. United States Geological Survey Professional Paper, 264-D:5586.
Palmer, A. R. 1999. Fieldtrip summary, p. 24. In Palmer, A. R. (ed.), Laurentia 99. Fifth Field Conference of the Cambrian Stage subdivision Working Group. Subcommission on Cambrian Stratigraphy. Utah, Nevada, California U.S.A. 12–22 September 1999. Institute for Cambrian Studies, Boulder.
Palmer, A. R. and Gatehouse, C. G. 1972. Early and Middle Cambrian trilobites from Antarctica. United States Geological Survey Professional Paper 456D:137.
Palmer, A. R. and Halley, R. B., 1979. Physical stratigraphy and trilobite biostratigraphy of the Carrara Formation (Lower and Middle Cambrian) in the southern Greenland. United States Geological Survey Professional Paper, 1047, 131 p.
Palmer, A. R. and Rowell, A. J. 1995. Early Cambrian trilobites from the Shackleton Limestone of the central Transantarctic Mountains. Paleontological Society Memoirs. 45:128.
Parcha, S. K. 1996. Cambrian sequences in the Tethyan zone of Spiti Himalaya and its boundary problems. Newsletters on Stratigraphy, 34:311.
Parcha, S. K. 1998. Biostratigraphy of the Middle Cambrian sequences of Spiti Himalaya and its correlation with analogous sequences in Kashmir Himalaya. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie Abhandlungen 209:231246.
Parcha, S. K. 2005a. Biostratigraphic studies and correlation of the middle Cambrian successions of northwestern Kashmir Himalaya. Journal of the Geological Society of India, 65:183196.
Parcha, S. K. 2005b. Corrigendum. Journal of the Geological Society of India, 65:667.
Parcha, S. K. 2006. Discussion of “Biostratigraphic studies and correlations of the Middle Cambrian of northwestern Kashmir Himalaya” by S. K. Parcha. Journal of the Geological Society of India 65:183–196. Journal of the Geological Society of India, 65:540542.
Parcha, S. K. 2008. Himalayan trilobite fauna: present studies with respect to the Cambrian biostratigraphy, p. 297303. In Rábano, I., Gozalo, R., and Garcia-Bellido, D. (eds.), Advances in Trilobite Research. Cuadernos del Museo Geominero, No. 9. Instituto Geológico y Minero de España, Madrid.
Parcha, S. K, Singh, B. P., and Singh, B. P. 2005. Palaeoecological significance of ichnofossils from the Early Cambrian succession of the Spiti Valley, Tethys Himalaya, India. Current Science, 88:158162.
Pegel, T. V. 2000. Evolution of trilobite biofacies in Cambrian basins of the Siberian Platform. Journal of Paleontology, 74:10001019.
Pegel, T. V. and Gogin, I. Y. 1995. Upper Cambrian trilobites of southern Verkhoyanye. Paleontological Zhurnal, 4:6774. (In Russian)
Peng, S. 1987. Early Late Cambrian stratigraphy and trilobite fauna of Taoyuan and Cili, Hunan, p. 53134. In Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, Academia Sinica (ed.), Collection of postgraduate theses of Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, Academia Sinica, 1. Jiangsu Science and Technology Publishing House, Nanjing, 411 p. (In Chinese with English abstract)
Peng, S. 1992. Upper Cambrian biostratigraphy and trilobite faunas of the Cili-Taoyuan area, north-western Hunan, China. Association of Australasian Palaeontologists Memoir, 13:1119.
Peng, S. 2008. Cambrian (late Taijiangian-Taoyuanian) slope-facies nonagnostoids, p. 162207. In Zhou, Z. and Zhen, Y. (eds.), Trilobite Record of China. Science Press, Beijing.
Peng, S. and Babcock, L. E. 2005. Newly proposed global chronostratigraphic subdivision of the Cambrian System. Journal of Stratigraphy, 29: 92, 93, 96. (In Chinese with English title)
Peng, S. and Babcock, L. E. 2008. Cambrian Period, p. 3746. In Ogg, J. G., Ogg, G., and Gradstein, F. M. (eds). Concise Geological Timescale. Cambridge University Press, New York, USA.
Peng, S., Babcock, L. E., and Lin, H. 2001a. Illustrations of polymeroid trilobites from the Huaqiao Formation (Middle-Upper Cambrian), Paibi and Wangcun sections, northwestern Hunan, China, p. 99104. In Peng, S.-C., Babcock, L. E. and Zhu, M.-Y. (eds.): Cambrian System of South China. Press of University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 310 p.
Peng, S., Babcock, L. E., and Lin, H. 2004a. Polymerid trilobites from the Cambrian of northwestern Hunan, China; Volume 1, Corynexochida, Lichida, and Asaphida, Science Press, Beijing, 333 p.
Peng, S., Babcock, L. E., and Lin, H. 2004b. Polymerid trilobites from the Cambrian of northwestern Hunan, China; Volume 2, Ptychopariida, Eodiscida, and undetermined forms. Science Press, Beijing, 355 p.
Peng, S., Babcock, L. E., Lin, H., Chen, Y., and Zhu, X. 2001b. Cambrian stratigraphy at Wangcun, Hunan Province, China: stratotypes for bases of the Wangcunian and Youshuian stages, p.151161. In Peng, S.-C., Babcock, L. E., and Zhu, M.-Y. (eds.): Cambrian System of South China. Press of University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 310 p.
Peng, S., Babcock, L. E., Zuo, J., Lin, H., Chen, Y., Zhu, X., Yang, X., and Li, Q. 2005. Cambrian-Ordovician stratigraphy at Luoyixi and Wangcun, Hunan Province, China: stratotypes for bases of the Wangcunian and Youshuian stages, and candidate stratotype for the base of an unnamed global stage defined by the FAD of Lejopyge laevigata , p. 117135. In Peng, S.-C., Babcock, L. E. and Zhu, M.-Y. (eds.): Cambrian System of China and Korea. Press of University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 300 p.
Peng, S., Babcock, L. E., Zuo, J., Lin, H., Zhu, X., Yang, X., Robison, R. A., Qi, Y., Bangoli, G., and Chen, Y. 2009. The global boundary stratotype section and point (GSSP) of the Guzhangian Stage (Cambrian) in the Wuling Mountains, northwestern Hunan, China. Episodes, 32:114.
Peng, S., Geyer, G., and Hamdi, B. 1999. Trilobites from the Shahmirzad section, Alburz Mountains, Iran: their taxonomy biostratigraphy, and bearing for international correlation. Beringeria, 25:365.
Peng, S., Lin, H., and Chen, Y. 1995. New polymeroid trilobites from Middle Cambrian Huaqiao Formation of western Hunan. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica, 34:277300.
Peng, S., Lin, T., van Iten, H., and Zhu, M. 2001c. Primitive ptychoparioids from southern Anhui Province, south China. Acata Palaeontologica Sinica, 40 (supplement):236242.
Peng, S., and Robison, R. A. 2000. Agnostoid biostratigraphy across the Middle-Upper Cambrian Boundary in China. Paleontological Society Memoir 53, Journal of Paleontology, 74(4):supplement, 104 p.
Peng, S., Yang, X., and Hughes, N. C. 2008. The oldest stalk-eyed trilobite, Parablackwelderia Kobayashi, 1942 (Damesellinae, Cambrian), and its occurrence in Shandong, China. Journal of Paleontology, 82:842850.
Peng, S., Zhu, X., Babcock, L. E., and Wang, H. 2004c. Potential global stratotype sections and points in China for defining Cambrian series and stages. Geobios, 37:253258.
Pokrovskaya, N. V. 1958. Agnostidy Srednego Kembriya Yakutii, Chast 1 [Agnostida from the Middle Cambrian of Yakutia, part 1]. Akademii Nauka SSSR, Trudy Geologicheskogo Instituta, 16:196. (In Russian)
Pokrovskaya, N. V. 1959. Trilobitovaia fauna i stratigrafiya Kembriyskikh otlozhenii Tuvy [Trilobite fauna and stratigraphy of Cambrian deposits from Tuva]. Akademii Nauka SSSR, Trudy Geologicheskogo Instituta, 27:1200. (In Russian)
Poulsen, C. 1927. The Cambrian, Ozarkian, and Canadian faunas of northwest Greenland. Meddelelser om Gr⊘nland, 70:233343.
Pratt, B. R. 1992. Trilobites of the Marjuman and Steptoean stages (Upper Cambrian), Rabbitkettle Formation, southern Mackenzie Mountains, northwest Canada. Palaeontographica Canadiana, 9:1179.
Qian, Y. 1961. Cambrian trilobites from Sandu and Duyun, southern Kweichow. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica 9:91129. (In Chinese with English summary)
Qiu, H. 1980. Lower Cambrian trilobites of the Mantdu Formation from Xuzhou-Suxian area, N. Jiangsu and Anhui. Bulletin of the Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, series 7, 1:3464. (In Chinese with English abstract)
Qiu, H., Lu, Y., Zhu, Z., Bi, D., Lin, T., Zhou, Z., Zhang, Q., Qian, Y., Ju, T., Han, N., and Wei, X. 1983. Trilobita, p. 28254. In Paleontological Atlas of East China. Part 1: Early Paleozoic. Nanjing Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources. Geological Publishing House, Beijing, 657 p. (In Chinese)
Rasetti, F. 1948. Lower Cambrian trilobites from the conglomerates of Quebec (exclusive of the Ptychopariidae). Journal of Paleontology, 22:124.
Rasetti, F. 1951. Middle Cambrian stratigraphy and faunas of the Canadian Rocky Mountains. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections 116(5):1277.
Raymond, P. E. 1913. On the genera of the Eodiscidae. Ottawa Naturalist 27:101106.
Reed, F. R. C. 1899. Woodwardian Museum notes: A new trilobite from Mount Stephen, Field, B.C. Geological Magazine New Series 4, 6:358361.
Reed, F. R. C. 1910. The Cambrian fossils of Spiti. Memoirs of the Geological Survey of India, Palaeontologia Indica 15th Series, 7:170.
Reed, F. R. C. 1934. Cambrian and Ordovician fossils from Kashmir. Memoirs of the Geological Survey of India, Palaeontologia Indica, New Series, 21:138.
Repina, L. N., and Romanenko, E. V. 1978. Trilobites and stratigraphy of the Lower Cambrian of the Altay. Institut Geologii i Geofiziki, Sibirskoe Otdelenie, Akademii Nauk Trudy v. 382, 304 p. (In Russian)
Resser, C. E. 1937. Third contribution to nomenclature of Cambrian trilobites. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, 95 (22): 129.
Resser, C. E. 1938a. Middle Cambrian fossils from Pend Oreille Lake, Idaho. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections 97(3):112.
Resser, C. E. 1938b. Cambrian System (restricted) of the Southern Appalachians. Geological Society of America Special Papers, 15:1140.
Resser, C. E. 1938c. Fourth contribution to nomenclature of Cambrian trilobites. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, 97(10):143.
Resser, C. E. 1939. The Ptarmigania strata of the northern Wasatch Mountains. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, 98(24):172.
Robison, R. A. 1964. Late Middle Cambrian faunas from western Utah. Journal of Paleontology, 38:510566.
Robison, R. A. 1971. Additional Middle Cambrian trilobites from the Wheeler Shale of Utah. Journal of Paleontology, 45:796804.
Robison, R. A. 1982. Some Middle Cambrian agnostoid trilobites from western North America. Journal of Paleontology, 56:132160.
Robison, R. A. 1984. Cambrian Agnostida of North America and Greenland, Pt. 1, Ptychagnostidae. University of Kansas Paleontological Contributions, Paper, 109, 59 p.
Robison, R. A. 1988. Trilobites of the Holm Dal Formation (late Middle Cambrian), central north Greenland. Meddelelser om Gr⊘nland, Geoscience, 20:23103.
Robison, R. A. 1994. Agnostoid trilobites from the Nelson Gletscher and Kap Stanton formations (Middle Cambrian) North Greenland. Gr⊘nlands Geologiske Unders⊘gelse, Bulletin 169:2577.
Robison, R. A. 1995. Revision of Middle Cambrian trilobite Agnostus acadiscus Hartt. Journal of Paleontology, 69:302307.
Romanenko, E. V. 1988. Novye trilobity iz fosfatonosnykh otlozhenii kembriya altaya [New trilobites from the Cambrian phosphatic deposits of the Altay]. Palaeontologicheskii Zhurnal, 1988(2):4353. (In Russian)
Rozova, A. V. 1960. Verkhnekembriyskie trilobity Salaira [Upper Cambrian trilobites of Salair]. Trudy Akademiya Nauk SSSR, Sibirskoe Otdelenie, Institut Geologii i Geofiziki, 5:1115. (In Russian)
Rozova, A. V. 1963. Biostratigraficheskaya skhema Verkhnego i verkhov Srednego Kembriya I novye Verkhnekembriskie trilobity [A biostratigraphic scheme for the Upper and upper Middle Cambrian and new Upper Cambrian trilobites]. Geologiya i Geofizika, 1963 (9):319. (In Russian)
Rozova, A. V. 1964. Biostratigrafiya i opisanie trilobitov srednego i verkhnego kembriya cevero-zapada Sibirskoy Platformy [Biostratigraphy and description of trilobites of the Middle and Upper Cambrian of the northwestern Siberian Platform]. Akademiya Nauk SSSR, Sibirskoe Otdelenie, Institut Geologii i Geofiziki sib, Moscow, 148 p. (In Russian)
Rozova, A. V. 1977. Nekotorye verkhnekembriiskie i nizhneordovikskie trilobity basseinov rek rybnoi, khantaiki, kureiki i letnei [Some Upper Cambrian and Lower Ordovician trilobites from the basin of the Rivers Rubnoi, Khantaiki, Kureiki and Letnei]. Akademiya Nauk SSSR, Sibirskoe Otdelenie, Institut Geologii i Geofiziki, Trudy 313:5484. (In Russian)
Rusconi, C. 1950a. Trilobitas y otros organismos del Cambrico de Canota. Revista del Museo de Historia Natural de Mendoza, 4:7184.
Rusconi, C. 1950b. Nuevos trilobitas y otros organismos del Cambrico de Canota. Revista del Museo de Historia Natural de Mendoza, 4:8594.
Rusconi, C. 1951. Mas trilobitas Cambricos de San Isidro Cerro Pelado y Canota. Revista del Museo de Historia Natural de Mendoza, 5:330.
Rusconi, C. 1952. Fosiles Cambricos del Cerro Aspero, Mendoza. Revista del Museo de Historia Natural de Mendoza, 6:63122.
Rushton, A. W. A. 1978. Fossils from the middle-upper Cambrian transition in the Nuneaton district. Palaeontology, 21:245283.
Rushton, A. W. A. and Hughes, N. C. 1996. Biometry, systematics and biogeography of the late Cambrian trilobite Maladioidella abdita . Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh: Earth Sciences, 86:247256.
Rushton, A. W. A. and Powell, J. H. 1998. A review of the stratigraphy and trilobite faunas from Cambrian Buji Formation in Jordan. Bulletin of the Natural History Museum London (Geology), 54:131146.
Saito, K. 1934. Older Cambrian Trilobita and Conchostraca from northwestern Korea. Japanese Journal of Geology and Geography, 11:211237.
Salter, J. W. 1864. A monograph of British trilobites. Part 1. Palaeontographical Society, London, Monograph, volume for 1862:180.
Schrank, E. von. 1976. Kambrische Trilobiten der China-Kollektion v. Richthofen. Teil 3. Mittelkambrische Faunen von Taling. Zeitschrifte geologischen Wissenschaften (Berlin), 4:891919.
Schrank, E. von. 1977. Kambrische Trilobiten der China-Kollektion v. Richthofen. Teil 4. Und letzter teil: Mittelkambrische Faunen von Wulopu. Zeitschrifte geologischen Wissenschaften (Berlin), 5:141165.
Shah, S. K. 1993, Cambrian biofacies and faunal provinces of Himalaya. Journal of the Palaeontological Society of India, 38, 3742.
Shah, S. K., Kumar, A., and Sudan, C. S. 1996. Agnostid trilobites from the Cambrian sequence of Zanskar and their stratigraphic significance. Current Science, 71:951954.
Shah, S. K., Parcha, S. K., and Raina, A. K. 1991. Late Cambrian trilobites from Himalaya. Journal of the Geological Society of India, 36:89107.
Shah, S. K., Parcha, S. K., and Raina, A. K. 1995. Additional agnostid trilobites from the Middle Cambrian of Kashmir. Journal of the Geological Society of India, 45:217227.
Shah, S. K. and Paul, S. 1987. Oryctocephalid fauna from the Cambrian of Spiti. Journal of the Geological Society of India, 30:187193.
Shah, S. K. and Raina, A. K. 1990. Middle-Late Cambrian transition in Kashmir and Spiti Himalaya. Memoirs of the Geological Society of India, 16:4150.
Shah, S. K. and Sudan, C. S. 1983. The first report of fossil Damesella from the Cambrian of India and its stratigraphic significance. Jammu University Review, 1:8384.
Shah, S. K. and Sudan, C. S. 1987a. Agnostid fauna from the Middle Cambrian of Kashmir. Journal of the Geological Society of India, 30:4860.
Shah, S. K. and Sudan, C. S. 1987b. Damesellidae from the Cambrian of Kashmir. Journal of the Geological Society of India, 29:503509.
Shah, S. K., Sudan, C. S., Parcha, S. K., and Raina, A. K. 1988. Revision of the genus Hundwarella Reed and its significance in Himalayan Cambrian. Journal of the Palaeontological Society of India, 33:4758.
Shergold, J. H. 1969. Oryctocephalidae (Trilobita: Middle Cambrian) of Australia. Bureau of Mineral Resources Geology and Geophysics Australia Bulletin, 104:166.
Shergold, J. H. 1988. Review of trilobite biofacies distributions at the Cambrian-Ordovician boundary. Geological Magazine, 125:363380.
Shergold, J. H. 1996. Cambrian, p. 6376. In Young, G. C. and Laurie, J. R. (eds.), An Australian Phanerozoic Timescale. Oxford University Press, Melbourne.
Shergold, J. H. and Cooper, R. A., 2004. The Cambrian Period, p. 47164. In Gradstein, F. M., Ogg, J. G. and Smith, A. (eds), A Geological Time Scale, 2004. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 589 p.
Shergold, J. H., Jago, J. B., Cooper, R. A., and Laurie, J. R. 1985. The Cambrian System in Australia, Antarctica, and New Zealand. International Union of Geological Sciences, Publication 19, 85 p.
Shergold, J. H. and Laurie, J. R. 1997. Introduction to the Suborder Agnostina, p. 331383. In Kaesler, R. L. (ed.) Treatise on invertebrate paleontology, Part O, Arthropoda 1. Trilobita, Revised. Volume 1: Introduction, Order Agnostida, Order Redlichiida. (Geological Society of America and University of Kansas: Boulder, Colorado and Lawrence, Kansas), 530 p.
Shergold, J. H., Laurie, J. R., and Sun, X. 1990. Classification and review of the trilobite order Agnostida Salter, 1864: an Australian perspective. Bureau of Mineral Resources Geology and Geophysics Australia Report, 296:193.
Shimer, H. W. and Shrock, R. R., 1944. Index Fossils of North America. Technology Press, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Cambridge, 837 p.
Sloan, T. R. and Laurie, J. R. 2004. Middle Cambrian trilobites from allochthonous block in the Murrawong Creek Formation. Association of Australasian Palaeontologists, Memoir, 30:1932006.
Sun, Z. 1989. Cambrian agnostids from the North China platform. Palaeontologica Cathayana, 4:53129.
Sun, Z. 1982. Late Lower Cambrian trilobites from southern Dahongshan region, Hubei. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica, 21:302308. (In Chinese with English abstract)
Sun, X. 1984. Trilobita, p. 328427. In Regional Surveying Team of Hubei (ed.), The Palaeontological Atlas of Hubei Province. Hubei Science and Technology Press, Wuhan, 811 p. (In Chinese)
Sundberg, F. A. 1994. Corynexochida and Ptychopariida (Trilobita, Arthropoda) of the Ehmaniella Biozone (Middle Cambrian), Utah and Nevada. Contributions in Science from the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, 446:1137.
Sundberg, F. A. 1999. Redescription of Alokistocare subcoronatum (Hall and Whitfield, 1877), the type species of Alokistocare, and the status of Alokistocaridae Resser, 1939b (Ptychopariida: Trilobita, Middle Cambrian). Journal of Paleontology, 73:11261143.
Sundberg, F. A. and McCollum, L. B. 1997. Oryctocephalids (Corynexochida: Trilobita) of the Lower-Middle Cambrian boundary interval from California and Nevada. Journal of Paleontology, 71:10651090.
Sundberg, F. A. and McCollum, L. B. 2003. Early and mid Cambrian trilobites from outer-shelf deposits of Nevada and California, USA. Palaeontology, 46:945986.
Suvorova, N. P. 1964. Corynexochid trilobites and their historical development. Trudy Paleontologicheskogo Instituta Akademiya Nauk SSSR, 103, 319 p. (In Russian)
Swinnerton, H. H. 1915. Suggestions for a revised classification of trilobites. Geological Magazine (New Series), 6(2):487496, 538–545.
Torsvik, T. H. and Cocks, L. R. M. In press. The Lower Palaeozoic palaeogeographical evolution of the northeastern and eastern peri-Gondwanan margin from Turkey to New Zealand. Special Publications of the Geological Society, London.
Turner, F. E. 1940. Alsataspis bakeri, a new lower Ordovician trilobite. Journal of Paleontology, 14:516518.
Veevers, J. J., Belousova, E. A., Saeed, A., Sircombe, K., Cooper, A. F., and Read, S. E. 2006. Pan-Gondwanaland detrital zircons from Australia analysed for Hf-isotopes and trace elements reflect an ice-covered Antarctic provenance of 700-500 Ma age, TDM of 2.0-1.0 Ga, and alkaline affinity. Earth-Science Reviews, 76:135174.
Walch, J. E. I. 1771. Die Naturgeschichte der Versteinerungen Dritter Theil. Paul Jonathan Felstecher, Nuremberg, 235 p.
Walcott, C. D. 1886. Second contribution to the studies on the Cambrian fauna of North America. Bulletin of the United States Geological Survey 30:1369.
Walcott, C. D. 1905. Cambrian faunas of China. Proceedings of the United States National Museum, 29 (1415):1106.
Walcott, C. D. 1906. Cambrian faunas of China. Proceedings of the United States National Museum, 30 (1458):563595.
Walcott, C. D. 1911. Cambrian faunas of China. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, 57 (4):69109.
Walcott, C. D. 1913. The Cambrian faunas of China. In Research in China, vol. 3. Carnegie Institution Publication, 54:3276.
Walcott, C. D. 1916. Cambrian trilobites. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, 64:303457.
Walcott, C. D, and Resser, C. E. 1924. Trilobites from the Ozarkian sandstones of the island of Novaya Zemlya. Reports of the Scientific Results of the Norwegian Expedition to Novaya Zemlya, 24:114.
Webster, M. 2007. A Cambrian peak in morphological variation within trilobite species. Science, 317:499502.
Westergård, A. H. 1936. Paradoxides oelandicus beds of Oland: with the account of a diamond boring through the Cambrian at Mossberga. Sveriges Geologiska Undersökning, Series C, 394 (Årsbok 30, no. 1):166.
Westergård, A. H. 1946. Agnostidea of the Middle Cambrian of Sweden. Sveriges Geologiska Undersökning, Avhandlingar och uppsatser, Series C, 477 (Årsbok 40, no. 1):1140.
Westergård, A. H. 1949. Opsidiscus, new name replacing Aulacodiscus Westergård, 1946. Geologiska Föreningens i Stockholm Förhandlingar, 71:600.
Westrop, S. R., Ludvigsen, R., and Kindle, C. H. 1996. Marjuman (Cambrian) agnostoid trilobites of the Cow Head Group, western Newfoundland. Journal of Paleontology, 70:804829.
Whitehouse, F. W. 1936. The Cambrian faunas of northeastern Australia. Parts 1 and 2. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum, 11:59112.
Whitehouse, F. W. 1939, The Cambrian faunas of northeastern Australia. Part 3: The polymerid trilobites (with Supplement no. 1). Memoirs of the Queensland Museum, 11:179282.
Whittington, H. B. 1986. Late Middle Cambrian trilobites from Zanskar, Ladakh, northern India. Rivista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia, 92, 171188.
Whittington, H. B. 1995. Oryctocephalid trilobites from the Cambrian of North America. Palaeontology, 38:543562.
Whittington, H. B and Kelly, S. R. A. 1997. Morphological terms applied to Trilobita, p. 313329. In Whittington, H. B. (ed.), Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, part O, Arthropoda 1. Trilobita, revised. Geological Society of America and University of Kansas, Boulder and Lawrence.
Wittke, H. W. 1984. Middle and Upper Cambrian trilobites from Iran: their taxonomy, stratigraphy and significance for provincialism. Palaeontographica, 183A:91161.
Wolfart, R. 1974. Die Fauna (Brachiopoda, Mollusca, Trilobita) das alteren Ober-Kambriums (Ober-Kushanian) von Dorah Shah Dad, Südost-Iran, und Surkh Bum, Zentral-Afghanistan. Geologisches Jahrbuch, 8:71184.
Yang, J. 1978. Middle and Upper Cambrian trilobites of western Hunan and eastern Guizhou. Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, Professional Papers of Stratigraphy and Palaeontology, 4:183. (In Chinese)
Yang, J. 1982. Notes on the Middle Cambrian fauna from Duibian of Jiangshan, Zhejiang. Geological Review, 28:299307. (In Chinese with English abstract)
Yang, J., Yu, S., Liu, G., Su, N., He, M., Shang, J., Zhang, H., Zhu, H., Li, Y., and Guo, G. 1991. Cambrian stratigraphy, lithofacies, paleogeography and trilobite faunas of East Qinling-Dabashan Mountains, China. Press of China University of Geosciences, Wuhan, 246 p. (Chinese Edition).
Yang, J., Yu, S., Liu, G., Su, N., He, M., Shang, J., Zhang, H., Zhu, H., Li, Y., and Guo, G. 1993. Cambrian stratigraphy, lithofacies, paleogeography and trilobite faunas of East Qinling-Dabashan Mountains, China. Press of China University of Geosciences, Wuhan, 231 p. (English Edition).
Yin, G. and Li, S. 1978. Trilobita, p. 440445. In Paleontological Atlas of Southwest China. Guizhou volume. (2) Carboniferous - Permian. Geological Publishing House, Beijing, 843 p. (In Chinese)
Yuan, J. and Yin, G. 1998. New polymerid trilobites from the Chefu Formation in early Late Cambrian of eastern Guizhou. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica, 37:137172.
Yuan, J. and Li, Y. 1999. Lower-Middle Cambrian boundary and trilobite fauna at Laoyingshan, Huainan, Anhui. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica, 38:407422. (In Chinese with English abstract)
Yuan, J. and Li, Y. 2008. Non-agnostoids of Changhian (late Mid Cambrian), p. 108135. In Zhou, Z. and Zhen, Y. (eds.), Trilobite Record of China. Science Press, Beijing.
Yuan, J., Li, Y., and Zhao, Y. 2008. Non-agnostoids of the early Mid Cambrian (Maochuangian and Hsuchuangian), p. 77107. In Zhou, Z. and Zhen, Y. (eds.), Trilobite Record of China. Science Press, Beijing.
Yuan, J. and Zhao, Y. 1994. On Kaotaia . Acta Palaeontologica Sinica, 33:281294. (In Chinese with English summary)
Yuan, J., Zhao, Y., and Guo, Q. 1999. On the Kaili Formation. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica, 38 (supplement): 1527. (In Chinese with English summary)
Yuan, J., Zhao, Y., and Li, Y. 2001. Biostratigraphy of oryctocephalid trilobites. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica, 40 (supplement): 143156.
Yuan, J., Zhao, Y., Li, Y., and Huang, Y. 2002. Trilobite fauna of the Kaili Formation (uppermost Lower Cambrian-lower Middle Cambrian) from southeastern Guizhou, South China. Shanghai Science and Technology Publishing House, Shanghai, 423 p. (In Chinese with English summary)
Yuan, J., Zhao, Y., Wang, Z., Zhou, Z., and Chen, X. 1997. A preliminary study on Lower-Middle Cambrian boundary and trilobite fauna at Balang, Taijiang, Guizhou, South China. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica, 34:494524. (In Chinese with English summary)
Zan, S. 1992. Middle Cambrian Hsuchuangian trilobite fauna of eastern Liaoning, China. Journal of Changchun University of Earth Science, 23: 250259. (In Chinese with English abstract)
Zhang, J., and Wang, S. 1985. Trilobita. p. 327488, pl. 103–147. In Tianjin Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources (ed.), Palaeontological Atlas of North China 1: Paleozoic Volume. Geological Publishing House, Beijing, 638 p. (In Chinese)
Zhang, T. 1981. Trilobita. p. 134213. In Palaeontological Atlas of Northwest China, Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Regions. Volume 1. Early Palaeozoic. Geological Publishing House, Beijing. 332 p. (In Chinese)
Zhang, W. 1957. Preliminary note on the Lower and Middle Cambrian stratigraphy of Poshan, Central Shantung. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica, 5:1332. (In Chinese with English abstract)
Zhang, W. 1959. New trilobites from the Middle Cambrian of north China. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica, 7:193236. (In Chinese and English)
Zhang, W. 1963. A classification of the Lower and Middle Cambrian trilobites from northern and northeastern China, with descriptions of new families and new genera. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica, 11:447487. (In Chinese with English summary)
Zhang, W. 1964. The boundary between the Lower and Middle Cambrian with descriptions of some trilobites. Nanjing Institute of Geology and Paleontology, Academia Sinica, Nanjing, 38 p. (In Chinese)
Zhang, W. 1998. Cambrian biogeography of the Perigondwana faunal realm, p. 3549. In Gámez Vintaned, J. A., Palacios, T., Liñán, E., Gozalo, R., and Martinez Chacon, M. L. (eds.), II Field Conference of the Cambrian Stage Subdivision Working Group (Spain, 13–21 September 1996), Revista Española de Paleontologia, Extra. Homenaje al Prof. Gonzalo Vidal.
Zhang, W, Lin, H., Wu, H., and Yuan, J. 1980b. Cambrian stratigraphy and trilobite fauna from the Zhongtiao Mountains, southern Shanxi. Memoirs of the Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, 16: 39110. (In Chinese with English abstract)
Zhang, W, and Jell, P. A. 1987. Cambrian trilobites of North China. Science Press, Beijing, 459 p.
Zhang, W, Lu, Y., Zhu, Z., Qian, Y., Lin, H., Zhou, Z., Zhang, S., and Yuan, J. 1980a. Cambrian trilobite faunas of southwestern China. Palaeontologia Sinica, new series, B, 16, 159:497 p. (In Chinese with English summary)
Zhang, W, Yuan, K., Zhou, Z., Qian, Y., and Wang, Z. 1979. Cambrian of Southwest China, p. 39107. In Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology (ed.), Biostratigraphy of carbonates of Southwest China. Science Press, Beijing, 336 p. (In Chinese)
Zhang, W, Xiang, L., Liu, Y., and Mong, X. 1995. Cambrian stratigraphy and trilobites from Henan. Palaeontologia Cathayana, 6:1166.
Zhao, Y., Yuan, J., Peng, S., Guo, Q., Zhu, L., Peng, J., and Wang, P. 2004. Proposal and prospects for the Lower-Middle Cambrian boundary. Progress in Natural Science, 14(2):16.
Zhou, T., Liu, Y., Mong, X., and Sun, Z. 1977. Trilobites, p. 104266. In Atlas of the palaeontology of south central China, volume 1, Early Palaeozoic. Geological Publishing House, Beijing. 470 p. (In Chinese)
Zhou, Z., Li, J., and Qu, X. 1982. Trilobita, p. 215294. In Paleontological Atlas of northwest China, Shanxi-Gansu-Ningxia Volume. Part 1: Precambrian and Early Paleozoic. Geological Publishing House, Beijing, 480 p. (In Chinese)
Zhu, N. 1992. Class Trilobita, p. 334369. In Jilin Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources (ed.), Palaeontological Atlas of Jilin, China. Jilin Science and Technology Publishing House, Changcun, 726 p. (In Chinese)
Zhu, Z. 1959. Trilobites from the Kushan Formation of north and northeastern China. Memoirs of the Institute of Palaeontology Academia Sinica, 2: 1128. (In Chinese)
Zhu, Z. 2008. Platform-facies non-agnostoids of Late Cambrian (Kushanian, Changshanian, and Fengshanian), p. 136161. In Zhou, Z. and Zhen, Y. (eds.), Trilobite Record of China. Science Press, Beijing.
Zhu, Z., Lin, H., and Zhang, S. 1988. Cambrian biostratigraphy of the lower Yangtze platform in Jiangsu, p. 3580. In Academy of Geological Sciences, Jiangsu Bureau of Petroleum Prospecting and Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, Academia Sinica (eds.), Sinian-Triassic biostratigraphy of the lower Yangtze platform in Jiangsu. Nanjing University Press, Nanjing, 368 p. (In Chinese)