Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-78dcdb465f-mrc2z Total loading time: 0.311 Render date: 2021-04-14T23:05:32.629Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": false, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true }

Rare primitive deuterostomes from the Cambrian (Series 3) of Utah

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  23 November 2015

Simon Conway Morris
Affiliation:
Department of Earth Sciences, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB2 3EQ, England <sc113@cam.ac.uk>
Susan L. Halgedahl
Affiliation:
Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112-0111, USA <s.halgedahl@utah.edu>; <r.jarrard@utah.edu>
Paul Selden
Affiliation:
Department of Geology, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045-7594, USA <selden@ku.edu>
Richard D. Jarrard
Affiliation:
Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112-0111, USA <s.halgedahl@utah.edu>; <r.jarrard@utah.edu>

Abstract

The fossil record of early deuterostome history largely depends on soft-bodied material that is generally rare and often of controversial status. Banffiids and vetulicystids exemplify these problems. From the Cambrian (Series 3) of Utah, we describe specimens of Banffia episoma n. sp. (from the Spence Shale) and Thylacocercus ignota n. gen. n. sp. (from the Wheeler Formation). The new species of Banffia Walcott, 1911 shows significant differences to the type species (B. constricta Walcott, 1911) from the Cambrian (Series 3, Stage 5) Burgess Shale, notably in possessing a prominent posterior unit but diminished anterior section. Not only does this point to a greater diversity of form among the banffiids, but also B. episoma indicates that the diagnostic median constriction and crossover of either side of the body are unlikely to be the result of taphonomic twisting but are original features. Comparisons extend also to the Cambrian (Series 2) Heteromorphus Luo and Hu in Luo et al., 1999 and, collectively, these observations support an assignment of the banffiids to the vetulicolians. The new taxon T. ignota represents the first discovery of a vetulicystid from beyond China and also significantly extends its stratigraphic range from Series 2 Cambrian into Series 3 Cambrian. Despite overall similarities in bodyplan, T. ignota differs from other vetulicystids in a number of respects, notably the possession of an anterior zone with broad tentacle-like structures. This new discovery is consistent with the vetulicystids representing stem-group ambulacrarians.

Type
Articles
Copyright
Copyright © 2015, The Paleontological Society 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below.

References

Aldridge, R.J., Hou, X-G., Siveter, D.J., and Gabbott, S.E., 2007, The systematics and phylogenetic relationships of vetulicolians: Palaeontology, v. 50, p. 131168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Briggs, D.E.G., Lieberman, B.S., Halgedahl, S.L., and Jarrard, R.D., 2005, A new metazoan from the Middle Cambrian of Utah and the nature of the Vetulicolia: Palaeontology, v. 48, p. 681686.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Briggs, D.E.G., Lieberman, B.S., Hendricks, J.R., Halgedahl, S.L., and Jarrard, R.D., 2008, Middle Cambrian arthropods from Utah: Journal of Paleontontogy, v. 82, p. 238254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Butterfield, N.J., 2005, Vetulicola cuneata from the Lower Cambrian Mural Formation, Jasper National Park, Canada: Palaeontological Society Newsletter, v. 60, p. 17.Google Scholar
Caron, J.-B., 2006, (for 2005), Banffia constricta, a putative vetulicolid from the Middle Cambrian Burgess Shale: Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh: Earth Sciences, v. 96, p. 95111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Caron, J.-B., Conway Morris, S., and Cameron, C.B., 2013, Tubicolous enteropneusts from the Cambrian period: Nature, v. 495, p. 503506.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chen, J.-Y., 2004, The Dawn of the Animal World: Nanjing, Jiangsu Science and Technical Press, xii + 366 p. [In Chinese].Google Scholar
Chen, J.-Y., Zhou, G.-Q., Zhu, M.-Y., and Yeh, K.Y., 1996. The Chengjiang Biota: A Unique Window of the Cambrian Explosion: Taiwan, National Museum of Natural Science, xi + 222 p. [In Chinese].Google Scholar
Chen, J.-Y., and Zhou, G.-Q., 1997, Biology of the Chengjiang fauna: Bulletin of the National Museum of Natural Science (Taiwan), v. 10, p. 11105.Google Scholar
Chen, L.-Z., Luo, H.-L., Hu, S.-X., Yin, J.-Y., Jiang, Z.-W., Wu, Z.-L., Li, F., and Chen, A.-L., 2002, Early Cambrian Chengjiang fauna in eastern Yunnan, China: Kunming, Yunnan Science and Technology Press, 199 p. [In Chinese].Google Scholar
Conway Morris, S., and Caron, J.B., 2014, A primitive fish from the Cambrian of North America: Nature, v. 512, p. 419422.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
García-Bellido, D.C., Lee, M.Y.S., Edgecombe, G.D., Jago, J.B., Gehling, J.G., and Paterson, J.R., 2014, A new vetulicolian from Australia and its bearing on the chordate affinities of an enigmatic Cambrian group: BMC Evolutionary Biology, v. 14, p. e214.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Guo, J.-F., Li, Y., Han, H.-P., Ou, Q., Zhou, J.-R., and Zheng, Y.-J., 2012, New macroscopic problematic fossil from Early Cambrian Yanjiaho biota, Yichang, Hubei, China: Acta Geologica Sinica (English Edition), v. 86, p. 791798.Google Scholar
Halgedahl, S.H., Jarrard, R.D., Brett, C.E., and Allison, P.E., 2009, Geophysical and geological signatures of relative sea level change in the upper Wheeler Formation, Drum Mountains, West-Central Utah: a perspective into exceptional preservation of fossils: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, v. 277, p. 3456.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hou, X.-G., 1987, Early Cambrian large bivalve arthropods from Chengiang, eastern Yunnan: Acta Palaeontologica Sinica, v. 26, p. 286297.Google Scholar
Hou, X.-G., Aldridge, R.J., Bergström, J., Siveter, D.J., Siveter, D.J., and Feng, X.-H., 2004, The Cambrian Fossils of Chengjiang, China: The Flowering of Early Animal Life: Oxford, Blackwell, xii+233 p.Google Scholar
Hou, X.-G., Bergström, J., Wang, H.-F., Feng, X.-H., and Chen, A.-L., 1999, The Chengjiang Fauna: Exceptionally Well-Preserved Animals from 530 Million Years Ago: Kunming, Yunnan Science and Technology Press, 170 p. [In Chinese].Google Scholar
Luo, H.-L., Hu, S.-X., and Chen, L-Z., 1999, Early Cambrian Chengjiang Fauna from Kunming Region, China: Kunming, Yunnan Science and Technology Press, 129 p. [in Chinese, with English summary].Google Scholar
Mángano, M.G., Bromley, R.G., Harper, D.A.T., Nielsen, A.T., Smith, M.P., and Vinther, J., 2012, Nonbiomineralized carapaces in Cambrian seafloor landscapes (Sirius Passet, Greenland): opening a new window into early Phanerozoic benthic ecology: Geology, v. 40, p. 519522.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Metschnikoff, V.E., 1881, Über die systematische Stellung von Balanoglossus: Zoologischer Anzeiger, v. 4, p. 139157.Google Scholar
Ou, Q., Conway Morris, S., Han, J., Zhang, Z.-F., Liu, J.-N., Chen, A.-L., Zhang, X.-L., and Shu, D., 2012, Evidence for gill slits and a pharynx in Cambrian vetulicolians: implications for the early evolution of deuterostomes: BMC Biology, v. 10, p. e81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Robison, R.A., 1976, Middle Cambrian stratigraphy of the Great Basin: Brigham Young University Geology Studies, v. 23, p. 93109.Google Scholar
Robison, R.A., 1965, Middle Cambrian eocrinoids from western North America: Journal of Paleontology, v. 39, p. 355364.Google Scholar
Robison, R.A., 1991, Middle Cambrian biotic diversity: examples from four Utah Lagerstätten, in Simonetta, A., and Conway Morris, S., eds., The Early Evolution of Metazoa and the Significance of Problematic Taxa: Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, p. 7798.Google Scholar
Shu, D.-G., 2005, On the phylum Vetulicolia: Chinese Science Bulletin, v. 50, p. 23422354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shu, D.-G., Conway Morris, S., Han, J., Zhang, X.-L., Zhang, Z.-F., Liu, H.-Q., Li, Y., and Liu, J.-N., 2001, Primitive deuterostomes from the Chengjiang Lagerstätte (Lower Cambrian, China): Nature, v. 414, p. 419424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shu, D.-G., Conway Morris, S., Han, J., Zhang, Z.-F., and Liu, J.-N., 2002, Ancestral echinoderms from the Chengjiang deposits of China: Nature, v. 430, p. 422428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shu, D.-G., Conway Morris, S., Zhang, Z.-F., and Han, J., 2010, The earliest history of the deuterostomes: the importance of the Chengjiang Fossil–Lagerstätte: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, B, v. 277, p. 165174.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Smith, A.B., and Zamora, S., 2013, Cambrian spiral-plated echinoderms from Gondwana reveal the earliest pentaradial bodyplan: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, B, v. 280, p. 20131197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ubaghs, G., and Robison, R.A., 1985, A new homoiostelean and a new eocrinoid from the Middle Cambrian of Utah: University of Kansas Paleontological Contributions, v. 115, p. 124.Google Scholar
Ubaghs, G., and Robison, R.A., 1988, Homalozoan echinoderms of the Wheeler Formation (Middle Cambrian) of western Utah: University of Kansas Paleontological Contributions, v. 120, p. 117.Google Scholar
Vinther, J., Smith, M.P., and Harper, D.A.T., 2011, Vetulicolians from the Lower Cambrian Sirius Passet Lagerstätte, North Greenland, and the polarity of morphological characteristics in basal deuterostomes: Palaeontology, v. 54, p. 711719.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Walcott, C.D., 1911, Middle Cambrian annelids: Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, v. 57, p. 145228.Google Scholar
Wang, Y., Lin, J.-P., Zhao, Y.-L., and Orr, P.J., 2009, Palaeoecology of the trace fossil Gordia and its interaction with nonmineralizing taxa from the early Middle Cambrian Kaili biota, Guizhou Province, South China: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, v. 277, p. 141148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zamora, S., Rahman, I.A., and Smith, A.B., 2012, Plated Cambrian bilaterians reveal the earliest stages of echinoderm evolution: PLoS ONE, v. 7, p. e38296.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Full text views reflects PDF downloads, PDFs sent to Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle and HTML full text views.

Total number of HTML views: 21
Total number of PDF views: 86 *
View data table for this chart

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 14th April 2021. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Rare primitive deuterostomes from the Cambrian (Series 3) of Utah
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Rare primitive deuterostomes from the Cambrian (Series 3) of Utah
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Rare primitive deuterostomes from the Cambrian (Series 3) of Utah
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *