Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Social Class, Group-Based Anger, and Collective Action Intentions in China

  • Kai Li (a1), Yan Xu (a2), Shenlong Yang (a3) and Yongyu Guo (a1)

Abstract

This research examines the anger and collective action intentions among different social classes in China. Based on social cognition theory with respect to social class, we proposed that the relationship between group-based anger and collective action intentions would be moderated by social class. To test this hypothesis, two studies were conducted. First, using data collected from a sample of 100 residents of Hubei Province, China, Study 1 found that the relationship between group-based anger and collective action intentions was moderated by social class: group-based anger can predict collective action intentions among the upper social class but not among the lower social class. Then, Study 2 employed a 2 × 2 completely randomised design. Its 118 participants were manipulated to experience a momentary change in their subjective social class and the level of their group-based anger before measuring their collective action intentions. The results were consistent with Study 1. Taken together, the findings suggest that social class does moderate the relationship between group-based anger and collective action intentions.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Social Class, Group-Based Anger, and Collective Action Intentions in China
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Social Class, Group-Based Anger, and Collective Action Intentions in China
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Social Class, Group-Based Anger, and Collective Action Intentions in China
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/), which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the same Creative Commons licence is included and the original work is properly cited. The written permission of Cambridge University Press must be obtained for commercial re-use.

Corresponding author

Address for correspondence: Yongyu Guo, 122 Ninghai Road, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province 210097, PRC. Email: yyguo@njnu.edu.cn

References

Hide All
Adler, N.E., Epel, E.S., Castellazzo, G., & Ickovics, J.R. (2000). Relationship of subjective and objective social status with psychological and physiological functioning: Preliminary data in healthy, White women. Health Psychology, 19, 586592.
Alberici, A.I., & Milesi, P. (2016). Online discussion, politicized identity, and collective action. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 19, 4359.
Anderson, C., Kraus, M.W., Galinsky, A.D., & Keltner, D. (2012). The local-ladder effect: Social status and subjective well-being. Psychological Science, 23, 764771.
Becker, J.C., Kraus, M.W., & Rheinschmidt-Same, M. (2017). Cultural expressions of social class and their implications for group-related beliefs and behaviors. Journal of Social Issues, 73, 158174.
Brandt, M.J. (2013). Low status legitimacy of the government and of business: A reanalysis of Brandt (2013). SSRN Electronic Journal. doi:10.2139/ssrn.2275189.
Christensen, P.N., Rothgerber, H., Wood, W., & Matz, D.C. (2004). Social norms and identity relevance: A motivational approach to normative behavior. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 30, 12951309.
Crosby, F.J. (1976). A model of egotistical relative deprivation. Psychological Review, 83, 85113.
de Weerd, M.D., & Klandermans, P.G. (1999). Group identification and social protest: Farmers' protest in the Netherlands. European Journal of Social Psychology, 29, 10731095.
Dubois, D., Rucker, D.D., & Galinsky, A.D. (2015). Social class, power, and selfishness: When and why upper and lower class individuals behave unethically. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 108, 436449.
Faul, F., Erdfelder, E., Buchner, A., & Lang, A.G. (2009). Statistical power analyses using G* Power 3.1: Tests for correlation and regression analyses. Behavior Research Methods, 41, 11491160.
Folger, R. (1987). Reformulating the conditions of resentment: A referent cognition model. In Masters, J.C. & Smith, W.P. (Eds.), Social comparison, social justice, and relative deprivation (pp. 183215). London: Erlbaum.
Fritsche, I., Moya, M., Bukowski, M., Jugert, P., Lemus, S., Decker, O., . . . Navarro-Carrillo, G. (2017). The great recession and group-based control: Converting personal helplessness into social class in-group trust and collective action. Journal of Social Issues, 73, 117137.
Greitemeyer, T., & Sagioglou, C. (2016). Subjective socioeconomic status causes aggression: A test of the theory of social deprivation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 111, 178194.
Grossmann, I., & Varnum, M.E. (2011). Social class, culture, and cognition. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 2, 8189.
Halevy, N., Chou, E.Y., Cohen, T.R., & Bornstein, G. (2010). Relative deprivation and intergroup competition. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 13, 685700.
Henrich, J., Heine, S.J., & Norenzayan, A. (2010). Beyond weird: Towards a broad-based behavioral science. Behavioral & Brain Sciences, 33, 111135.
Kraus, M.W., Côté, S., & Keltner, D. (2010). Social class, contextualism, and empathic accuracy. Psychological Science, 21, 17161723.
Kraus, M.W., Horberg, E.J., Goetz, J.L., & Keltner, D. (2011). Social class rank, threat vigilance, and hostile reactivity. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 37, 13761388.
Kraus, M.W., Piff, P.K., & Keltner, D. (2009). Social class, sense of control, and social explanation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 97, 9921004.
Kraus, M.W., Piff, P.K., Mendoza-Denton, R., Rheinschmidt, M.L., & Keltner, D. (2012). Social class, solipsism, and contextualism: How the rich are different from the poor. Psychological Review, 119, 546572.
Kraus, M.W., Tan, J.J.X., & Tannenbaum, M.B. (2013). The social ladder: A rank-based perspective on social class. Psychological Inquiry, 24, 8196.
Lareau, A., & Conley, D. (Eds.). (2008). Social class: How does it work? New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation.
Leach, C.W., Iyer, A., & Pedersen, A. (2006). Anger and guilt about ingroup advantage explain the willingness for political action. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 32, 12321245.
Li, L.L., Tang, L.N., & Qin, G.Q. (2012). ‘Fear of inequality, but more fear of unfairness’: Sense of fairness and consciousness of conflict in the period of social transformation. Journal of Renmin University of China, 4, 8090.
Manstead, A.S. (2018). The psychology of social class: How socioeconomic status impacts thought, feelings, and behaviour. British Journal of Social Psychology, 57, 267291.
Oakes, J.M., & Rossi, P.H. (2003). The measurement of SES in health research: Current practice and steps toward a new approach. Social Science & Medicine, 56, 769784.
Paulsen, R. (1991). Education, social class, and participation in collective action. Sociology of Education, 96110.
Petersen, R.D. (2002). Understanding ethnic violence: Fear, hatred, and resentment in twentieth-century Eastern Europe. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Piff, P.K., Kraus, M.W., Côté, S., Cheng, B.H., & Keltner, D. (2010). Having less, giving more: The influence of social class on prosocial behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 99, 771784.
Runciman, W.G. (1966). Relative deprivation and social justice: A study of attitudes to social inequality in twentieth-century England. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Schmitt, M., Maes, J., & Widaman, K. (2010). Longitudinal effects of egoistic and fraternal relative deprivation on well‐being and protest. International Journal of Psychology, 45, 122130.
Shi, J., Hao, Z., Saeri, A.K., & Cui, L. (2014). The dual-pathway model of collective action: Impacts of types of collective action and social identity. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 18, 4565.
Simandan, D. (2018). Rethinking the health consequences of social class and social mobility. Social Science & Medicine, 200, 258261.
Smith, H.J., & Huo, Y.J. (2014). Relative deprivation: How subjective experiences of inequality influence social behavior and health. Policy Insights from the Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 1, 231238.
Snibbe, A.C., & Markus, H.R. (2005). You can't always get what you want: Educational attainment, agency, and choice. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 88, 703720.
Tausch, N., Becker, J.C., Spears, R., Christ, O., Saab, R., Singh, P., & Siddiqui, R.N. (2011). Explaining radical group behavior: Developing emotion and efficacy routes to normative and non-normative collective action. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 101, 129148.
van Zomeren, M. (2013). Four core social‐psychological motivations to undertake collective action. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 7, 378388.
van Zomeren, M., Leach, C.W., & Spears, R. (2012). Protesters as ‘passionate economists’: A dynamic dual pathway model of approach coping with collective disadvantage. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 16, 180199.
van Zomeren, M., Postmes, T., & Spears, R. (2008). Toward an integrative social identity model of collective action: A quantitative research synthesis of three socio-psychological perspectives. Psychological Bulletin, 134, 504535.
van Zomeren, M., Spears, R., Fischer, A.H., & Leach, C.W. (2004). Put your money where your mouth is! Explaining collective action tendencies through group-based anger and group efficacy. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 87, 649664.
Zhang, P., & Yang, Z. (2015). A brief analysis of features of environmental collective action in china in the past ten years. Journal of China University of Geosciences, 2, 5361.

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed