Aldenderfer, M.S. and BlashWeld, R.K. (1984). Cluster Analysis. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Ames, C. (1992). Classrooms: Goals, structures, and student motivation. Journal of Educational Psychology 84, 261–271.
Ames, C. and Archer, J. (1988). Achievement goals in the classroom: Students’ learning strategies and motivation processes. Journal of Educational Psychology 80, 260–267.
Barron, K.E. and Harackiewicz, J.M. (2001). Achievement goals and optimal motivation: Testing multiple goal models. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 80, 706–722.
Barzilai, S. and Zohar, A. (2014). Reconsidering personal epistemology as metacognition: A multifaceted approach to the analysis of epistemic thinking. Educational Psychologist 49, 13–35.
Bendixen, L.D., Schraw, G. and Dunkle, M.E. (1998). Epistemic beliefs and moral reasoning. The Journal of Psychology 132, 187–200.
Blankert, T. and Hamstra, M.R. (2017). Imagining success: Multiple achievement goals and the effectiveness of imagery. Basic and Applied Social Psychology 39, 60–67.
Boekaerts, M., de Koning, E. and Vedder, P. (2006). Goal-directed behaviour and contextual factors in the classroom: An innovative approach to the study of multiple goals. Educational Psychologist 41, 33–51.
Borkowski, J.G., Chan, L.K.S. and Muthukrishna, N. (2000). A process-oriented model of metacognition: Links between motivation and executive functioning. In Schraw, G. and Impara, J. (eds), Issues in the Measurement of Metacognition. Lincoln, NE: Buros Institute of Mental Measurements, University of Nebraska, pp. 1–41.
Bouffard, T., Boisvert, J., Vezeau, C. and Larouche, C. (1995). The impact of goal orientation on self-regulation and performance among college students. British Journal of Educational Psychology 65, 317–329.
Bråten, I. and Olaussen, B.S. (2005). Profiling individual differences in student motivation: A longitudinal cluster-analytic study in different academic contexts. Contemporary Educational Psychology 30, 359–396.
Bruning, R.H., Schraw, G.J. and Ronning, R.R. (1999). Cognitive Psychology and Instruction. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merril/Prentice Hall.
Cano, F. and Berbén, A.G. (2009). University students’ achievement goals and approaches to learning in mathematics. British Journal of Educational Psychology 79, 131–153.
Carr, S. (2006). An examination of multiple goals in children’s physical education: Motivational effects of goal profiles and the role of perceived climate in multiple goal development. Journal of Sports Sciences 24, 281–297.
Chen, J.A. (2012). Implicit theories, epistemic beliefs, and science motivation: A person-centered approach. Learning and Individual Differences 22, 724–735.
Conley, A.M. (2012). Patterns of motivation beliefs: Combining achievement goal and expectancy-value perspectives. Journal of Educational Psychology 104, 32–47.
Daniels, L.M., Haynes, T.L., Stupnisky, R.H., Perry, R.P., Newall, N.E. and Pekrun, R. (2008). Individual differences in achievement goals: A longitudinal study of cognitive, emotional, and achievement outcomes. Contemporary Educational Psychology 33, 584–608.
Darnon, C., Muller, D., Schrager, S.M., Pannuzzo, N. and Butera, F. (2006). Mastery and performance goals predict epistemic and relational conflict regulation. Journal of Educational Psychology 98, 766–776.
DeBacker, T.K. and Crowson, H.M. (2006). Influences on cognitive engagement: Epistemic beliefs and need for closure. British Journal of Educational Psychology 76, 535–551.
DeBacker, T.K., Crowson, H.M., Beesley, A.D., Thoma, S.J. and Hestevold, N.L. (2008). The challenge of measuring epistemic beliefs: An analysis of three self-report instruments. The Journal of Experimental Education 76, 281–312.
Dina, F. and Efklides, A. (2009). Student profiles of achievement goals, goal instructions and external feedback: Their effect on mathematical task performance and affect. European Journal of Education and Psychology 2, 235–262.
Diseth, Å. (2011). Self-efficacy, goal orientations and learning strategies as mediators between preceding and subsequent academic achievement. Learning and Individual Differences 21, 191–195.
Diseth, Å. and Kobbeltvedt, T. (2010). A mediation analysis of achievement motives, goals, learning strategies, and academic achievement. British Journal of Educational Psychology 80, 671–687.
Eccles, J., Wigfield, A., Harold, R.D. and Blumenfeld, P. (1993). Age and gender differences in children’s self- and task perceptions during elementary school. Child Development 64, 830–847.
Elliot, A. (1997). Integrating the ‘classic’ and ‘contemporary’ approaches to achievement motivating: A hierarchical model of achievement motivation. In Maehr, M. and Pintrich, P. (eds), Advances in Motivation and Achievement. Greenwich, CT: JAI, pp. 243–279.
Elliot, A. (1999). Approach and avoidance motivation and achievement goals. Educational Psychologist 34, 169–189.
Elliot, A. and McGregor, H. (2001). A 2 × 2 achievement goal framework. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 80, 501–519.
Elliot, A.J. and Church, M.A. (1997). A hierarchical model of approach and avoidance achievement motivation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 72, 218–232.
Elliot, A.J. and Harackiewicz, J.M. (1996). Approach and avoidance achievement goals and intrinsic motivation: A mediational analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 70, 461–475.
Elliott, A.J., Shell, M.M., Henry, K.B. and Maier, M.A. (2005). Achievement goals, performance contingencies, and performance attainment: An experimental test. Journal of Educational Psychology 97, 630–640.
Everitt, B.S., Landau, S. and Leese, M. (2001). Cluster Analysis. London: Arnold.
Gonçalves, T., Niemivirta, M. and Lemos, M.S. (2017). Identification of students’ multiple achievement and social goal profiles and analysis of their stability and adaptability. Learning and Individual Differences 54, 149–159.
Graham, S. and Golan, S. (1991). Motivational influences on cognition: Task involvement, ego involvement, and depth of information processing. Journal of Educational Psychology 83, 187–194.
Hair, J.F., Anderson, R.E., Tatham, R.L. and Black, W.C. (1995). Multivariate Data Analysis with Readings. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Ho, H.N.J. and Liang, J.C. (2015). The relationships among scientific epistemic beliefs, conceptions of learning science, and motivation of learning science: A study of Taiwan high school students. International Journal of Science Education 37, 2688–2707.
Hofer, B.K. (2000). Dimensionality and disciplinary differences in personal epistemology. Contemporary Educational Psychology 25, 378–405.
Hofer, B.K. and Pintrich, P.R. (1997). The development of epistemic theories: Beliefs about knowledge and knowing and their relation to learning. Review of Educational Research 67, 88–140.
Hu, L. and Bentler, P.M. (1999). Cuttoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling 6, 1–55.
Huang, C. (2016). Achievement goals and self-efficacy: A meta-analysis. Educational Research Review 19, 119–137.
Huberty, C.J., DiStefano, C. and Kamphaus, R.W. (1997). Behavioural clustering of school children. Multivariate Behavioral Research 32, 105–134.
Hulleman, C.S., Schrager, S.M., Bodmann, S.M. and Harackiewicz, J.M. (2010). A meta-analytic review of achievement goal measures: Different labels for the same constructs or different constructs with similar labels. Psychological Bulletin 136, 422–449.
Humphreys, M.S. and Revelle, W. (1984). Personality, motivation, and performance: a theory of the relationship between individual differences and information processing. Psychological Review 91, 153–184.
Kuan, G. and Roy, J. (2007). Goal profiles, mental toughness and its influence on performance outcomes among Wushu athletes. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine 6, 28–33.
Lam, B.T. (2006). Self-construal and socio-emotional development among Vietnamese-American adolescents: An examination of different types of self-construal. International Journal of Behavioral Development 30, 67–75.
Laster, B.B. (2010). A structural and correlational analysis of two common measures of personal epistemology. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Oklahoma State University.
Levy, I., Kaplan, A. and Patrick, H. (2004). Early adolescents’ achievement goals, social status, and attitudes towards cooperation with peers. Social Psychology of Education 43, 1–33.
Linnenbrink-Garcia, L., Middleton, M.J., Ciani, K.D., Easter, M.A., O’Keefe, P.A. and Zusho, A. (2012). The strength of the relation between performance-approach and performance-avoidance goal orientations: Theoretical, methodological, and instructional implications. Educational Psychologist 47, 281–301.
Liu, W., Wang, C., Tan, O., Ee, J. and Koh, C. (2009). Understanding students’ motivation in project work: A 2 × 2 achievement goal approach. British Journal of Educational Psychology 79, 87–106.
Luo, W.S., Paris, S.G., Hogan, D. and Luo, Z. (2011). Do performance goals promote learning? A pattern analysis of Singapore students’ achievement goals. Contemporary Educational Psychology 36, 165–176.
Madjar, N., Weinstock, M. and Kaplan, A. (2017). Epistemic beliefs and achievement goal orientations: Relations between constructs versus personal profiles. The Journal of Educational Research 110, 32–49.
Maehr, M.L. (1989). Thoughts about motivation. In Ames, C. and Ames, R. (eds), Research on Motivation in Education, vol. 3. New York: Academic Press, pp. 299–315.
Meece, J.L., Anderman, E.M. and Anderman, L.H. (2006). Classroom goal structure, student motivation, and academic achievement. Annual Review of Psychology 57, 487–503.
Meece, J.L. and Holt, K. (1993). A pattern analysis of students’ achievement goals. Journal of Educational Psychology 85, 582–590.
Midgley, C., Maehr, M.L., Hruda, L., Anderman, E.M., Anderman, L., Freeman, K.E. and Urdan, T. (2000). Manual for the Patterns of Adaptive Learning Scales (PALS). Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan.
Molden, D.C. and Dweck, C.S. (2006). Finding “meaning” in psychology: A lay theories approach to self-regulation, social perception, and social development. American Psychologist 61, 192–203.
Muis, K.R. (2007). The role of epistemic beliefs in self-regulated learning. Educational Psychologist 42, 173–190.
Muis, K.R. and Franco, G.M. (2009). Epistemic beliefs: Setting the standards for self-regulated learning. Contemporary Educational Psychology 34,
Muis, K.R. and Gierus, B. (2014). Beliefs about knowledge, knowing, and learning: Differences across knowledge types in physics. The Journal of Experimental Education 82, 408–430.
Nakayama, A., Heffernan, N., Matsumoto, H. and Hiromori, T. (2012). The influence of goal orientation, past language studies, overseas experiences, and gender differences on Japanese EFL learners’ beliefs, anxiety, and behaviors. Journal of Applied Language Studies 6, 19–39.
Pahljina-Reinić, R. and Kolić-Vehovec, S. (2017). Average personal goal pursuit profile and contextual achievement goals: Effects on students’ motivation, achievement emotions, and achievement. Learning and Individual Differences 56, 167–174.
Pajares, F. and Valiante, G. (2001). Gender differences in writing motivation and achievement of middle school students: A function of gender orientation? Contemporary Educational Psychology 26, 366–381.
Pastor, D., Barron, K.E., Miller, B.J. and Davis, S.L. (2007). A latent profile analysis of college students’ achievement goal orientation. Contemporary Educational Psychology 32, 8–47.
Pintrich, P.R. and De Groot, E. (1990, April). Quantitative and qualitative perspectives on student motivational beliefs and self-regulated learning. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Boston, MA.
Pintrich, P.R. and DeGroot, E.V. (1990). Motivational and self-regulated learning components of classroom academic performance. Journal of Educational Psychology 82, 33–40.
Pintrich, P.R. and Garcia, T. (1991). Student goal orientation and self-regulation in the college classroom. In Maher, M.L. and Pintrich, P.R. (eds),
Advances in Motivation and Achievement, vol. 7. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, pp. 371–402.
Pintrich, P.R. and Schunk, D.H. (2002). Motivation in Education: Theory, Research, and Applications. Columbus, OH: Merrill.
Pintrich, P.R., Smith, D.A., Garcia, T. and Mckeachie, W.J. (1991). A Manual for the Use of the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ). Ann Arbor, MI: NCRIPTAL, The University of Michigan.
Putwain, D.W., Sander, P. and Larkin, D. (2013). Using the 2 × 2 framework of achievement goals to predict achievement emotions and academic performance. Learning and Individual Differences 25, 80–84.
Ravindran, B., Greene, B.A. and DeBacker, T.K. (2005). Predicting preservice teachers’ cognitive engagement with goals and epistemic beliefs. Journal of Educational Research 98, 222–232.
Romesburg, H.C. (1985). Cluster Analysis for Researchers. Belmont, CA: Lifetime Learning Publications.
Roussel, P., Elliot, A.J. and Feltman, R. (2011). The influence of achievement goals and social goals on help-seeking from peers in an academic context. Learning and Instruction 21, 394–402.
Schraw, G. (2013). Conceptual integration and measurement of epistemological and ontological beliefs in educational research. ISRN Education, 2013, Article ID 327680. doi: 10.1155/2013/327680
Schraw, G., Bendixen, L.D. and Dunkle, M.E. (2002). Development and validation of the epistemic belief inventory (EBI). In Hofer, B.K. and Pintrich, P.R. (eds), Personal Epistemology: The Psychology of Beliefs About Knowledge and Knowing. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. pp. 261–275.
Schunk, D.H. (1991). Self-efficacy and academic motivation. Educational Psychologist 26, 207–231.
Schunk, D.H. (2001). Social cognitive theory and self-regulated learning. In
Zimmerman, B.J. and Schunk, D.H. (eds), Self-Regulated Learning and Academic Achievement: Theoretical Perspectives, vol. 2. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, pp. 125–152.
Senko, C., Hulleman, C.S. and Harackiewicz, J.M. (2011). Achievement goal theory at the crossroads: Old controversies, current challenges, and new directions. Educational Psychologist 46, 26–47.
Sideridis, G.D. (2005). Goal orientation, academic achievement, and depression: Evidence in favor of a revised goal theory framework. Journal of Educational Psychology 97, 366–375.
Smith, L. and Sinclair, K.E. (2005). Empirical evidence for multiple goals: a gender-based, senior high school student perspective. Australian Journal of Educational and Developmental Psychology 5, 55–70.
Tapola, A. and Niemivirta, M. (2008). The role of achievement goal orientations in students’ perceptions of and preferences for classroom environment. British Journal of Educational Psychology 78, 291–312.
Teo, T. and Chai, C.S. (2011). Confirmatory factor analysis of the Epistemic Belief Inventory (EBI): A cross-cultural study. International Journal of Educational and Psychological Assessment 9, 1–13.
Tuominen-Soini, H., Salmela-Aro, K. and Niemivirta, M. (2008). Achievement goal orientations and subjective well-being: A person-centred analysis. Learning and Instruction 18, 251–266.
Valle, A., Núñez, J.C., Cabanach, R.G., Rodríguez, S., Rosário, P. and Inglés, C.J. (2015). Motivational profiles as a combination of academic goals in higher education. Educational Psychology 35, 634–650.
Wang, C.K. (2001). Ability beliefs, achievement goals and intrinsic motivation in physical education. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Loughborough University, Leicestershire, UK.
Wigfield, A. and Cambria, J. (2010). Students’ achievement values, goal orientations, and interest: Definitions, development, and relations to achievement outcomes. Developmental Review 30, 1–35.
Wigfield, A. and Eccles, J. (1992). The development of achievement task values: A theoretical analysis. Developmental Review 12, 265–310.
Winne, P.H. and Hadwin, A.F. (1998). Studying as self-regulated learning. In
Hacker, D.J., Dunlosky, J. and Graesser, A.C. (eds), Metacognition in Educational Theory and Practice, Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, pp. 277–304.
Wolters, C. and Pintrich, P. (1998). Contextual differences in student motivation and self-regulated learning in mathematics, English, and social studies classrooms. Instructional Science 26, 27–47.
Wormington, S.V. and Linnenbrink-Garcia, L. (2017). A new look at multiple goal pursuit: The promise of a person-centered approach. Educational Psychology Review 29, 407–445.
Zhang, Y., Watermann, R. and Daniel, A. (2016). Are multiple goals in elementary students beneficial for their school achievement? A latent class analysis. Learning and Individual Differences 51, 100–110.
Zhou, M. and Winne, P.H. (2012). Modeling academic achievement by self-reported versus traced goal orientation. Learning and Instruction 22, 413–419.
Zimmerman, B.J. (1998). Academic studying and the development of personal skill: A self-regulatory perspective. Educational Psychologist 33, 73–86.