This paper looks at the navigational challenges faced by William Dampier when, as Captain of the Royal Navy ship Roebuck, in 1699, he approached, and then found his way along the coast of Western Australia (at that time known as New Holland). A discussion of the methods and instruments available to Dampier is followed by consideration of how, and with what success, he went about his task. Dampier's own account of the voyage was included in his book A Voyage to New Holland (Dampier, 1703) although this is likely to have been heavily edited, and perhaps even rewritten by a “man of letters” to make it more attractive to the general public. For this reason and, bearing in mind that autobiographical work may contain omissions or otherwise be slanted to show the writer in his best light, the navigational information in his book has been cross-checked with the Roebuck's original Master's Log, held by the UK National Archives at Kew (Documents ADM 52/94). Jacob Hughes was the ship's Master, but the Log entries were written in at least two hands.