The modelling of most Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) errors/biases and developments of data processing techniques have been improved substantially since the birth of Global Positioning System (GPS), however, there has been much less progress in the improvement of phase multipath mitigation techniques. Multipath therefore remains one of the most important error sources in high precision GNSS positioning. This is because multipath is site-dependent and therefore cannot be eliminated by differencing techniques. Also multipath is highly dependent on satellite-reflector-antenna geometry, which usually causes rapid changes in phase multipath errors especially in Real-Time Kinematic (RTK) applications. Multipath mitigation for static antennas such as those at reference stations can be carried out by site calibration, averaging over long observation times, and through the estimation of the error using filtering based on signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) data. However, multipath mitigation for kinematic antennas is still very difficult today.
Nevertheless, much research has been carried out on a particular class of phase multipath mitigation techniques: ones that can be applied within positioning algorithms (rather than incorporated into the receiver tracking loops or antennas). This paper investigates and further develops a number of state-of-the-art techniques in this category. They include phase multipath estimation using SNR data, phase multipath estimation through the use of closely spaced antennas, multipath mitigation stochastic models such as the satellite elevation angle model and SNR-based models (SIGMA-∊ model and our modified SNR-based model), and our own novel ray-tracing method. The techniques are tested with both real and simulated data, the real test datasets have been collected on the Laboratoire Central des Ponts et Chaussées (LCPC) testbed near Nantes in France, and on the campus of the University of Nottingham during SPACE data collection experiments.