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The Eritrean Question: a Colonial Case?

  • Okbazghi Yohannes

Extract

Both Eritreans and Ethiopians have been trying to sway international opinion about one of the most ticklish questions of modern nationalism which seems to defy rational analysis. This study attempts to present their contending views, and to find an interpretative framework for understanding this continuing conflict in the Horn of Africa.

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Page 643 note 1 ‘Joint Declaration of the ELF and the EPLF’, in ‘ The Eritrean Case. Proceedings of the Permanent People's Tribunal, Milan, Italy, May 24–26, 1980’, pp. 24–26.

Page 643 note 2 Selassie, Bereket Habte, ‘From British Rule to Federation and Annexation’, in Association of Eritrean Students in North America, ‘In Defence of Eritrea’, May 1978, p. 55.

Page 644 note 1 ‘Joint Declaration of the ELF and the EPLF’, p. 21.

Page 644 note 2 Selassie, Bereket Habte, in Davidson, Basil et al. (eds.), Behind the War in Eritrea (Nottingham, 1980), p. 45.

Page 645 note 1 E.P.L.F. Memorandum, August 1978, p. 21.

Page 645 note 2 Cited in Bimbi, Guido, ‘The National Liberation Struggle and the Liberation Fronts’, in ‘The Eritrean Case’, pp. 204–5.

Page 645 note 3 Selassie, Bereket Habte, ‘The American Dilemma on the Horn’, in The Journal of Modern African Studies (Cambridge), 22, 2, 06 1984, p. 250.

Page 647 note 1 For a full analysis of the Dergue's document, see Fessehatzion, Tekie, ‘The International Dimensions of the Eritrean Question’, in Jordan, Gabre-Medhin (ed.), ‘Eritrea: the roots of war’, in Horn of Africa (Summit, N.J.), 1983, pp. 22 ff.

Page 647 note 2 Ottaway, Marina and Ottaway, David, Ethiopia: empire in revolution (New York, 1978), p. 167.

Page 648 note 1 ‘Ethiopia Attacks Arabs for Aiding Eritrean Secessionists’, in Washington Post, 3 March 1975.

Page 648 note 2 Yaqob Haile Mariam, cited in ibid.

Page 648 note 3 Addis Fana (Addis Ababa), 11 1976.

Page 649 note 1 From ‘The Programme of the Ethiopian Democratic Revolution’, Addis Ababa, April 1976.

Page 649 note 2 Lenin, V.I., Collected Works (Moscow, 1964 edn.), Vol. 20, pp. 397 and 400.

Page 650 note 1 Lenin, I. V., The Lenin Anthology, edited by Tucker, Robert C. (New York, 1975), p. 174.

Page 650 note 2 Baxter, Paul, ‘The Problem of the Oromo or the Problem for the Oromo’, in Lewis, I. M. (ed.), Self-Determination in the Horn of Africa (London, 1983), p. 130.

Page 651 note 1 Lenin, , Collected Works, Vol. 20, p. 22.

Page 652 note 1 Ottaway and Ottaway, op. cit. p. 176.

Page 652 note 2 From E.P.L.F./E.P.R.P. Joint Statement, 3 March 1975.

Page 653 note 1 Ethiopian Students Union in North America, ‘The National Question in Ethiopia’, in Combat (?), 5, 2, 1976, p. 28.

Page 653 note 2 Ibid. pp. 64–7.

Page 654 note 1 Major Asseged, ‘Ethiopia, Revolution, and War, 1974–1978’, Ph.D. dissertation, University of Denver, Colorado, 1982, p. 54.

Page 654 note 2 Ibid. p. 55.

Page 655 note 1 Deherain, Henri, ‘Competing Views of National Identity in Ethiopia’, cited by Allesandro Triulzi in Lewis (ed.), op. cit. p.122.

Page 655 note 2 Davidson, Basil, ‘Forward’, in Richard Sherman, Eritrea: the unfinished revolution (New York, 1980), p. viii.

Page 655 note 3 Davidson, Basil, ‘An Historical Note’, in Davidson, et al. (eds.), op. cit. p. 12.

Page 656 note 1 Ibid. p. 14.

Page 656 note 2 Triulzi, Allesandro, in Lewis (ed.), op. cit. pp. 119–20.

Page 656 note 3 Baxter, in ibid. pp. 133–4.

Page 656 note 4 Ibid. p. 141.

Page 657 note 1 Ibid. p. 142.

Page 657 note 2 Greenfield, Richard, ‘ The Pre-Colonial and Colonial History’, in Davidson et al. (eds.), op. cit. p. 17.

Page 658 note 1 Mayall, James, ‘Self-Determination and the OAU’, in Lewis (ed.), op. cit. p. 81.

Page 658 note 2 K.A.N.U. delegate to the 1963 O.A.U. meeting, quoted by Sally Healy, ‘The Changing Idiom of Self-Determination in the Horn of Africa’, ibid. p. 101.

Page 659 note 1 Levine, D.N., Greater Ethiopia: the evolution of a multi-ethnic society (Chicago, 1974), p. 13.

Page 659 note 2 Hodgkin, Thomas, Nationalism in Colonial Africa (New York, 1957), pp. 95 ff.

Page 659 note 3 Ibid. p. 95.

Page 660 note 1 Azikiwe, Nnamdi, cited in Levine, op. cit. p. 13.

Page 660 note 2 Lipsky, George A., Ethiopia: its people, its society, its culture (New Haven, 1962), p. 215.

Page 660 note 3 It was in conjunction with this new orientation that the Emperor visited the Soviet Union in 1959, when he obtained a $102 million interest-free loan. Hess, Robert R., Ethiopia: the modernization of autocracy (Ithaca, 1970), p. 102.

Page 660 note 4 Lipsky, op. cit. p. 228.

Page 661 note 1 Hess, op. cit. p. 11.

Page 661 note 2 Ibid. p. 214.

Page 661 note 3 Ibid. p. 236.

Page 662 note 1 Ibrahim Sultan Ali on behalf of the United Parties of the Eritrean Democratic Front, Cairo, 20 March 1963.

Page 662 note 2 Hess, op. cit. pp. 185–6.

Page 663 note 1 Ethiopian Students Union in North America, p. 28.

Page 663 note 2 Ibid. p. 35.

Page 664 note 1 Ibid. p. 64.

Page 664 note 2 Lenin, V.I., Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism, reprinted in Selected Works in Three Volumes (New York, 1967), Vol. 1, p. 740.

Page 664 note 3 Toynbee, A.J., in Gruen, Erich S. (ed.), Imperialism in the Roman Republic (New York, 1970), p. 17.

Page 664 note 4 M. Rostovtzeff, in ibid, pp. 85–6.

Page 665 note 1 Ibid. pp. 86–9.

Page 665 note 2 Fieldhouse, D.K., The Colonial Empires: a comparative survey from the eighteenth century (New York, 1966), pp. 2933.

Page 665 note 3 Ibid. p. 350.

Page 666 note 1 Collins, Robert O., Europeans in Africa (New York, 1971), p. 23.

Page 666 note 2 Cabral, Amìlcar, Revolution in Guinea (New York, 1969), p. 14.

Page 666 note 3 Lenin, , Imperialism, loc. cit. pp. 739–40 and 742.

Page 667 note 1 Ibid. p. 743.

Page 667 note 2 Triulzi, in Lewis (ed.), op. cit. p. 119.

Page 668 note 1 Greenfield, in Davidson et al. (eds.), op. cit. p. 21.

* Denver, Colorado.

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The Eritrean Question: a Colonial Case?

  • Okbazghi Yohannes

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