Skip to main content Accessibility help

Resonant Frequency Reduction of Piezoelectric Voltage Energy Harvester by Elastic Boundary Condition

  • Zhi Chao Ong (a1) (a2), Yu-Hsi Huang (a3) and Sheng-Lun Chou (a4)


Most vibration-based energy harvesters, including piezoelectric harvester system, perform efficiently at only its resonant frequency as linear resonators, usually at very high frequency which are out of the range of frequency of interest. In real life applications, these linear resonators are impractical since real ambient vibrations are simply having varying lower frequencies. Hence, design a tuneable vibration energy harvester at a lower and useful frequency range of interest are essential in allowing promising energy output to meet intended power input at a more practical approach. In this paper, the piezoelectric voltage energy harvester (PVEH) was designed with a flexible fixture with the aim to reduce its first fundamental natural frequency. Two thickness of elastic fixtures were applied to generate power on PVEH. Three experimental techniques were used to measure the vibration characteristics of PVEH. First, the full-field optical technique, amplitude-fluctuation electronic speckle pattern interferometry (AF-ESPI) measured simultaneously the resonant frequencies and mode shapes. This is followed by the pointwise measurement system, laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV) in which the resonant frequencies were measured by dynamic signal swept-sine analysis. The resonant frequencies and anti-resonant frequencies were also obtained by impedance analysis. The results obtained from experimental measurements were compared with finite element numerical calculation. It is found that the boundary conditions under the elastic fixtures can effectively reduce the resonant frequency of the PVEH with a reasonable voltage output. The fundamental natural frequency of PVEH with the thickness of 0.58-mm elastic fixture is reduced to 37 Hz maintaining at 7.1 volts (1.2 mW), in comparison with the natural frequency on cantilevered PVEH at 78 Hz that produces 7.7 volts (6.5 mW).


Corresponding author

*Corresponding author (


Hide All
1.Wei, C., and Jing, X., “A Comprehensive Review on Vibration Energy Harvesting: Modelling and Realization,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 74(C), pp. 118. DOI: (2017).
2.Mutsuda, H., Tanaka, Y., Patel, R., and Doi, Y.Harvesting Flow-Induced Vibration Using A Highly Flexible Piezoelectric Energy Device,” Applied Ocean Research, 68, pp. 3952. DOI:10.1016/j.apor.2017.08.004 (2017).
3.He, H. X., Fu, Y. M., Zhao, T. M., Gao, X. C., Xing, L. L., Zhang, Y., and Xue, X. Y., “All-Solid-State Flexible Self-Charging Power Cell Basing on Piezo-Electrolyte for Harvesting/Storing Body-Motion Energy and Powering Wearable Electronics,” Nano Energy, 39, pp. 590600. DOI:10.1016/j.nanoen.2017.07.033 (2017).
4.Roundy, S., Wright, P. K., and Rabaey, J., “A Study of Low Level Vibrations as A Power Source For Wireless Sensor Nodes,” Computer Communications, 26(11), pp. 11311144 (2003).
5.Thein, C. K., Ooi, B. L., Liu, J. S., and Gilbert, J. M., “Modelling and Optimisation of A Bimorph Piezoelectric Cantilever Beam in An Energy Harvesting Application,” Journal of Engineering Science and Technology, 11(2), pp. 212227 (2016).
6.Xie, X. D., Carpinteri, A., and Wang, Q., “A Theoretical Model for A Piezoelectric Energy Harvester with A Tapered Shape,” Engineering Structures, 144(C), pp. 1925. doi: (2017).
7.Allamraju, K. V., and Srikanth, K., “State of Art: Piezoelectric Vibration Energy Harvesters,” Materials Today-Proceedings, 4(2), pp. 10911098 (2017).
8.Lu, F., Lee, H. P., and Lim, S. P., “Modeling and Analysis of Micro Piezoelectric Power Generators for Micro-Electromechanical-Systems Applications,” Smart Materials & Structures, 13(1), pp. 5763. doi:10.1088/0964-1726/13/1/007 (2004).
9.Tabesh, A., and Fréchette, L., “On the Concepts of Electrical Damping and Stiffness in the Design of A Piezoelectric Bending Beam Energy Harvester,” Retrieved from
10.Chin, W. K., Ong, Z. C., Kong, K. K., Khoo, S. Y., Huang, Y.-H., and Chong, W. T., “Enhancement of Energy Harvesting Performance by a Coupled Bluff Splitter Body and PVEH Plate through Vortex Induced Vibration near Resonance,” Applied Sciences, 7(9), 921 (2017).
11.Akaydin, H. D., Elvin, N., and Andreopoulos, Y., “Energy Harvesting from Highly Unsteady Fluid Flows using Piezoelectric Materials,” Journal of Intelligent Material Systems and Structures, 21(13), pp. 12631278. doi:10.1177/1045389x10366317 (2010).
12.Song, R. J., Shan, X. B., Lv, F. C., Li, J. Z., and Xie, T., “A Novel Piezoelectric Energy Harvester Using the Macro Fiber Composite Cantilever with a Bicylinder in Water,” Applied Sciences-Basel, 5(4), pp. 19421954. doi:10.3390/app5041942 (2015).
13.Yuantai, H., Huan, X., and Hongping, H., “A Piezoelectric Power Harvester with Adjustable Frequency through Axial Preloads,” Smart Materials and Structures, 16(5), 1961. (2007)
14.Hu, S., Yuan, C., Castagnotto, A., Lohmann, B., Bouhedma, S., Hohlfeld, D., and Bechtold, T., “Stable Reduced Order Modeling of Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting Modules Using Implicit Schur Complement,” Microelectronics Reliability, 85, pp. 148155. (2018)
15.Tian, Y., Li, G., Yi, Z., Liu, J., and Yang, B., “A Low-Frequency MEMS Piezoelectric Energy Harvester with a Rectangular Hole Based on Bulk PZT Film,” Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids, 117, pp. 2127. (2018)
16.Yang, Z, Wang, Y. Q., Zuo, L., and Zu, J., “Introducing Arc-Shaped Piezoelectric Elements into Energy Harvesters,” Energy Conversion and Management, 148, pp. 260266. (2017)
17.Toyabur, R.M., Salauddin, M., Cho, H., and Park, J. Y., “A Multimodal Hybrid Energy Harvester Based on Piezoelectricelectromagnetic Mechanisms for Low-Frequency Ambient Vibrations,” Energy Conversion and Management, 168, pp. 454466. (2018)
18.Murotani, K. and Suzuki, Y., “MEMS Electret Energy Harvester with Embedded Bistable Electrostatic Spring for Broadband Response,” Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, 28, 104001. (2018)
19.Wu, Y. C., Huang, Y. H., and Ma, C. C., “Theoretical Analysis and Experimental Measurement of Flexural Vibration and Dynamic Characteristics for Piezoelectric Rectangular Plate,” Sensors and Actuators, 264(A), pp. 308332. doi:10.1016/j.sna.2017.07.034 (2017).
20.Yee, K. S., Radeef, Z. S., Chao, O. Z., Huang, Y. H., Tong, C. W., and Ismail, Z., “Structural Dynamics Effect on Voltage Generation from Dual Coupled Cantilever Based Piezoelectric Vibration Energy Harvester System,” Measurement, 107, pp. 4152. doi:10.1016/j.measurement.2017.05.008 (2017).
21.SIMULIA, ABAQUS. Version 6.13 Documentation. Dassault Systémes Simulia Corp., Providence, Rhode Island, USA, 2013.
22.Huang, Y. H. and Ma, C. C., “Experimental and Numerical Investigations of Vibration Characteristics for Parallel-Type and Series-Type Triple-Layered Piezoceramic Bimorphs,” IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control, 56 (12), pp. 25982611. (2009)
23.Wang, W. C., Hwang, C. H., and Lin, S. Y., “Vibration Measurement by the Time-Averaged Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry Methods, Applied Optics, 35, 45024509. (1996)
24.Huang, C. H. and Ma, C. C., “Vibration Characteristics for Piezoelectric Cylinders Using Amplitude-Fluctuation Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry,” AIAA Journal, 36(12), pp. 22622268. (1998)
25.Polytec, PDV-100 Portable Digital Vibrometer: User Manual. Polytec GmbH Waldbronn, 2001.
26.Zhou, S., Liang, C. and Roger, C. A., “Integration and Design of Piezoceramic Elements in Intelligent Structures,” Journal of Intelligent Material Systems and Structures, 6(6), pp. 733742. (1995)
27.Bhalla, S., and Soh, C. K., “Structural Health Monitoring by Piezo-Impedance Transducers. I: Modeling,” Journal of Aerospace Engineering, 17 (4), pp. 154165. (2004).
28.Ma, C. C., Lin, Y. C., Huang, Y. H., and Lin, H. Y., “Experimental measurement and numerical analysis on resonant characteristics of cantilever plates for piezoceramic bimorphs,” IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control, 54 (2), pp. 227239. (2007)
29.Huang, Y. H. and Ma, C. C., “Experimental and Numerical Investigations on Dynamic Characteristics for Piezoceramic Bimorphs,” 5th Australasian Congress on Applied Mechanics (ACAM 2007), 1, pp. 520525. (2007)
30.Huang, Y. H., Chao, C. K., and Chou, W. T., “The Application of Electrode Design in Vibrating Piezoceramic Plate for Energy Harvesting System,” ASME 2013 Dynamic Systems and Control Conference, V002T19A004-V002T19A004. (2013)
31.Chin, W. K., Ong, Z. C., Kong, K. K., Khoo, S. Y., Huang, Y. H., and Chong, W. T., “Enhancement of Energy Harvesting Performance by a Coupled Bluff Splitter Body and PVEH Plate through Vortex Induced Vibration near Resonance,” Applied Sciences, 7, 921(30 pages). (2017).


Resonant Frequency Reduction of Piezoelectric Voltage Energy Harvester by Elastic Boundary Condition

  • Zhi Chao Ong (a1) (a2), Yu-Hsi Huang (a3) and Sheng-Lun Chou (a4)


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed