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Phase Change Effects on Transport Processes in Resistance Spot Welding

  • P. S. Wei (a1), T. H. Wu (a1) and S. S. Hsieh (a1)

Abstract

The effects of distinct properties during phase change on mass, momentum, energy, species, and magnetic field intensity transport in workpieces and electrodes in the course of heating, melting, cooling and freezing periods in AC (alternative current) resistance spot welding are realistically and extensively investigated. Resistance spot welding has been widely used in joining thin workpieces due to its light weight and easy manufacturing. This study accounts for electromagnetic force, heat generations at the electrode-workpiece interface and faying surface between workpieces, and dynamic electrical resistance taking the sum of temperature-dependent bulk resistance of the workpieces and contact resistances at the faying surface and electrode-workpiece interface. The contact resistance is a function of hardness, temperature, electrode force, and surface condition. Instead of dealing with specific materials, this work is a general dimensionless investigation of resistance spot welding of materials with different specific heat and thermal conductivity ratios subject to realistic working parameters. The computed results show that nugget formation is delayed and heat transfer is reduced by increasing solid-to-liquid thermal conductivity and liquid-to-solid specific heat ratio. The corresponding thermal fields and flow patterns are also presented.

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Phase Change Effects on Transport Processes in Resistance Spot Welding

  • P. S. Wei (a1), T. H. Wu (a1) and S. S. Hsieh (a1)

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