Skip to main content Accessibility help

Moisture Effect on Mechanical Properties of Graphene/Epoxy Nanocomposites

  • H.-K. Liu (a1), Y.-C. Wang (a2) and T.-H. Huang (a1)


2-D graphene nanosheets (GNS) not only have superior mechanical properties, but stacking of GNS in composites is expected to inhibit moisture absorption. In this paper, moisture effect on tensile strength of graphene/epoxy nanocomposites is investigated. Two kinds of graphene reinforcements are used including graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) with reinforcement weight fraction WGO or WRGO in the range of 0.5 to 3.0wt%. A dispersion agent acetone is added in nanocomposites to enhance graphene dispersion. To evaluate moisture influence, those nanocomposites are soaked in two kinds of liquid including deionized water (DIW) and salt water (saline solution) for seven kinds of soaking periods of time including 24, 48, 72, 100, 400 hours, 30 days, and 60 days. After soaking test, diffusion coefficients of various composites are evaluated; besides tensile strengths of composites are measured by microforce testing machine. In order to correlate the strength with microstructure evolution, several techniques are adopted to analyze morphologies and functionalities of reinforcements and fracture surface of composites. They include Raman spectroscope, X-ray photoelectron spectroscope, and SEM. 2-D GNS are found to effectively enhance nanocomposites by moisture attack, and their corresponding reinforcing mechanisms are proposed.


Corresponding author

*Corresponding author (


Hide All
1. Hu, K., Kulkarni, D. D., Choi, I. and Tsukruk, V. V., “Graphene-Polymer Nanocomposites for Structural and Functional Applications,” Progress in Polymer Science, 39, pp. 19341972 (2014).
2. Lee, C., Wei, X., Kysar, J. W. and Hone, J., “Measurement of the Elastic Properties and Intrinsic Strength of Monolayer Graphene,” Science, 321, pp. 385388 (2008).
3. Balandin, A. A., et al., “Superior Thermal Conductivity of Single-Layer Graphene,” Nano Letters, 8, pp. 902907 (2008).
4. Du, X., Skachko, I., Barker, A. and Andrei, E. Y., “Approaching Ballistic Transport in Suspended Graphene,” Nature Nanotechnology, 3, pp. 491495 (2008).
5. Allen, M. J., Tung, V. C. and Kaner, R. B., “Honeycomb Carbon: A Review of Graphene,” Chemical Reviews, 110, pp. 132145 (2009).
6. Li, C., Adamcik, J. and Mezzenga, R., “Biodegradable Nanocomposites of Amyloid Fibrils and Graphene with Shape-Memory and Enzyme-Sensing Properties,” Nature Nanotechnology, 7, pp. 421427 (2012).
7. Compton, O. C., et al., “Additive-Free Hydrogelation of Graphene Oxide by Ultrasonication,” Carbon, 50, pp. 33993406 (2012).
8. Li, D., Muller, M. B., Gilje, S., Kaner, R. B. and Wallace, G. G., “Processable Aqueous Dispersions of Graphene Nanosheets,” Nature Nanotechnology, 3, pp. 101105 (2008).
9. Hummers, W. S. and Offeman, R. E., “Preparation of Graphitic Oxide,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, 80, pp. 13391339 (1958).
10. Dreyer, D. R., Park, S., Bielawski, C. W. and Ruoff, R. S., “The Chemistry of Graphene Oxide,” Chemical Society Reviews, 39, pp. 228240 (2010).
11. Pei, S. and Cheng, H. M., “The Reduction of Graphene Oxide,” Carbon, 50, pp. 32103228 (2012).
12. Mao, S., Pu, H. and Chen, J., “Graphene Oxide and its Reduction: Modeling and Experimental Progress,” RSC Advances, 2, pp. 26432662 (2012).
13. Liang, J., et al., “Infrared- Triggered Actuators from Graphene-Based Nanocomposites,” Journal of Physical Chemistry, 113, pp. 99219927 (2009).
14. Kalaitzidou, K., Fukushima, H. and Drzal, L. T., “A New Compounding Method for Exfoliated Graphite-Polypropylene Nanocomposites with Enhanced Flexural Properties and Lower Percolation Threshold,” Composites Science and Technology, 67, pp. 20452051 (2007).
15. Leroux, F. and Besse, J. P., “Polymer Intercalated Layered Double Hydroxide: a New Emerging Class of Nanocomposites,” Chemical Materials, 13, pp. 35073515 (2001).
16. Tseng, I.-H., Liao, Y.-F., Chiang, J.-C. and Tsai, M.-H., “Transparent Polyimide/Graphene Oxide Nanocomposite with Improved Moisture Barrier Property,” Materials Chemistry and Physics, 136, pp. 247253 (2012).
17. Huang, , et al., “High Barrier Graphene Oxide Nanosheet/Poly (Vinyl Alcohol) Nanocomposite Films,” Journal of Membrane Science, 409-410, pp. 156163 (2012).
18. Kim, J., et al., “Moisture Barrier Composites Made of Non-Oxidized Graphene Flakes,” Small, 11, pp. 31243129 (2015).
19. Yousefi, N., et al., “Highly Aligned, Ultralarge-Size Reduced Graphene Oxide/Polyurethane Nanocomposites: Mechanical Properties and Moisture Permeability,” Composites: Part A, 49, pp. 4250 (2013).
20. Teng, C.-C., et al., “Thermal Conductivity and Structure of Non-Covalent Functionalized Graphene/Epoxy Composites,” Carbon, 49, pp. 51075116 (2011).
21. Lv, C., et al., “Effect of Chemisorption on the Interfacial Bonding Characteristics of Graphene-Polymer Composites,” Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 114, pp. 65886594 (2010).
22. Wang, H., et al., “Pristine Graphene Dispersion in Solvents and its Application as a Catalyst Support: A Combined Theoretical and Experimental Study,” Journal of Materials Chemistry A, 3, pp. 62826285 (2015)


Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Moisture Effect on Mechanical Properties of Graphene/Epoxy Nanocomposites

  • H.-K. Liu (a1), Y.-C. Wang (a2) and T.-H. Huang (a1)


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.