Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Mechanics for the Adhesion and Aggregation of Red Blood Cells on Chitosan

  • K. Y. Chen (a1), T. H. Lin (a2), C. Y. Yang (a3), Y. W. Kuo (a4) and U. Lei (a1)...

Abstract

Hemostasis, a process which causes bleeding to stop, can be enhanced using chitosan; but the detailed mechanism is unclear. Red blood cells (RBCs) adhere to chitosan because of their opposite charges, but the adhesion force is small, 3.83 pN as measured here using an optical tweezer, such that the direct adhesion cannot be the sole cause for hemostasis. However, it was observed in this study that layer structures of aggregated RBCs were formed next to chitosan objects in both static and flowing environments, but not formed next to cotton and rayon yarns. The layer structure is the clue for the initiation of hemostatsis. Through the supporting measurements of zeta potentials of RBCs and pH's using blood-chitosan mixtures, it is proposed here that the formation of the RBC layer structure next to chitosan objects is due to the reduction of repulsive electric double layer force between RBCs, because of the association of H+ deprotonated from chitosan with COO on RBC membrane, under the DLVO (Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek) theory. The results are beneficial for designing effective chitosan-based wound dressings, and also for general biomedical applications.

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Corresponding author (leiu@iam.ntu.edu.tw)

References

Hide All
1. Pillai, C. K. S., Paul, W. and Sharma, C. P., “Chitin and Chitosan Polymers: Chemistry, Solubility and Fiber Formation,” Progress in Polymer Science, 34, pp. 641678 (2009).
2. Dash, M., Chiellini, F., Ottenbrite, R. M. and Chiellini, E., “A Versatile Semi-Synthetic Polymer in Biomedical Applications,” Progress in Polymer Science, 36, pp. 9811014 (2001).
3. Yi, H. et al., “Biofabrication with Chitosan,” Biomacromolecules, 6, pp. 28812894 (2005).
4. Dai, T., Tanaka, M., Huang, Y. Y. and Hamblin, M. R., “Chitosan Preparations for Wounds and Burns: Antimicrobial and Wound-Healing Effects,” Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy, 9, pp. 857879 (2011).
5. Jayakumar, R., Prabaharan, M., Sudheesh Kumar, P. T., Nair, C. V. and Tamura, H., “Biomaterials Based on Chitin and Chitosan in Wound Dressing Applications,” Biotechnology Advances, 29, pp. 322337 (2011).
6. Bennett, B. L. et al., “Management of External Hemorrhage in Tactical Combat Casualty Care: Chitosan-Based Hemostatic Gauze Dressings. TCCC Guidelines – Change 13-05,” Journal of Special Operations Medicine, 14, pp. 4057 (2014).
7. Pusateri, A. E. et al., “Making Sense of the Preclinical Literature on Advanced Hemostatic Products,” The Journal of Trauma: Injury, Infection, and Critical Care, 60, pp. 674682 (2006).
8. Gordy, S. D., Rhee, P. and Schreiber, M. A., “Military Applications of Novel Hemostatic Devices,” Expert Review of Medical Devices, 8, pp. 4147 (2011).
9. Brown, M. A., Daya, M. R. and Worley, J. A., “Experience with Chitosan Dressings in a Civilian EMS System,” The Journal of Emergency Medicine, 37, pp. 17 (2009).
10. Mlekusch, W. et al., “Arterial Puncture Site Management after Percutaneous Transluminal Procedures Using a Hemostatic Wound Dressing (Clo-Sur P.A.D.) Versus Conventional Manual Compression: a Randomized Controlled Trial,” Journal of Endovascular Therapy, 13, pp. 2331 (2006).
11. Thatte, H. S., Zagarins, S., Khuri, S. F. and Fischer, T. H., “Mechanisms of Poly-N-Acetyl Glucosamine Polymer-Mediated Hemostasis: Platelet Interactions,” The Journal of Trauma: Injury, Infection, and Critical Care, 57, pp. S13-S21 (2004).
12. Chou, T. C., Fu, E., Wu, C. J. and Yeh, J. H., “Chitosan Enhances Platelet Adhesion and Aggregation,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 302, pp. 480483 (2003).
13. Rao, S. B. and Sharma, C. P., “Use of Chitosan as a Biomaterial: Studies on Its Safety and Hemostatic Potential,” Journal of Biomedical Materials Research, 34, pp. 2128 (1997).
14. Millner, R., Lockhart, A. S. and Marr, R., “Chitosan Arrests Bleeding in Major Hepatic Injuries with Clotting Ddysfunction: an in vivo Experimental Study in a Model of Hepatic Injury in the Presence of Moderate Systemic Heparinisation,” Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England, 92, pp. 559561 (2010).
15. Chan, L. W. et al., “PolySTAT-Modified Chitosan Gauzes for Improved Hemostasis in External Hemorrhage,” Acta Biomaterialia, 31, pp. 178185 (2016).
16. Lo, Y. J. et al., “Derivation of the Cell Dielectric Properties Based on Clausius-Mossotti Factor,” Applied Physics Letters, 104, pp. 113702 (2014).
17. Lei, U. et al., “A Travelling Wave Dielectrophoretic Pump for Blood Delivery,” Lab on a Chip, 9, pp. 13491356 (2009).
18. Sagvolden, G., Giaever, I., Pettersen, E. O. and Feder, J., “Cell Adhesion Force Microscopy,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, USA, 96, pp. 471476 (1999).
19. Fontes, A. et al., “Measuring Electrical and Mechanical Properties of Red Blood Cells with Double Optical Tweezers,” Journal of Biomedical Optics, 13, pp. 014001 (2008).
20. Kendall, K. and Roberts, A. D., “van der Waals Forces Influencing Adhesion of Cells,” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 370, pp. 20140078 (2015).
21. Fernandes, H. P., Cesar, C. L. and Barjas-Castro, M. L., “Electrical Properties of the Red Blood Cell Membrane and Immunohematological Investigation,” Revista Brasileira De Hematologia E Hemoterapia, 33, pp. 297301 (2011).
22. Wagner, C., Steffen, P. and Svetina, S., “Aggregation of Red Blood Cells: From Rouleaux to Clot Formation,” Comptes Rendus Physique, 14, pp. 459469 (2013).
23. Israelachvilli, J. N., Intermolecular and Surface Forces, 3rd ed., Academic, London (2011).
24. Eylar, E. H., Madoff, M. A., Brody, O. V. and Oncley, J. L., “The Contribution of Sialic Acid to the Surface Charge of the Erythrocyte,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 237, pp. 19922000 (1962).
25. Jan, K. M. and Chien, S., “Role of Surface Electric Charge in Red Blood Cell Interaction,” The Journal of General Physiology, 61, pp. 638654 (1973).
26. Tokumasu, F., Ostera, G. R., Amaratunga, C. and Fairhurst, R. M., “Modifications in Erythrocyte Membrane Zeta potential by Plasmodium Falciparum Infection,” Experimental Parasitology, 131, pp. 245251 (2012).
27. Jan, K. M. and Chien, S., “Influence of the Ionic Composition of Fluid Medium on Red Cell Aggregation,” The Journal of General Physiology, 61, pp. 655668 (1973).
28. Correlo, V. M. et al., “Water Absorption and Degradation Characteristics of Chitosan-Based Polyesters and Hydroxyapatite Composites,” Macromolecular Bioscience, 7, pp. 354363 (2007).
29. Happel, J. and Brenner, H., Low Reynolds Number Hydrodynamics. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Boston (1986).

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed