Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Investigation of Stress-Strain Constitutive Behavior of Intermetallic Alloys

  • H. C. Cheng (a1), H. C. Hu (a2), R. Y. Hong (a2) and W. H. Chen (a2)

Abstract

The study aims to estimate the stress-strain constitutive behavior of intermetallic compounds (IMCs) observed in a solder interconnect from experimental nanoindentation responses through a modified analysis procedure for improved solution robustness based on Cheng and Cheng's and Dao et al.'s models. On the basis of parametric finite element nanoindentation simulation and dimensional analysis together with the concept of representative strain, a set of universal dimensionless functions are established, by which a forward and reverse analysis algorithm are created to predict nanoindentation responses from given elastoplastic properties and vice versa, respectively. The proposed analysis procedure is validated through comparison with the experimental nanoindentation responses and limited literature data. The results show that the proposed analysis procedure is an effective means for plastic property characterization of micro/nanoscale IMCs. The representative strain is found to be 0.056, which differs from the Dao et al.'s and Giannakopoulos and Suresh's estimate. Besides, though generally brittle and hard in nature, the IMCs in a micro/nanoscale thickness show high plasticity, and comprise a yield strength surpassing most typical engineering metals.

Copyright

Corresponding author

References

Hide All
1. Tsai, H.-Y. and Kuo, C.-W., “Thermal Stress and Failure Location Analysis for Through Silicon Via in 3D Integration,” Journal of Mechanics, 32, pp. 4753 (2016).
2. Suganuma, K., “Advances in Lead-Free Electronics Soldering,” Current Opinion in Solid State & Materials Science, 5, pp. 5564 (2001).
3. Benabou, L., Sun, Z., Pougnet, P. and Dahoo, P. R., “Continuum Damage Approach for Fatigue Life Prediction of Viscoplastic Solder Joints,” Journal of Mechanics, 31, pp. 525531 (2015).
4. Cheng, H.-C., Cheng, T.-H., Chen, W.-H., Chang, T.-C. and Huang, H.-Y., “Board-Level Interconnect Reliability Assessment of Silicon Interposer-Based 2.5D IC Integration under Drop Impact,“ IEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, 6, pp. 14931504 (2016).
5. Cheng, H.-C., Li, R.-S., Lin, S.-C., Chen, W.-H. and Chiang, K.-N., “Macroscopic Mechanical Constitutive Characterization of Through-Silicon-Via (TSV)-Based 3D Integration,” IEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, 6, pp. 432446 (2016).
6. Chen, W.-H., Yu, C.-F., Cheng, H.-C. and Lu, S.-T., “Crystal Size and Direction Dependence of the Elastic Properties of Cu3Sn Through Molecular Dynamics Simulation and Nanoindentation Testing,” Microelectronics Reliability, 52, pp. 16991710 (2012).
7. Song, J.-M., Shen, Y.-L., Su, C.-W., Lai, Y.-S. and Chiu, Y.-T., “Strain Rate Dependence on Nanoindentation Responses of Interfacial Intermetallic Compounds in Electronic Solder Joints with Cu and Ag Substrates,” Materials Transactions, 50, pp. 12311234 (2009).
8. Deng, X., Chawla, N., Chawla, K. K. and Koopman, M., “Deformation Behavior of (Cu, Ag)-Sn Intermetallics by Nanoindentation,” Acta Materialia, 52, pp. 42914303 (2004).
9. Liao, L.-L. and Chiang, K.-N., “Nonlinear and Temperature-Dependent Material Properties of Au/Sn Intermetallic Compound,” Journal of Mechanics, DOI: 10.1017/jmech.2017.21 (2017).
10. Su, Y.-F., Chiang, K.-N. and Liang, Steven Y., “Design and Reliability Assessment of Novel 3D-IC Packaging,” Journal of Mechanics, 33, pp. 193203 (2017).
11. Chan, Y. C., Tu, P. L., Tang, C. W., Hung, K. C. and Lai, J. K. L., “Reliability Studies of μBGA Solder Joints-Effect of Ni-Sn Intermetallic Compound,” IEEE Transactions on Advanced Packaging, 24, pp. 2532 (2001).
12. Yao, D. and Shang, J. K., “Effect of Aging on Fatigue Crack Growth at Sn-Pb/Cu Interfaces,” Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, 26, pp. 26772685 (1995).
13. Kim, J. Y., Sohn, Y. C. and Yu, J., “Effect of Cu Content on the Mechanical Reliability of Ni/Sn-3.5Ag System,” Journal of Materials Research, 22, pp. 770776 (2007).
14. Frear, D. R., Burchett, S. N., Morgan, H. S. and Lau, J. H., eds., The Mechanics of Solder Alloy Interconnects, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, p. 60 (1994).
15. Oliver, W. C. and Pharr, G. M., “An Improved Technique for Determining Hardness and Elastic Modulus Using Load and Displacement Sensing Indentation Experiments,” Journal of Materials Research, 7, pp. 15641583 (1992).
16. Cheng, Y. T. and Cheng, C. M., “Analysis of Indentation Loading Curves Obtained Using Conical Indenters,” Philosophical Magazine Letter, 77, pp. 3947 (1998).
17. Dao, M., Chollacoop, N., Van Vliet, K. J., Venkatesh, T. A. and Suresh, S., “Computational Modeling of the Forward and Reverse Problems in Instrumented Sharp Indentation,” Acta Materialia, 49, pp. 38993918 (2001).
18. Tunvisut, K., Busso, E. P., O’Dowd, N. P. and Brantner, H. P., “Determination of the Mechanical Properties of Metallic Thin Films and Substrates From Indentation Tests,” Philosophical Magazine A, 82, pp. 20132029 (2002).
19. Cheng, Y. T. and Cheng, C. M., “Scaling, Dimensional, and Indentation Measurements,” Materials Science and Engineering R, 44, pp. 91149 (2004).
20. Antunes, J. M., Fernandes, J. V., Menezes, L. F. and Chaparro, B. M., “A New Approach for Reverse Analyses in Depth-Sensing Indentation Using Numerical Simulation,” Acta Materialia, 55, pp. 6981 (2007).
21. Nakamura, T. and Gu, Y., “Identification of Elastic– plastic Anisotropic Parameters Using Instrumented Indentation and Inverse Analysis,” Mechanics of Materials, 39, pp. 340356 (2007).
22. Takagi, H., Dao, M., Fujiwara, M. and Otsuka, M., “Experimental and Computational Creep Characterization of Al-Mg Solid-Solution Alloy Through Instrumented Indentation,” Philosophical Magazine, 83, pp. 39593976 (2003).
23. Sharma, G., Ramanujan, R. V., Kutty, T. R. G. and Prabhu, N., “Indentation Creep Studies of Iron Aluminide Intermetallic Alloy,” Intermetallics, 13, pp. 4753 (2005).
24. Maier, V., Merle, B., Göken, M. and Durst, K., “An Improved Long-Term Nanoindentation Creep Testing Approach for Studying the Local Deformation Processes in Nanocrystalline Metals at Room and Elevated Temperatures,” Journal of Materials Research, 28, pp. 11771188 (2013).
25. Wu, W., Qin, F., An, T. and Chen, P., “A Study of Creep Behavior of TSV-Cu Based on Nanoindentaion Creep Test,” Journal of Mechanics, 32, pp. 717724 (2016).
26. Giannakopoulos, A. E. and Suresh, S.Determination of Elastoplastic Properties by Instrumented Sharp Indentation,” Scripta Materialia, 40, pp. 11911198 (1999).
27. Ogasawara, N., “Representative Strain of Indentation Analysis,” Journal of Materials Research, 20, pp. 22252234 (2005).
28. Chollacoop, N., Dao, M. and Suresh, S., “Depth-Sensing Instrumented Indentation with Dual Sharp Indenters,” Acta Materialia, 51, pp. 37133729 (2003).
29. Bucaille, J. L., Stauss, S., Felder, E. and Michler, J., “Determination of Plastic Properties of Metals by Instrumented Indentation Using Different Sharp Indenters,” Acta Materialia, 51, pp. 16631678 (2003).
30. Pharr, G. M., “Measurement of Mechanical Properties by Ultra Low Load Indentation,” Materials Science and Engineering A, 253, pp. 151159 (1998).
31. King, R. B., “Elastic Analysis of Some Punch Problems for a Layered Medium,” International Journal of Solids and Structures, 23, pp. 16571664 (1987).
32. Lee, J., Lee, C. and Kim, B., “Reverse Analysis of Nano-Indentation Using Different Representative Strains and Residual Indentation Profiles,” Materials and Design, 30, pp. 33953404 (2009).
33. Chicot, D. et al., “Mechanical Properties of Porosity-Free Beta Tricalcium Phosphate (β-TCP) Ceramic by Sharp and Spherical Indentations,” New Journal of Glass and Ceramics, 3, pp. 1628 (2013).

Keywords

Investigation of Stress-Strain Constitutive Behavior of Intermetallic Alloys

  • H. C. Cheng (a1), H. C. Hu (a2), R. Y. Hong (a2) and W. H. Chen (a2)

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed