Skip to main content Accessibility help

Influence of Design Parameters on the Air/Liquid Ratio of an Air Induction Nozzle

  • F. Vashahi (a1), S. Ra (a1), Y. Choi (a2) and J. K. Lee (a3)


A two-phase flow parametric study on an air induction nozzle with water and air as the working fluids is presented. Liquid was supplied at the pre-orifice with various inlet pressures ranging from 3 to 6 bar. The interaction between air and water at the molecular level at the orifice exit leads to formation of a strong shear layer that is intensified with the increase in inlet pressure. Thus, it is vital to regulate the ratio of the intake air to the supplied liquid so that the generated micro bubbles fit the design criteria. CFD analysis was conducted using the commercial software STAR CCM+ from Siemens and validated against experimental data to investigate the design parameters and their effect on the ALR. A volume of fluid (VOF) method of the RANS models was used to undertake the air-water interaction. Parameters such as the throat, air orifice, and air inlet diameter, along with the diffuser angle, were investigated. It was found that certain parameters such as the throat diameter have a more significant effect on the air/liquid entrainment ratio than other parameters.


Corresponding author

*Corresponding author (


Hide All
1. Wolf, T. M. and Kutcher, H. R., “Spray Application Methods to Maximize Sclerotinia Control in Canola with Foliar Fungicide,” CARP 9823, Canola council of Canada (2001).
2. Vallet, C. T., “Characteristics of Droplets from Single and Twin Jet Air Induction Nozzles: A preliminary investigation,” Crop Protection, 48, pp. 6368 (2013).
3. Miller, P. C. H., Powell, J. H., Kudsk, O. P. and Mathiassen, S., “Defining the Size of Target for Air Induction Nozzles,” PROJECT REPORT 317, Home-Grown Cereals Authority (2003).
4. Saglam, T. R. and Turgut, M.M., “Equipment and Application Techniques Reduced Agricultural Pesticide Drift,” 10th International Congress on Mechanization and Energy in Agriculture, Antalya, Turkey (2008).
5. Sikkema, P. H. et al., “Flat fan and air induction nozzles affect soybean herbicide efficacy,” Weed Biology and Management, 8, pp. 3138 (2008).
6. Dorr, G. J. et al., “A comparison of initial spray characteristics produced by agricultural nozzles,” Crop Protection, 53, pp. 109117 (2013).
7. Xiao, L. and Long, X., “Cavitating flow in annular jet pumps,” International Journal of Multiphase Flow, 71, pp. 116132 (2015).
8. Yang, X., Long, X. and Yao, X., “Numerical investigation on the mixing process in a steam ejector with different nozzle structures,” International Journal of Thermal Sciences, 56, pp 95-106 (2012).
9. Shah, A., Chughtai, I. R. and Inayat, M. H., “Experimental study of the characteristics of steam jet pump and effect of mixing section length on direct-contact condensation,” International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 58, pp. 6269 (2013).
10. Fan, J. et al., “Computational fluid dynamic analysis and design optimization of jet pumps,” 10th ICFD Conference Series on Numerical Methods for Fluid Dynamics (ICFD 2010), Computers & Fluids, 46, pp. 212217 (2011).
11. Zhu, Y., Cai, W., Wen, C. and Li, Y., “Numerical investigation of geometry parameters for design of high performance ejectors,” Applied Thermal Engineering, 29, pp. 898905 (2009).
12. Hemidi, A., Henry, A., Leclaire, S., Seynhaeve, J.-M. and Bartosiewicz, Y., “CFD analysis of a supersonic air ejector. Part II: Relation between global operation and local flow features,” Applied Thermal Engineering, 29, pp. 29902998 (2009).
13. Long, X. P., Zeng, Q. L., Yang, X. L. and Xiao, L., “Structure optimization of an annular jet pump using design of experiment method and CFD,” IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 15, (2012).
14. Miller, P. C. H. and Butler Ellis, M. C., “Effects of formulation on spray nozzle performance for applications from ground-based boom sprayers,” Crop Protection, 19, pp. 609615 (2000).
15. Butler Ellis, M. C. et al., “PM—Power and Machinery: Design Factors affecting Spray Characteristics and Drift Performance of Air Induction Nozzles,” Biosystems Engineering, 82, pp. 289296 (2002).
16. Yadav, R. L. and Patwardhan, A. W., “Design aspects of ejectors: Effects of suction chamber geometry,” Chemical Engineering Science, 63, pp. 38863897 (2008).
17. Kandakure, M. T., Gaikar, V. G. and Patwardhan, A. W., “Hydrodynamic aspects of ejectors,” Chemical Engineering Science, 60, pp. 63916402 (2005).
18. Li, C., Li, Y. and Wang, L., “Configuration dependence and optimization of the entrainment performance for gas–gas and gas–liquid ejectors,” Applied Thermal Engineering, 48, pp. 237248 (2012).
19. STAR-CCM Version 10 Manual, Siemens (2015).
20. Pope, S. B., Turbulent Flows, 2nd Edition, Cambridge University Press, New York, pp. 182189 (2000).
21. Waclawczyk, T. and Koronowicz, T., “Comparison of CICSAM and HRIC high-resolution schemes for interface capturing,” Journal of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, 46, pp. 325345 (2008).



Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed