Tracer self-diffusion of Ba and Y and the diffusion of Dy, Ho, and Gd, which substitute for Y, have been measured in polycrystalline YBa2Cu3Ox over temperature and oxygen partial pressure ranges of 850 to 980 °C and 103 to 105 Pa, respectively. The diffusion of Ba is slower than that of oxygen or copper, with a high activation energy of about 890 ± 80 kJ/mole. Large anisotropy has also been observed, with diffusion along the c-axis being more than three orders of magnitude slower than diffusion in randomly oriented polycrystals. Diffusion coefficients of Ba were, within experimental uncertainty, independent of oxygen partial pressure over the range measured. The diffusion coefficients of the Y-site species were nearly identical and an activation energy of about 1.0 MJ/mole was estimated, in agreement with that for high-temperature deformation. Attempts to speed up the kinetics through creation of point defects on the Y site by doping proved to be unsuccessful. These results are compared to cation diffusion in cubic perovskites and simple oxides.