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ZnO submicron structures of controlled morphology synthesized in zinc-hexamethylenetetramine-ethylenediamine aqueous system

  • Xiang-Dong Gao (a1), Xiao-Min Li (a1), Sam Zhang (a2), Wei-Dong Yu (a1) and Ji-Jun Qiu (a1)...


The morphology of ZnO submicron crystals formed in a weak alkaline environment (pH value less than 11.0) was systematically studied for the first time. ZnO submicron particles with different morphologies (flowers, rod, and wire) were synthesized from an aqueous solution by adopting ethylenediamine as the source of hydroxyl group, hexamethylenetetramine (HMT) as the additive, and potassium chloride (KCl) as the background electrolyte. The effects of primary experimental parameters such as HMT and KCl addition, precursor concentration, and reaction temperature on the microstructure, crystallinity of the resultant particles, and their distribution on substrate are discussed in this paper. In the flowerlike structure, the particle size is more controlled by the precursor concentration, and the microstructure is modulated by increasing the concentration of HMT and the reaction temperature. The introduction of ZnO seed layer on substrate promotes even distribution of ZnO flowers. High concentration KCl electrolyte inhibits formation of the flowerlike structure and promotes the growth of submicron ZnO crystals in rod or wire shape. Mechanism studies indicate that the degree of supersaturation of Zn(OH)2 and the adsorption of organic/inorganic species on the surface of ZnO are the prime factors influencing the nucleation, growth rate, and eventual morphology.


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