Skip to main content Accessibility help

Self-repairable glass seals for solid oxide fuel cells

  • Raj N. Singh (a1)


Seals are required for a functioning solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). These seals must function at high temperatures of 600–900 °C and in oxidizing and reducing environments of the fuels and air. Among the different type of seals, the metal–ceramic seals require significant attention, research, and development because the brittle nature of ceramics and glasses leads to fracture and loss of seal integrity and functionality. A novel concept of self-healing/self-repairable glass seals is proposed, developed, and used for making metal–glass–ceramic seals for application in SOFC for enhancing reliability and life. Glasses and glass–ceramics displaying self-healing behavior are investigated and used to fabricate seals. The performance of these seals under long-term exposure at higher temperatures coupled with thermal cycling is characterized. Self-repairability of these glass seals is also demonstrated by leak tests along with the long-term performance. An approach for studying the kinetics of crack healing in glasses and glass–ceramics responsible for self-repair is briefly described.


Corresponding author

a)Address all correspondence to this author. e-mail:


Hide All
1.Minh, N.Q.: Ceramic fuel cells. J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 76(3), 563588 (1993).
2.Tu, H. and Stimming, U.: Advances, ageing mechanism and lifetime in solid oxide fuel cells. J. Power Sources 127, 284293 (2004).
3.Yang, Z., Xia, G., Meinhardt, K.D., Weil, K.S., and Stevenson, J.W.: Chemical stability of glass seal interface in intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell. J. Mater. Eng. Perform. 13, 327334 (2004).
4.Sohn, S.B., Choi, S.Y., Kim, G.H., Song, H.S., and Kim, G.D.: Stable sealing glass for planar solid oxide fuel cell. J. Non-Cryst. Solids 297, 103112 (2002).
5.Singh, R.N.: High temperature seals for solid oxide fuel cells, in Proceedings of Twenty Ninth International Conference on Advanced Ceramics and Composites, Cocoa Beach, FL. 25(3), 299307 (2004).
6.Singh, R.N.: High temperature seals for solid oxide fuel cells, in Proceedings of ASM International Conference (J. Mater. Eng. Perform., 15, Columbus, OH, 2007); pp 422426, Oct 18-20, 2004.
7.Chou, Y.S.: Compressive seals development, in SECA Core Technology Program Review (Albany, NY, 2003).
8.Chou, Y.S., Stevenson, J.W., and Chick, L.A.: Ultra low leak rate of hybrid compressive mica seals for SOFC. J. Power Sources 112, 130 (2002).
9.Singh, R.N. and Parihar, S.S.: Layered composite seals for solid oxide fuel cells, in Proceedings of Twenty Ninth International Conference on Advanced Ceramics and Composites, Vol. 26(4), Cocoa Beach, FL, 2005. Ad. Solid Oxide Fuel Cells.
10.Parihar, S.S. and Singh, R.N.: Self healing glass seals for solid oxide fuel cell, in Proceedings of Hundred and Seventh Annual Meeting, 2005. (American Ceramic Society, Baltimore, MD, 2005).
11.Singh, R.N. and Parihar, S.S.: High temperature seals for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), in SECA Core Technology Workshop (Tampa, FL, 2005).
12.Singh, R.N.: Sealing technology for solid oxide fuel cells. Int. J. Appl. Ceram. Technol. 4(2), 134144 (2007).
13.Weil, K.S., Hardy, J.S., and Kim, J.Y.: Use of a novel ceramic-metal braze for joining in high temperature electrochemical devices, in The Joining of Advanced and Specialty Materials, edited by Indacochea, J.E. (ASM International, Materials Park, OH, 2003); pp. 4755.
14.Brow, R.K. and Reis, D.S.: Designing Sealing Glasses for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (ASM Materials Solutions Conference Exposition, Columbus, OH, 2004).
15.Lewinsohn, C., Quist, S., and Elangovan, S.: Novel materials for obtaining compliant, high temperature seals for solid oxide fuel cells. in SECA Core Technology Program Review (Albany, NY, 2003).
16.Chou, Y.S. and Stevenson, J.W.: Mid-term stability of novel mica-based compressive seals for SOFC. J. Power Sources 115, 274 (2003).
17.Loehman, R.: Development of high performance seals for solid oxide fuel cells, in SECA Core Technology Program Review (Albany, NY, 2003).
18.Tanaguchi, S., Kadowaki, M., Yasuo, T., Akiyamu, Y., Miyaki, Y., and Nishio, K.: Improvement of thermal cycle characteristics of a planar-type SOFC by using ceramic fiber as a sealing material. J. Power Sources 90, 163 (2000).
19.Donald, I.W.: Review: Preparation, properties, and chemistry of glass and glass- ceramic-to metal seals and coatings. J. Mater. Sci. 28, 2841 (1993).
20.Kingery, W.D., Bowen, H.K., and Uhlman, D.R.: Introduction to Ceramics (Wiley, New York, NY, 2nd ed., 1976); pp. 590598.
21.Govindraju, N., Liu, W.N., Sun, X., Singh, P., and Singh, R.N.: A modeling study on the thermomechanical behavior of glass-ceramic and self-healing glass seals at elevated temperatures. J. Power Sources 190, 476484 (2008).
22.Gupta, T.K.: Crack healing and strengthening of thermally shocked alumina. J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 58, 56 (1976).
23.Yen, C.F. and Coble, R.L.: Spheroidization of tubular voids in Al2O3 at high temperatures. J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 55(10), 507509 (1972).
24.Singh, R.N. and Routbort, J.L.: Fracture and crack healing in (U, Pu)C. J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 62(3–4), 128133 (1979).
25.Flange, F.F.: Crack healing by heat treatment. J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 53(1), 5455 (1975).
26.Wiederhorn, M. and Townsend, P.R.: Crack healing in glass. J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 53(9), 486489 (1970).
27.Nichols, F.A. and Mullins, W.W.: Surface-(interface) and volume-diffusion contributions to morphological changes driven by capillarity. Trans. Metall. Soc. AIME 233, 18401848 (1965).
28.Gupta, T.K.: Instability of cylindrical voids in alumina. J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 61(5–6), 191195 (1978).
29.Raj, R., Pavinich, W., and Ahlquist, C.N.: On the sintering rate of cleavage cracks. Acta Metall. 23(3), 399403 (1975).
30.Wu, W.H., Zhang, J.L., Zhou, W.H., and Huang, Y.N.: A method to study the crack healing process of glass formers. Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 11918 (2008).
31.Wilson, B.A. and Case, E.D.: In situ microscopy of crack healing in borosilicate glass. J. Mater. Sci. 32, 31633175 (1997).
32.Gupta, T.K.: Crack healing in Al2O3, MgO, and related materials. Adv. Ceram. 10, 750766 (1984).
33.Jagota, A. and Dawson, P.R.: Simulation of the viscous sintering of two particles. J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 73(1), 173177 (1990).
34.Wang, Y.L., Anandkumar, U., and Singh, R.N.: Effect of fiber bridging stress on the fracture resistance of fiber reinforced ceramic composites. Am. Cerm. Soc. 83(3), 12071214 (2000).
35.Chou, Y-S., Thomsen, E.C., Choi, J-P., and Stevenson, J.W.: Compliant alkali silicate sealing glass for solid oxide fuel cell applications: Combined stability in isothermal ageing and thermal cycling with YSZ coated ferritic stainless steels. J. Power Sources 197, 154160 (2012).
36.Zhang, T., Zou, Q., Zhang, J., Tang, D., and Yang, H.: Development of ceramic sealant for solid oxide fuel cell applications: Self-healing property, mechanical stability, and thermal stability. J. Power Sources 204, 122126 (2012).


Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Self-repairable glass seals for solid oxide fuel cells

  • Raj N. Singh (a1)


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.