- Cited by 26
Yoon, Jeong-Won Chun, Hyun-Suk Lee, Hoo-Jeong and Jung, Seung-Boo 2007. Microstructural evolution and interfacial reactions of fluxless-bonded Au-20Sn/Cu solder joint during reflow and aging. Journal of Materials Research, Vol. 22, Issue. 10, p. 2817.
Yoon, Jeong-Won Kim, Jong-Woong Koo, Ja-Myeong Noh, Bo-In and Jung, Seung-Boo 2008. Au-Sn Flip-chip Bumping Technology and Reliability for Optoelectronic Packaging. Journal of the Korean Welding and Joining Society, Vol. 26, Issue. 1, p. 37.
Koo, Ja-Myeong Yoon, Jeong-Won and Jung, Seung-Boo 2008. Interfacial reactions and mechanical properties of In–48Sn solder joint with electroplated Au/Ni ball grid array (BGA) substrate after multiple reflows. Journal of Materials Research, Vol. 23, Issue. 06, p. 1631.
Rong An Chunqing Wang and Yanhong Tian 2008. First-principles study on the elastic anisotropy of Au-Sn intermetallic compounds. p. 1.
An, Rong Wang, Chunqing and Tian, Yanhong 2008. Determination of the Elastic Properties of Au5Sn and AuSn from Ab Initio Calculations. Journal of Electronic Materials, Vol. 37, Issue. 7, p. 968.
Yoon, Jeong-Won Chun, Hyun-Suk Noh, Bo-In Koo, Ja-Myeong Kim, Jong-Woong Lee, Hoo-Jeong and Jung, Seung-Boo 2008. Mechanical reliability of Sn-rich Au–Sn/Ni flip chip solder joints fabricated by sequential electroplating method. Microelectronics Reliability, Vol. 48, Issue. 11-12, p. 1857.
Yoon, Jeong-Won Chun, Hyun-Suk and Jung, Seung-Boo 2009. Liquid-state and solid-state interfacial reactions of fluxless-bonded Au–20Sn/ENIG solder joint. Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Vol. 469, Issue. 1-2, p. 108.
Suganuma, Katsuaki Kim, Seong-Jun and Kim, Keun-Soo 2009. High-temperature lead-free solders: Properties and possibilities. JOM, Vol. 61, Issue. 1, p. 64.
Yoon, Jeong-Won Noh, Bo-In and Jung, Seung-Boo 2011. Interfacial reaction between Au–Sn solder and Au/Ni-metallized Kovar. Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, Vol. 22, Issue. 1, p. 84.
Perpiñà, X. Werkhoven, R. Jakovenko, J. Formánek, J. Vellvehi, M. Jordà, X. Kunen, J. Bancken, P. and Bolt, P.J. 2012. Design for reliability of solid state lighting systems. Microelectronics Reliability, Vol. 52, Issue. 9-10, p. 2294.
Choi, Woo-Chang and Choi, Hyun-Jin 2012. Development of a 3-D Process Technology for Wafer-Level Packaging of MEMS Devices. IEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, Vol. 2, Issue. 9, p. 1442.
Jakovenko, J. Formanek, J. Pardo, B. Perpina, X. Werkhoven, R.J. Kunen, J.M.G. Bancken, P. and Bolt, P.J. 2012. Thermo-mechanical evaluation and life time simulation of high power LED lamp boards. p. 1/5.
Dang, Tuoc Shima, Darryl Balakrishnan, Ganesh Chen, Antao and Bedford, Robert G. 2012. Low homologous temperature (<0.2) sputtering of indium films on silicon. Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B, Nanotechnology and Microelectronics: Materials, Processing, Measurement, and Phenomena, Vol. 30, Issue. 6, p. 060602.
Dong, H.Q. Vuorinen, V. Laurila, T. and Paulasto-Kröckel, M. 2013. Thermodynamic reassessment of Au–Ni–Sn ternary system. Calphad, Vol. 43, Issue. , p. 61.
Jakovenko, J. Formánek, J. Perpiñà, X. Jorda, X. Vellvehi, M. Werkhoven, R.J. Husák, M. Kunen, J.M.G. Bancken, P. Bolt, P.J. and Gasse, A. 2013. Design methodologies for reliability of SSL LED boards. Microelectronics Reliability, Vol. 53, Issue. 8, p. 1076.
Huang, M. L. Huang, F. F. Pan, J. L. and Zhang, T. X. 2014. Composition control of co-electroplating Au–Sn deposits using experimental strategies. Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, Vol. 25, Issue. 11, p. 4933.
Lim, Jae-Hwan Ryu, Jee-Youl Choi, Hyun-Jin and Choi, Woo-Chang 2014. Design and Fabrication of a Low-cost Wafer-level Packaging for RF Devices. Transactions on Electrical and Electronic Materials, Vol. 15, Issue. 2, p. 91.
Rautiainen, Antti Xu, Hongbo Österlund, Elmeri Li, Jue Vuorinen, Vesa and Paulasto-Kröckel, Mervi 2015. Microstructural Characterization and Mechanical Performance of Wafer-Level SLID Bonded Au-Sn and Cu-Sn Seal Rings for MEMS Encapsulation. Journal of Electronic Materials, Vol. 44, Issue. 11, p. 4533.
Liu, Yawei Huang, Mingliang Huang, Feifei and Zhao, Ning 2015. Effects of stirring speed on composition and morphology of non-cyanide co-electroplating Au-Sn thin films. p. 1283.
Menon, Sandeep George, Elviz Osterman, Michael and Pecht, Michael 2015. High lead solder (over 85 %) solder in the electronics industry: RoHS exemptions and alternatives. Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, Vol. 26, Issue. 6, p. 4021.
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In this study, we fabricated eutectic Au–Sn (Au–20 wt% Sn) flip-chip solder bumps from a single electroplating bath. After reflowing, the average diameter of the solder bump was approximately 80 μm. The (Ni,Au)3Sn2 phase was initially formed when the liquid Au–Sn solder reacted with the Ni UBM (under bump metallization). After aging at 150 °C, the (Ni,Au)3Sn2 intermetallic compound (IMC), which formed at the interface during reflow, was fully transformed into the (Au,Ni)Sn IMC due to the restricted supply of Ni atoms from the UBM to the interface. On the other hand, after aging at 250 °C for 1000 h, two IMC layers, (Au,Ni)Sn and (Ni,Au)3Sn2, were formed at the interface. The lower (Ni,Au)3Sn2 phase was formed when the (Au,Ni)Sn phase reacted with the Ni UBM. The interfacial (Au,Ni)Sn IMC grew with the preferential consumption of the available δ-phase in the solder matrix. Eventually, the ζ-phase covered most of the interfacial layer. In the bump shear tests, the Au–Sn/Ni joint aged at 150 °C fractured through the bulk of the solder, confirming the mechanical reliability of the interface. In contrast, the Au–Sn/Ni joint aged at 250 °C fractured along the interface, thereby demonstrating brittle failure, possibly a result of the brittle IMC layer at the interface.
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- ISSN: 0884-2914
- EISSN: 2044-5326
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