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The properties of thermal hillocks as a function of linewidth and process parameter in Al-on-chemical-vapor-deposited W films

  • Carey A. Pico (a1) and Tom D. Bonifield (a1)

Abstract

The formation of hillocks has been studied as a function of process parameter in patterned and unpatterned Al98.5wt. %Si1.0wt. %Cu0.5wt. % films deposited on chemical-vapor-deposited W-coated substrates. The effects of linewidth, substrate temperature during film deposition, and sintering time and temperature on hillock size were investigated. Three types of hillocks are found: the “surface hillocks”, the “side hillock”, and the “line hillock”. These are further classified by their shapes. The surface hillock and side hillock, which have been seen previously, form on patterned metal lines having linewidths greater than the larger Al alloy grain sizes (~3 μm). None is seen on linewidths between 0.9 and 2 μm where long-range grain boundary diffusion cannot occur. A new type of hillock, the line hillock, is seen to occur on metal structures having linewidths of 0.6 μm. The line hillock is inconsistent with the current understanding of hillock formation and may present severe restrictions on the downsizing of ultra-large-scale integrated devices.

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The properties of thermal hillocks as a function of linewidth and process parameter in Al-on-chemical-vapor-deposited W films

  • Carey A. Pico (a1) and Tom D. Bonifield (a1)

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