Skip to main content Accessibility help

Porous hydroxyapatite-based obturation materials for dentistry

  • Witold Brostow (a1), Miriam Estevez (a2), Haley E. Hagg Lobland (a1), Ly Hoang (a1), J. Rogelio Rodriguez (a3) and Susana Vargar (a2)...


New porous biomaterials based on hydroxyapatite (HAp) were designed as obturation materials for dental cavities. Synthetic HAp powder with a particle diameter of 150 μm was agglutinated using three different polyurethane monocomponents (rigid, semi-rigid, and flexible), enabling the matching of their properties to those of real teeth. Alumina particles were also added in some cases. Our new hybrid materials contain up to 60% HAp. Interconnected pores range in size from 100 to 350 μm, while the pore volume fraction varies between 25% and 60%. Most of these materials possess the right morphology for implants and prostheses because their porous structures can be vascularized for bone and tooth ingrowth. Some samples also contain alumina particles to improve the abrasion resistance and to support the stresses produced during mastication. The materials were characterized by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and mechanical testing, along with abrasion, scratch, sliding wear, friction, and staining tests.


Corresponding author

a)Address all correspondence to this author. e-mail:


Hide All
1Stojanovic, D., Jokic, B., Veljovic, Dj., Petrovic, R., Uskokovic, P.S.Janackovic, Dj.: Bioactive glass-apatite composite coating for titanium implant synthesized by electrophoretic deposition. J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 27, 1595 2007
2Balázsi, C., Wéber, F., Kövér, Z., Horváth, E.Németh, C.: Preparation of calcium-phosphate bioceramics from natural resources. J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 27, 1601 2007
3Anderson, J.M.Langone, J.J.: Issues and perspectives on the biocompatibility and immunotoxicity evaluation of implanted controlled release systems. J. Control. Release 57, 107 1999
4Tanahashi, M., Yao, T., Kokubo, T., Minoda, M., Miyamoto, T., Nakamura, T.Yamamuro, T.: Apatite coated on organic polymers by biomimetic process improvement in its adhesion to substrate by NaOH treatment. J. Appl. Biomater. 5, 339 1994
5de Aza, P.N., Guitián, Aza, S.: A new bioactive material which transforms in situ into hydroxyapatite. Acta Mater. 46, 2541 1998
6Shikinami, Y.Okuno, M.: Bioresorbable devices made of forged composites of hydroxyapatite (HA) particles and poly-L-lactide (PLLA): Part I. Basic characteristics. Biomaterials 20, 859 1999
7Thomas, M.E., Richter, P.W., van Deventer, T., Crooks, J.Ripamonti, U.: Macroporous synthetic hydroxyapatite bioceramics for bone substitute applications. S. Afr. J. Sci. 95, 359 1999
8Schilke, R., Lisson, J.A., Baub, O.Geurtsen, W.: Comparison of the number and diameter of dentinal tubules in human and bovine dentine by scanning electron microscopic investigation. Arch. Oral Biol. 45(5), 355 2000
9Manly, R.S., Hodge, H.C.Ange, L.E.: Density and refractive index studies of dental hard tissues: II. Density distribution curves. J. Dent. Res. 15, 203 1939
10Patterson, S.A.: In vivo and in vitro studies of the effect of disodium salt of ethylenediamine tetra-acetate on human dentine and its endodontic implications. Oral Surg. 16(1), 83 1987
11Pashley, D.H.: Dentin-predentin complex and its permeability: Physiology overview. J. Dent. Res. 64, 613 1985
12Goldman, L.B., Goldman, M., Kronman, J.H.Lin, P.S.: The efficacy of several irrigations solutions for endodontics: A scanning electron microscopy study. Oral Surg. 52(2), 197 1985
13Cosijns, A., Vervaet, C., Luyten, J., Mullens, S., Siepmann, F., Van Hoorebeke, L., Masschaele, B., Cnudde, V.Remon, J.P.: Porous hydroxyapatite tablets as carriers for low-dosed drugs. Eur. J. Pharmacol. Biopharmacol. 67(2), 498 2007
14Gupta, D., Chandra, S.Chandra, S.: Effect of the smeared layer upon dentinal tubule penetration by root canal sealers: A SEM study. Endodontology 8(1), 26 1996
15Teng, S., Chen, L., Guo, Y.Shi, J.: Formation of nano-hydroxyapatite in gelatin droplets and the resulting porous composite microspheres. J. Inorg. Biochem. 101, 686 2007
16Piecuch, J.F.: Long-term evaluation of the use of coralline hydroxyapatite in orthognathic surgery. J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg. 56, 941 1998
17Ozgür Engin, N.Cüney Tas, A.: Manufacture of macroporous calcium hydroxyapatite bioceramics. J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 19, 2569 1999
18Rodriguez, L.K.A., Santos, M.N. dos, Pereira, D., Assaf, A.V.Pardi, V.: Carbon dioxide laser in dental caries prevention. J. Dent. 32, 531 2004
19Lee, H.J., Kim, S.E., Choi, H.W., Kim, C.W., Kim, K.J.Lee, S.C.: The effect of surface-modified nano-hydroxyapatite on biocompatibility of poly (E-caprolactone)/hydroxyapatite nanocomposites. Eur. Polym. J. 43, 1602 2007
20Uskokovic, P.S., Tang, C.Y., Tsui, C.P., Ignjatovic, N.Uskokovic, D.P.: Micromechanical properties of a hydroxyapatite/poly-L-lactide biocomposite using nanoindentation and modulus mapping. J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 27, 1559 2007
21Paul, J.P.: Strength requirements for internal and external prostheses. J. Biomech. 32, 381 1999
22Spector, M.: Historical review of porous-coated implants. J. Arthroplasty 2, 163 1987
23Caria, P.H.F., Kawachi, E.Y., Bertran, C.A.Camilli, J.A.: Biological assessment of porous-implant hydroxyapatite combines with periosteal grafting in maxillary defects. J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg. 65, 847 2007
24Rabello, M.: Putting Additives into Polymers Artliber Sao Paulo 2000 Chap. 10
25He, L.H.Swain, M.V.: Enamel: A “metallic-like” deformable biocomposite. J. Dent. 35, 431 2007
26Lin, C-L., Chang, S-H., Wang, J-C.Chang, W-J.: Mechanical interactions of an implant/tooth-supported system under different periodontal supports and number of splinted teeth with rigid and non-rigid connections. J. Dent. 34, 682 2006
27Fischman, B.: The rotational aspect of mandibular flexure. J. Prosth. Dent. 64, 483 1990
28de la Isla, A., Brostow, W., Bujard, B., Estevez, M., Rodriguez, J.R., Vargas, S.Castaño, V.M.: Nanohybrid scratch resistant coatings for teeth and bone viscoelasticity manifested in tribology. Mater. Res. Innovat. 7(2), 110 2003
29Estevez, M., Vargas, S., Lobland, H.E. Hagg, de la Isla, A., Brostow, W.Rodrıguez, J. Rogelio: Characterization of novel dental obturation materials. Mater. Res. Innovat. 10(4), 411 2006
30Castaño, V.M.Rodriguez, R.: Polymer-based hybrid organic-inorganic materials in Performance of Plastics, edited by W. Brostow Hanser Munich 2000 Chap. 24
31Deng, M.Shalaby, S.W.: Polymers as biomaterials in Performance of Plastics, edited by W. Brostow Hanser Munich 2000 Chap. 23
32Hengtrakool, C., Pearson, G.J.Wilson, M.: Interaction between GIC and S Sanguis biofilms: Antibacterial properties and changes of surfaces hardness. J. Dent. 34, 588 2006
33Griffin, T.J.Cheung, W.S.: The use of short, wide implants in posterior areas with reduced bone height: A retrospective investigation. J. Prosth. Dent. 92, 139 2004
34Freudenthaler, J.W., Tischler, G.K.Burstone, C.J.: Bond strength of fiber-reinforced composite bars for orthodontic attachment. Am. J. Orthod. Dentofacial Orthop. 120, 648 2001
35Tancret, F., Bouler, J-M., Chamousset, J.Minois, L-M.: Modelling the mechanical properties of microporous and macroporous biphasic calcium phosphate bioceramics. J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 26, 3647 2006
36Aragon, C.E.Bohay, R.N.: The application of alveolar distraction osteogenesis following nonresorbable hydroxyapatite grafting in the anterior maxilla: A clinical report. J. Prosth. Dent. 93, 518 2005
37Wool, R.P.: Interfaces and adhesion in Performance of Plastics, edited by W. Brostow Hanser Munich 2000 Chap. 15
38Mülhaupt, R.: Toughened thermoplastics and thermosets in Performance of Plastics edited by W. Brostow Hanser Munich 2000 Chap. 20
39Roslaniec, Z., Broza, G.Schulte, K.: Nanocomposites based on multiblock polyester elastomers (PEEs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Compos. Interfaces 10, 95 2003
40Bismarck, A., Hofmeier, M.Dörner, G.: Effect of hot water immersion on the performance of carbon reinforced unidirectional poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK) composites: Stress rupture under end-loaded bending. Composites A 38, 407 2007
41Kopczynska, A.Ehrenstein, G.W.: Polymeric surfaces and their true surface tension in solids and melts. J. Mater. Ed. 29, 325 2007
42Brostow, W., Duffy, J.V., Lee, G.F.Madejczyk, K.: Parameters of equation of state of polyurethanes from acoustic resonance and isobaric expansivity. Macromolecules 24, 479 1991
43Mano, E.B.: Polymers as Engineering Materials Edgard Blücher São Paulo 1996
44Griffith, L.G.: Polymeric biomaterials. Acta Mater. 48, 263 2000
45Brostow, W., Bujard, B., Cassidy, P.E., Hagg, H.E.Montemartini, P.E.: Effects of fluoropolymer addition to an epoxy on scratch depth and recovery. Mater. Res. lnnovat. 6, 7 2001
46Brostow, W., Deborde, J-L., Jaklewicz, M.Olszynski, P.: Tribology with emphasis on polymers: Friction, scratch resistance and wear. J. Mater. Ed. 25, 119 2003
47Brostow, W.Jaklewicz, M.: Tribology of a polymeric molecular composite: Effects of magnetic field orientation. J. Mater. Res. 19, 1038 2004
48Estevez, M., Vargas, S., Castaño, V.M., Rodriguez, J.R., Lobland, H.E.Hagg Brostow, W.: Novel wear resistant and low toxicity dental obturation materials. Mater. Lett. 61, 3025 2007
49Brostow, W., Chonkaew, W., Rapoport, L., Soifer, Y.Verdyan, A.: Grooves in microscratch testing. J. Mater. Res. 22, 2483 2007
50Brostow, W., Damarla, G., Howe, J.Pietkiewicz, D.: Determination of wear of surfaces by scratch testing. e-Polymers 025, 1 2004
51Bermudez, M.D., Brostow, W., Carrion-Vilches, F.J., Cervantes, J.J.Pietkiewicz, D.: Wear of thermoplastics determined by multiple scratching. e-Polymers 005, 1 2005
52Brostow, W., Lobland, H.E. HaggNarkis, M.: Sliding wear, viscoelasticicity, and brittleness of polymers. J. Mater. Res. 21, 2422 2006
53Vujosevic, L.Obradovic-Durici, K.: Porosity of hard dental tissues. Stomatol. Glasnik Serb. 36(2), 95 1989
54Brostow, W., Cunha, A.M., Quintanilla, J.Simões, R.: Predicting cracking phenomena in molecular dynamics simulations of polymer liquid crystals. Macromol. Theory Simul. 11, 308 2002
55Brostow, W.Simões, R.: Tribological and mechanical behavior of polymers simulated by molecular dynamics. J. Mater. Ed. 27, 19 2005
56Rivera-Muñoz, E., Velázquez, R., Rodríguez, R.: Improvement in mechanical properties of hydroxyapatite objects with controlled porosity made by modified gelcasting process. Mater. Sci. Forum 426–432, 4489 2003 on line at
57Giraldo, L.F., Brostow, W., Devaux, E., Lopez, B.L.Perez, L.D.: Scratch and wear resistance of polyamide 6 reinforced with multiwall carbon nanotubes. J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 8 (2008, in press
58Rivera, E.M., Araiza, M., Brostow, W., Castaño, V.M., Diaz-Estrada, J.R., Hernández, R.Rodríguez, J.R.: Synthesis of hydroxyapatite from eggshells. Mater. Lett. 41, 128 1999


Porous hydroxyapatite-based obturation materials for dentistry

  • Witold Brostow (a1), Miriam Estevez (a2), Haley E. Hagg Lobland (a1), Ly Hoang (a1), J. Rogelio Rodriguez (a3) and Susana Vargar (a2)...


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed