Skip to main content Accessibility help

A novel and facile prepared wound dressing based on large expanded graphite worms

  • Zhongqun Liu (a1), Yishan Hao (a2), Yijun Su (a1), Yaojie Wei (a1), Jingyun Wang (a1), Hao Yan (a1), Wanci Shen (a3), Zhenghong Huang (a3), Xiumei Wang (a1), Lingyun Zhao (a1) and Xiaodan Sun (a1)...


As rarely large flake graphite (9 mesh) was recently exploited in China, it was innovatively developed as the raw material to prepare a novel wound dressing based on large expanded graphite (EG) in this work. The EG worms were prepared in an easy oxidative intercalation and thermal expansion method. Afterward, chitosan was grafted onto the surface of EG by chemical modification, forming CS-EG worms. CS-EG sponge dressings were then obtained by pressing a number of CS-EG worms together by external force. Due to the porous structure and large specific surface area, the produced CS-EG sponges exhibited outstanding adsorption capacity for wound exudate. They could also promote blood coagulation by adsorbing the blood cells and proteins quickly and effectively, showing excellent hemostatic performance. The eminent performances and the simple preparation process ensure the great application potential of CS-EG as a dressing material. This is also the first time to report the application of the traditional carbon material, EG, to act as a dressing material after chemical modification.


Corresponding author

a)Address all correspondence to these authors. e-mail:


Hide All
1.Ida, S., Okamoto, Y., Matsuka, M., Hagiwara, H., and Ishihara, T.: Preparation of tantalum-based oxynitride nanosheets by exfoliation of a layered oxynitride, CsCa2Ta3O(10−x)N(y), and their photocatalytic activity. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134, 15773–82 (2012).
2.Kumar, P.T., Lakshmanan, V.K., Anilkumar, T.V., Ramya, C., Reshmi, P., and Unnikrishnan, A.G.: Flexible and microporous chitosan hydrogel/nano ZnO composite bandages for wound dressing: In vitro and in vivo evaluation. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 4, 2618–29 (2012).
3.Dhivya, S., Padma, V.V., and Santhini, E.: Wound dressings—A review. Biomedicine 5, 22 (2015).
4.Rakel, B.A., Bermel, M.A., Abbott, L.I., Baumler, S.K., Burger, M.R., and Dawson, C.J.: Split-thickness skin graft donor site care: A quantitative synthesis of the research. Appl. Nurs. Res. 11, 174–82 (1998).
5.Coats, T.J., Edwards, C., Newton, R., and Staun, E.: The effect of gel burns dressings on skin temperature. Emerg. Med. J. 19, 224–5 (2002).
6.Martin, L., Wilson, C.G., Koosha, F., Tetley, L., Gray, A.I., and Senel, S.: The release of model macromolecules may be controlled by the hydrophobicity of palmitoyl glycol chitosan hydrogels. J. Controlled Release 80, 87100 (2002).
7.Dumville, J.C., Deshpande, S., O’Meara, S., and Speak, K.: Hydrocolloid dressings for healing diabetic foot ulcers. Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. 8, Cd009099 (2013).
8.Pott, F.S., Meier, M.J., Stocco, J.G., Crozeta, K., and Ribas, J.D.: The effectiveness of hydrocolloid dressings versus other dressings in the healing of pressure ulcers in adults and older adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Rev. Latino-Am. Enferm. 22, 511–20 (2014).
9.Dumville, J.C., O’Meara, S., Deshpande, S., and Speak, K.: Alginate dressings for healing diabetic foot ulcers. Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. 6, Cd009110 (2013).
10.Thomas, S.: Alginate dressings in surgery and wound management—Part 1. J. Wound Care 9, 5660 (2000).
11.O’Meara, S. and Martyn-St James, M.: Foam dressings for venous leg ulcers. Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. 31, Cd009907 (2013).
12.Ramos-e-Silva, M. and Ribeiro de Castro, M.C.: New dressings, including tissue-engineered living skin. Clin. Dermatol. 20, 715–23 (2002).
13.Dreifke, M.B., Jayasuriya, A.A., and Jayasuriya, A.C.: Current wound healing procedures and potential care. Mater. Sci. Eng., C 48, 651–62 (2015).
14.Wright, J.E., Freeman, J.J., Sing, K.S.W., Jackson, S.W., and Smith, R.J.M. (inventors); Johnson & Johnson (proprietor). “Wound Dressing with Activated Carbon”. European Patent Office Publication Number: 0311364B1. (California, 1992).
15.Lin, Y.H., Lin, J.H., Wang, S.H., Ko, T.H., and Tseng, G.C.: Evaluation of silver-containing activated carbon fiber for wound healing study: In vitro and in vivo. J. Biomed. Mater. Res., Part B 100, 2288–96 (2012).
16.Wang, Y., Song, J., Chen, J., and Lou, X.: Nano-silver active carbon fiber dressings improving bedsore wound healing in rats. Acad. J. Second Mil. Med. Univ. 36, 1051–5 (2015).
17.Quan, K., Li, G., Luan, D., Yuan, Q., Tao, L., and Wang, X.: Black hemostatic sponge based on facile prepared cross-linked graphene. Colloids Surf., B 132, 2733 (2015).
18.Quan, K., Li, G., Tao, L., Xie, Q., Yuan, Q., and Wang, X.: Diaminopropionic acid reinforced graphene sponge and its use for hemostasis. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8, 7666–73 (2016).
19.Seabra, A.B., Paula, A.J., de Lima, R., Alves, O.L., and Duran, N.: Nanotoxicity of graphene and graphene oxide. Chem. Res. Toxicol. 27, 159–68 (2014).
20.Lutfullin, M., Shornikova, O.N., and Dunaev, A.: The peculiarities of reduction of iron (III) oxides deposited on expanded graphite. J. Mater. Res. 29, 252259 (2014).
21.Li, L., Xiang, C., and Qian, H.: Expanded graphite/cobalt ferrite/polyaniline ternary composites: Fabrication, properties, and potential applications. J. Mater. Res. 26, 26832690 (2011).
22.Krzesinska, M., Celzard, A., and Mareche, J.F.: Elastic properties of anisotropic monolithic samples of compressed expanded graphite studied with ultrasounds. J. Mater. Res. 16, 606614 (2001).
23.Zheng, Y.P., Wang, H.N., Kang, F.Y., Wang, L.N., and Inagaki, M.: Sorption capacity of exfoliated graphite for oils-sorption in and among worm-like particles. Carbon 42, 2603–7 (2004).
24.Kang, F.Y., Zheng, Y.P., Zhao, H., Wang, H.N., Wang, L.N., and Shen, W.C.: Sorption of heavy oils and biomedical liquids into exfoliated graphite—Research in China. Carbon, 41, 30753078 (2003).
25.Shen, W., Wen, S., Cao, N., Zheng, L., Zhou, W., and Liu, Y.: Expanded graphite—A new kind of biomedical material. Carbon 37, 356–8 (1999).
26.Inagaki, M. and Suwa, T.: Pore structure analysis of exfoliated graphite using image processing of scanning electron micrographs. Carbon 39, 915920 (2001).
27.Dowsett, C.: Moisture in wound healing: Exudate management. Br. J. Community Nurs. 16, S6S12 (2013).
28.Vowden, P., Bond, E., and Meuleneire, F.: Managing High Viscosity Exudate (Wounds, U.K., 2015).
29.Mickelson, M.A., Mans, C., and Colopy, S.A.: Principles of wound management and wound healing in exotic pets. Vet. Clin. Exot. Anim. Pract. 19, 3353 (2016).
30.Tanaka, E., Ase, K., Okuda, T., Okumura, M., and Nogimori, K.: Mechanism of acceleration of wound healing by basic fibroblast growth factor in genetically diabetic mice. Biol. Pharm. Bull. 19, 1141–8 (1996).
31.Oluwatosin, O.M.: Surgical wound infection: A general overview. Ann. Ib. Postgrad. Med. 3, 2631 (2007).
32.Lozano-Platonoff, A., Mejia-Mendoza, M.D., Ibanez-Doria, M., and Contreras-Ruiz, J.: Assessment: Cornerstone in wound management. J. Am. Coll. Surg. 221, 611–20 (2015).
33.Singh, M.R., Saraf, S., Vyas, A., Jain, V., and Singh, D.: Innovative approaches in wound healing: Trajectory and advances. Artif. Cells, Nanomed., Biotechnol. 41, 202–12 (2013).
34.Edmonds, M.E.: The diabetic foot. Pract. Diabetes Int. 1, 3639 (1984).
35.Rembe, J.D., Bohm, J.K., Fromm-Dornieden, C., Schafer, N., Maegele, M., and Frohlich, M.: Comparison of hemostatic dressings for superficial wounds using a new spectrophotometric coagulation assay. J. Transl. Med. 13, 375 (2015).
36.Laurens, N., Koolwijk, P., and de Maat, M.P.: Fibrin structure and wound healing. J. Thromb. Haemostasis 4, 932–9 (2006).
37.Lorand, L.: Factor XIII and the clotting of fibrinogen: From basic research to medicine. J. Thromb. Haemostasis 3, 1337–48 (2005).



Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed