Skip to main content Accessibility help

Nanosphere lithography fabricated plasmonic materials and their applications

  • Xiaoyu Zhang (a1), Chanda Ranjit Yonzon (a1) and Richard P. Van Duyne (a1)


Nanosphere lithography fabricated nanostructures have highly tunable localized surface plasmons, which have been used for important sensing and spectroscopy applications. In this work, the authors focus on biological applications and technologies that utilize two types of related plasmonic phenomena: localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) spectroscopy and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). Two applications of these plasmonic materials are presented: (i) the development of an ultrasensitive nanoscale optical biosensor based on LSPR wavelength-shift spectroscopy and (ii) the SERS detection of an anthrax biomarker.


Corresponding author

b) Address all correspondence to this author. e-mail: This paper was selected as the Outstanding Meeting Paper for the 2005 MRS Spring Meeting Symposium R Proceedings, Vol. 876E.


Hide All
1.Ji, J., Schanzle, J.A., Tabacco, M.B.: Real-time detection of bacterial contamination in dynamic aqueous environments using optical sensors. Anal. Chem. 1411, 76 (2004).
2.Ligler, F.S., Taitt, C.R., Shriver-Lake, L.C., Sapsford, K.E., Shubin, Y., Golden, J.P.: Array biosensor for detection of toxins. Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 469, 377 (2003).
3.Yonzon, C.R., Haynes, C.L., Zhang, X., Walsh, J.T., Van Duyne, R.P.: A glucose biosensor based on surface-enhanced raman scattering: Improved partition layer, temporal stability, reversibility, and resistance to serum protein interference. Anal. Chem. 78, 76 (2004).
4.Stuart, D.A., Yonzon, C.R., Zhang, X., Lyandres, O., Shah, N.C., Glucksberg, M.R., Walsh, J.T., Van Duyne, R.P.: Glucose sensing using near infrared surface-enhanced raman spectroscopy: Gold surfaces, 10-day stability, and improved accuracy. Anal. Chem. 4013, 77 (2005).
5.Yonzon, C.R., Jeoung, E., Zou, S., Schatz, G.C., Mrksich, M., Van Duyne, R.P.: A comparative analysis of localized and propagating surface plasmon resonance sensors: The binding of concanavalin A to a monosaccharide functionalized self-assembled monolayer. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 12669, 126 (2004).
6.Ho, H., Leclerc, M.: Optical sensors based on hybrid aptamer/conjugated polymer complexes. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1384, 126 (2004).
7.Wiskur, S.L., Anslyn, E.V.: Using a synthetic receptor to create an optical-sensing ensemble for a class of analytes: A colorimetric assay for the aging of scotch. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 10109, 123 (2001).
8.Zhang, X., Young, M.A., Lyandres, O., Van Duyne, R.P.: Rapid detection of an anthrax biomarker by surface-enhanced raman spectroscopy. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 4484, 127 (2005).
9.Reather, H.Surface Polaritons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany, 1988).
10.Jensen, T.R., Schatz, G.C., Van Duyne, R.P.: Nanosphere lithography: Surface plasmon resonance spectrum of a periodic array of silver nanoparticles by UV-vis extinction spectroscopy and electrodynamic modeling. J. Phys. Chem. B 2394, 103 (1999).
11.McFarland, A.D., Van Duyne, R.P.: Single silver nanoparticles as real-time optical sensors with zeptomole sensitivity. Nano Lett. 1057, 3 (2003).
12.Jensen, T.R., Malinsky, M.D., Haynes, C.L., Van Duyne, R.P.: Nanosphere lithography: Tunable localized surface plasmon resonance spectra of silver nanoparticles. J. Phys. Chem. B 10549, 104 (2000).
13.Yguerabide, J., Yguerabide, E.E.: Light-scattering submicroscopic particles as highly fluorescent analogs and their use as tracer labels in clinical and biological applications—II. Experimental characterization. Anal. Biochem. 157, 262 (1998).
14.Schatz, G.C., Van Duyne, R.P. Electromagnetic mechanism of surface-enhanced spectroscopy, in Handbook of Vibrational Spectroscopy edited by Chalmers, J.M. and Griffiths, P.R. (Wiley, New York, 2002), pp. 759774.
15.Siemes, C., Bruckbauer, A., Goussev, A., Otto, A., Sinther, M., Pucci, A.: SERS-active sites on various copper substrates. J Raman Spectrosc. 231, 32 (2001).
16.Graff, M., Bukowska, J., Zawada, K.: Surface enhanced raman scattering (SERS) of 1-hydroxybenzotriazole adsorbed on a copper electrode surface. J. Electroanal. Chem. 297, 567 (2004).
17.Haynes, C.L., Van Duyne, R.P.: Nanosphere lithography: A versatile nanofabrication tool for studies of size-dependent nanoparticle optics. J. Phys. Chem. B 5599, 105 (2001).
18.Houseman, B.T., Gawalt, E.S., Mrksich, M.: Maleimide-functionalized self-assembled monolayers for the preparation of peptide and carbohydrate biochips. Langmuir 1522, 19 (2003).
19.Bailey, G.F., Karp, S., Sacks, L.E.: Ultraviolet-absorption spectra of dry bacterial spores. J. Bacteriol. 984, 89 (1965).
20. Deltanu company home page, (2005).
21.Liedberg, B., Nylander, C., Lundstorm, I.: Surface plasmon resonance for gas detection and biosensing. Sens. Actuators B 229, 4 (1983).
22.Raschke, G., Kowarik, S., Franzl, T., Sönnichsen, C., Klar, T.A., Feldmann, J., Nichtl, A., Kürzinger, K.: Biomolecular recognition based on single gold nanoparticle light scattering. Nano Lett. 935, 3 (2003).
23.Riboh, J.C., Haes, A.J., McFarland, A.D., Yonzon, C.R., Van Duyne, R.P.: A nanoscale optical biosensor: Real-time immunoassay in physiological buffer enabled by improved nanoparticle adhesion. J. Phys. Chem. B 1772, 107 (2003).
24.Haes, A.J., Van Duyne, R.P.: A nanoscale optical biosensor: Sensitivity and selectivity of an approach based on the localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of triangular silver nanoparticles. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 10596, 124 (2002).
25.Haes, A.J., Zou, S., Schatz, G.C., Van Duyne, R.P.: A nanoscale optical biosensor: The long range distance dependence of the localized surface plasmon resonance of noble metal nanoparticles. J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 108 (2004).
26.Malinsky, M.D., Kelly, K.L., Schatz, G.C., Van Duyne, R.P.: Chain-length dependence and sensing capabilities of the localized surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles chemically modified with alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1471, 123 (2001).
27.Jung, L.S., Campbell, C.T., Chinowsky, T.M., Mar, M.N., Yee, S.S.: Quantitative interpretaion of the response of surface plasmon resonance sensors to adsorbed films. Langmuir 5636, 14 (1998).
28.Palegrosdemange, C., Simon, E.S., Prime, K.L., Whitesides, G.M.: Formation of self-assembled monolayers by chemisorption of derivatives of oligo(ethylene glycol) of structure HS(CH2)11(Och2CH2) meta-OH on gold. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 12, 113 (1991).
29.Hardman, K.D., Ainsworth, C.F.: Structure of Concanavalin A at 2.4-ang resolution. Biochemistry 4910, 11 (1972).
30.Smith, E.A., Corn, R.M.: Surface plasmon resonance imaging as a tool to monitor biomolecular interaction in an array based format. Appl. Spectrosc. 320A, 57 (2003).
31.Gupta, D., Cho, M., Cummings, R.D., Brewer, C.F.: Thermodynamics of carbohydrate binding to galectin-1 from Chinese hamster ovary cells and two mutants. A comparison with four galactose-specific plant lectins. Biochemistry. 15236, 35 (1996).
32.McFarland, A.D., Young, M.A., Dieringer, J.A., Van Duyne, R.P.: Wavelength-scanned surface-enhanced raman excitation spectroscopy. J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 11279 (2005).
33.Haynes, C.L., Van Duyne, R.P.: Plasmon-sampled surface-enhanced Raman excitation spectroscopy. J. Phys. Chem. B 7426, 107 (2003).
34.Nie, S., Emory, S.R.: Probing single molecules and single nanoparticles by surface-enhanced Raman scattering. Science 1102, 275 (1997).
35.Kneipp, K., Wang, Y., Kneipp, H., Perelman, L.T., Itzkan, I., Dasari, R.R., Feld, M.S.: Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). Phys. Rev. Lett. 1667, 78 (1997).
36.Stacy, A.M., Van Duyne, R.P.: Surface enhanced Raman and resonance Raman-spectroscopy in a non-aqueous electrochemical environment—tris(2,2′-bipyridine)ruthenium(II) adsorbed on silver from acetonitrile. Chem. Phys. Lett. 365, 102 (1983).
37.Litorja, M., Haynes, C.L., Haes, A.J., Jensen, T.R., Van Duyne, R.P.: Surface-enhanced Raman scattering detected temperature programmed desorption: Optical properties, nanostructure, and stability of silver films over SiO2 nanospheres. J. Phys. Chem. B 6907, 105 (2001).
38.Zhang, X., Yonzon, C.R., Van Duyne, R.P.: An electrochemical surface-enhanced raman spectroscopy approach to anthrax detection. Proc. SPIE 82, 5221 (2003).
39.Goodacre, R., Shann, B., Gilbert, R.J., Timmins, E.M., McGovern, A.C., Alsberg, B.K., Kell, D.B., Logan, N.A.: Detection of the dipicolinic acid biomarker in bacillus spores using curie-point pyrolysis mass spectrometry and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Anal. Chem. 119, 72 (2000).


Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Nanosphere lithography fabricated plasmonic materials and their applications

  • Xiaoyu Zhang (a1), Chanda Ranjit Yonzon (a1) and Richard P. Van Duyne (a1)


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.