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Hsueh, Cheng-Chen and Mecartney, Martha L. 1991. Microstructural Evolution of Sol-Gel Derived PZT Thin Films. MRS Proceedings, Vol. 243, Issue. ,
Hubert-Pfalzgraf, L G 1992. Metal alkoxides and ?-diketonates as precursors for oxide and non-oxide thin films. Applied Organometallic Chemistry, Vol. 6, Issue. 8, p. 627.
Kamalasanan, M. N. Deepak Kumar, N. and Chandra, Subhas 1993. Structural, optical, and dielectric properties of sol‐gel derived SrTiO3thin films. Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 74, Issue. 1, p. 679.
Hay, R.S. 1993. Phase transformations and microstructure evolution in sol-gel derived yttrium-aluminum garnet films. Journal of Materials Research, Vol. 8, Issue. 03, p. 578.
Spierings, G. A. C. M. Zon, J. B. A. Van Larsen, P. K. and Klee, M. 1993. Influence of platinum-based electrodes on the microstructure of sol-gel and MOD prepared lead zirconate titanate films. Integrated Ferroelectrics, Vol. 3, Issue. 3, p. 283.
Voigt, James A. Tuitle, B. A. Headley, T. J. Eatough, M. O. Lamppa, D. L. and Goodnow, D. 1993. Oriented Lead Zirconate Titanate thin Films: Characterization of Film Crystallization. MRS Proceedings, Vol. 310, Issue. ,
Braun, W. Kwak, B. S. Erbil, A. Budai, J. D. and Wilkens, B. J. 1993. Epitaxial lead zirconate‐titanate thin films on sapphire. Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 63, Issue. 4, p. 467.
Selvaraj, Ulagaraj Brooks, Keith Prasadarao, Alamanda V. Komarneni, Sridhar Roy, Rustum and Cross, L. Eric 1993. Sol-Gel Fabrication of Pb(Zr0.52 Ti0.48)O3 Thin Films Using Lead Acetylacetonate as the Lead Source. Journal of the American Ceramic Society, Vol. 76, Issue. 6, p. 1441.
Kim, J. M. Yoon, D. S. and No, K. 1994. Electrical properties of sol-gel processed PLZT thin films. Journal of Materials Science, Vol. 29, Issue. 24, p. 6599.
Voigt, James A. Tuttle, B.A. Headley, T.J. and Lamppa, D.L. 1994. The Pyrochlore-to-Perovskite Transformation in Solution-Derived Lead Zirconate Titanate Thin Films. MRS Proceedings, Vol. 361, Issue. ,
Yoon, Dae Sung Kim, Jae Myung Ahn, Ki Cheol and No, Kwangsoo 1994. Effects of heating schedule and atmosphere on the phase formation of plzt thin films prepared using sol-gel process. Integrated Ferroelectrics, Vol. 4, Issue. 1, p. 93.
Cooney, T. G. Glumac, D. E. Robbins, W. P. and Francis, L. F. 1994. An Experimental Examination of Mems Microactuator Material Issues. MRS Proceedings, Vol. 360, Issue. ,
Momoda, L.A. Gust, M.C. and Mecartney, M.L. 1994. Processing Effects on the Microstructure of Sol-Gel Derived SBN Thin Films. MRS Proceedings, Vol. 346, Issue. ,
Klissurska, Radosveta D. Brooks, Keith G. Reaney, Ian M. Pawlaczyk, Czezlaw Kosec, Marija and Setter, Nava 1995. Effect of Nb Doping on the Microstructure of Sol-Gel-Derived PZT Thin Films. Journal of the American Ceramic Society, Vol. 78, Issue. 6, p. 1513.
Zhu, Jane G. Al-Jassim, M. M. and Huffman, Maria 1995. Microstructure and domain configurations in ferroelectric PbTiO3 and Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 thin fims. Journal of Electronic Materials, Vol. 24, Issue. 7, p. 885.
Lakeman, Charles D.E. Xu, Zhengkui and Payne, David A. 1995. On the evolution of structure and composition in sol-gel-derived lead zirconate titanate thin layers. Journal of Materials Research, Vol. 10, Issue. 08, p. 2042.
Coffman, P. R. Barlingay, C. K. Gupta, A. and Dey, S. K. 1996. Structure evolution in the PbO-ZrO2-TiO2 sol-gel system: Part II?Pyrolysis of acid and base-catalyzed bulk and thin film gels. Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology, Vol. 6, Issue. 1, p. 83.
Beanland, R. Patel, A. and Hart, D. 1996. Observations of sol-gel deposited lead zirconium titanate films using transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Integrated Ferroelectrics, Vol. 13, Issue. 4, p. 179.
Impey, S.A. Huang, Z. Patel, A. Watton, R. and Whatmore, R.W. 1996. Structural characterisation of sol-gel PZT thin films. Vol. 1, Issue. , p. 439.
Kim, Chang Jung Yoon, Dae Sung Lee, Joon Sung Choi, Chaun Gi and No, Kwangsoo 1997. A Study on the Microstructure of Preferred Orientation of Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) Thin Films. Journal of Materials Research, Vol. 12, Issue. 04, p. 1043.
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A systematic investigation of the microstructural evolution of fast fired, sol-gel derived Pb(Zr, Ti)O3 films (Zr/Ti = 54/46) was performed by analytical transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It was found that the nucleation and growth of the sol-gel PZT films were influenced by the precursor chemistry. The precursor solution was composed of Pb 2-ethylhexanoate, Ti isopropoxide, and Zr n-propoxide in n-propanol. Porous and spherulitic perovskite grains nucleated and grew from a pyrochlore matrix for NH4OH-modified films, but no chemical segregation was found. These thin films consisted completely of porous spherulitic PZT grains (∼2 μm) when the firing temperature was increased. Chemical phase separation with regions of Zr-rich pyrochlore particles separated by Zr-deficient perovskite grains was observed in the initial stages of nucleation and growth for CH3COOH-modified PZT films. This phase separation is attributed to the effect of acetate ligands on the modification of molecular structure of the PZT precursor. Firing the acid-modified films at higher temperatures for long times resulted in porous perovskite grain structures. The residual porosity in these films is suggested to be a result of differential evaporation/condensation rates during the deposition process and the gas evolution at high temperatures due to trapped organics in the films. Dielectric and ferroelectric properties were correlated to the microstructure of the films. Lower dielectric constants (∼500) and higher coercive fields (∼65 kV/cm) were found for the acid-modified PZT films with phase separation in comparison to those measured from the sol-gel films with a uniform microstructure (∽ > 600, Ec < 50 kV/cm). All films fired at 650 °C showed relatively good remanent polarization on the order of 20 μC/cm2.
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