Skip to main content Accessibility help

Lead titanate nano- and microtubes

  • Lili Zhao (a1), Martin Steinhart (a1), Jian Yu (a2) and Ulrich Gösele (a1)


Lead titanate (PbTiO3) nano- and microtubes were fabricated by wetting ordered porous alumina and macroporous silicon with precursor oligomers coupled with templated thermolysis. The diameters of the PbTiO3 tubes range from a few tens of nanometers up to one micron. The proper selection of the template allowed for a precise adjustment of their size over two orders of magnitude. Electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction revealed that the tube walls were polycrystalline. The generic approach presented here can be adapted for the fabrication of tubes and rods from a multitude of functional inorganic oxides.


Corresponding author

a) Address all correspondence to this author. e-mail:


Hide All
1.Sumi, T., Judai, Y., Hirano, K., Ito, T., Mikawa, T., Azuma, M., Hayashi, S., Uemoto, Y., Arita, K., Nasu, T., Nagano, Y., Inoue, A., Matsuda, A., Fuji, E., Shimada, Y., Otsuki, T.: Ferroelectric nonvolatile memory technology and its applications. Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 1516 (1996).
2.Chu, M.W., Szafraniak, I., Scholz, R., Hesse, D., Alexe, M., Gösele, U.: Impact of misfit dislocations on the polarization instability of epitaxial nanostructured ferroelectric perovskites. Nat. Mater. 3, 87 (2004).
3.Scott, J.F.: Nano-phase ferroelectric arrays for Gbit devices. Ferroelectrics 260, 649 (2001).
4.Martin, C.R.: Sol-gel template synthesis of semiconductor nanostructures. Science 266, 1961 (1994).
5.Martin, C.R.: Template synthesis of polymeric and metal microtubules. Adv. Mater. 3, 457 (1991).
6.Steinhart, M., Wendorff, J.H., Greiner, A., Wehrspohn, R.B., Nielsch, K., Schilling, J., Choi, J., Gösele, U.: Polymer nanotubes by wetting of ordered porous templates. Science 296, 1997 (2002).
7.Steinhart, M., Wehrspohn, R.B., Gösele, U., Wendorff, J.H.: Nanotubes by template wetting: A modular assembly system. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 43, 1334 (2004).
8.Tian, M., Wang, J., Kurtz, J., Mallouk, T.E., Chan, M.H.W.: Electrochemical growth of single-crystal metal nanowires via a two-dimensional nucleation and growth mechanism. Nano Lett. 3, 919 (2003).
9.Han, W.Q., Fan, S.S., Li, Q.Q., Hu, Y.D.: Synthesis of gallium nitride nanorods through a carbon nanotube-confined reaction. Science 277, 1287 (1997).
10.Limmer, S.J., Seraji, S., Forbess, M.J., Wu, Y., Chou, T.P., Nguyen, C., Cao, G.Z.: Electrophoretic growth of lead zirconate titanate nanorods. Adv. Mater. 13, 1269 (2001).
11.Zhao, L., Steinhart, M., Yosef, M., Lee, S.K., Geppert, T., Pippel, E., Scholz, R., Gösele, U., Schlecht, S.: Lithium niobate microtubes within ordered macroporous silicon by templated thermolysis of a single-source precursor. Chem. Mater. 17, 3 (2005).
12.Zhao, L., Steinhart, M., Yosef, M., Lee, S.K., Schlecht, S.: Large-scale template-assisted growth of LiNbO3 one-dimensional nanostructures for nano-sensors. Sens. Actuators B 101, 86 (2005).
13.Morrison, F.D., Ramsay, L., Scott, J.F.: High aspect ratio piezoelectric strontium bismuth–tantalate nanotubes. J. Phys.: Condens. Matter. 15, L527 (2003).
14.Chang, K.S., Hernandez, B.A., Fisher, E.R., Dorhout, P.K.: Sol-gel template synthesis and characterization of PT, PZ and PZT Nanotubes. J. Kor. Chem. Soc. 46, 242 (2002).
15.Hernandez, B.A., Chang, K.S., Fisher, E.R., Dorhout, P.K.: Sol-gel template synthesis and characterization of BaTiO3 and PbTiO3 nanotubes. Chem. Mater. 14, 480 (2002).
16.Luo, Y., Szafraniak, I., Zakharov, N.D., Nagarajan, V., Steinhart, M., Wehrspohn, R.B., Wendorff, J.H., Ramesh, R., Alexe, M.: Ferroelectric switching of nanotubes composed of lead zirconate titanate and barium titanate. Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 440 (2003).
17.Luo, Y., Szafraniak, I., Nagarajan, V., Wehrspohn, R.B., Steinhart, M., Wendorff, J.H., Zakharov, N.D., Ramesh, R., Alexe, M.: Ferroelectric lead zirconate titanate and barium titanate nanotubes. Integr. Ferroelectrics 59, 1513 (2003).
18.Urban, J.J., Yun, W.S., Gu, Q., Park, H.: Synthesis of single-crystalline perovskite nanorods composed of barium titanate and strontium titanate. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 1186 (2002).
19.Mao, Y.B., Banerjee, S., Wong, S.S.: Large-scale synthesis of single-crystalline perovskite nanostructures. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125, 15718 (2003).
20.Masuda, H., Fukuda, K.: Ordered metal nanohole arrays made by a two-step replication of honeycomb structures of anodic alumina. Science 268, 1466 (1995).
21.Masuda, H., Yada, K., Osaka, A.: Self-ordering of cell configuration of anodic porous alumina with large-size pores in phosphoric acid solution. Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 2-Lett. 37, L1340 (1998).
22.Masuda, H., Hasegawa, F., Ono, S.: Self-ordering of cell arrangement of anodic porous alumina formed in sulfuric acid solution. J. Electrochem. Soc. 144, L127 (1997).
23.Nielsch, K., Choi, J., Schwirn, K., Wehrspohn, R.B., Gösele, U.: Self-ordering regimes of porous alumina: The 10% porosity rule. Nano Lett. 2, 677 (2002).
24.Lehmann, V.: The physics of macropore formation in low-doped n-type silicon. J. Electrochem. Soc. 140, 2836 (1993).
25.Birner, A., Grüning, U., Ottow, S., Schneider, A., Müller, F., Lehmann, V., Föll, H., Gösele, U.: Macroporous silicon: A two-dimensional photonic bandgap material suitable for the near-infrared spectral range. Phys. Status Solidi A 165, 111 (1998).
26.Fox, H.W., Hare, E.F., Zisman, W.A.: Wetting properties of organic liquids on high-energy surfaces. J. Phys. Chem. 59, 1097 (1955).
27.Bune, A.V., Fridkin, V.M., Ducharme, S., Blinov, L.M., Palto, S.P., Sorokin, A.V., Yudin, S.G., Zlatkin, A.: Two-dimensional ferroelectric films. Nature 391, 74 (1998).
28.Lee, H.N., Hesse, D., Zakharov, N., Gösele, U.: Ferroelectric Bi3.25La0.75Ti3O12 films of uniform a-axis orientation on silicon substrates. Science 296, 2006 (2002).
29.Shaw, T.M., Trolier-McKinstry, S., McIntyre, P.C.: The properties of ferroelectric films at small dimensions. Ann. Rev. Mater. Sci. 30, 263 (2000).
30. Joint Committee on Powder Diffraction Standards.
31.Guinier, A.: X-Ray Diffraction, 2nd ed. (Dover Publications, Mineola, NY, 1994).


Lead titanate nano- and microtubes

  • Lili Zhao (a1), Martin Steinhart (a1), Jian Yu (a2) and Ulrich Gösele (a1)


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed