Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Influence of pulse repetition rate on the growth of cobalt-doped ZnO thin films by pulsed electron beam ablation

  • Asghar Ali (a1) and Redhouane Henda (a1)

Abstract

Cobalt-doped ZnO (CZO) film nanocomposites have been deposited on Si(100) substrates by pulsed electron beam ablation from a single Co0.2Zn0.8O target. The films have been deposited at various electron beam repetition rates (1, 2, 4, and 8 Hz), under a background argon (Ar) pressure of ∼3 mtorr, an accelerating voltage of 16 kV, and a deposition temperature of 450 °C. The effect of beam frequency on the structural, chemical, and morphological properties of the films has been assessed. The findings reveal that film thickness, film roughness, and degree of crystallinity of the ZnO wurtzite structure increase with beam frequency, while globule size and density reach maximum and minimum values, respectively, as the beam frequency is increased. The pulse frequency does not appear to affect the average nanoparticulate size. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data support the co-existence of metallic cobalt (Co0), CoO, and Co2O3 in CZO films near the surface. Phase analysis by X-ray diffraction also confirms the presence of hexagonal close-packed metallic cobalt whose content in the films is practically unaffected by beam frequency.

Copyright

Corresponding author

a)Address all correspondence to this author. e-mail: aali2@laurentian.ca

References

Hide All
1.Liu, Z., Xing, Y., Xue, Y., Wu, D., and Fang, S.: Synthesis, characterization, and Fischer–Tropsch performance of cobalt/zinc aluminate nanocomposites via a facile and corrosion-free coprecipitation route. J. Nanopart Res. 17, 1 (2015).
2.Gual, A., Godard, C., Castillon, S., Ferre, D.C., and Claver, C.: Colloidal Ru, Co and Fe-nanoparticles. Synthesis and application as nanocatalysts in the Fischer–Tropsch process. Catal. Today 183, 154 (2012).
3.Wang, X., Ning, W., Hu, L., and Li, Y.: Influences of Al2O3 on the structure and reactive performance of Co/ZnO catalyst. Catal. Commun. 24, 61 (2012).
4.Poongodi, G., Anandan, P., Kumarn, R.M., and Jayavel, R.: Studies on visible light photocatalytic and antibacterial activities of nanostructured cobalt doped ZnO thin films prepared by sol–gel spin coating method. Spectrochim. Acta, Part A 148, 237 (2015).
5.Llorca, J., Homs, N., and de la Piscina, P.R.: In situ DRIFT-mass spectrometry study of the ethanol steam-reforming reaction over carbonyl-derived Co/ZnO catalysts. J. Catal. 227, 556 (2004).
6.Jaramillo, T.F., Baeck, S.H., Shwarsctein, A.K., Choi, K.S., Stucky, G.D., and McFarl, E.W.: Automated electrochemical synthesis and photoelectrochemical characterization of Zn1−xCoxO thin films for solar hydrogen production. J. Comb. Chem. 7, 264 (2005).
7.Mondloch, J.E., Bayram, E., and Finke, R.G.: A review of the kinetics and mechanisms of formation of supported-nanoparticle heterogeneous catalysts. J. Mol. Catal. A: Chem. 355, 1 (2012).
8.Juang, Y., Chu, S.Y., Weng, H.C., and Tyan, S.L.: Phase transition of Co-doped ZnO. Solid State Commun. 143, 558 (2007).
9.Park, J.H., Kim, M.G., Jang, H.M., and Ryu, S.: Co-metal clustering as the origin of ferromagnetism in Co-doped ZnO thin films. Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1338 (2004).
10.Liu, Y., Yang, S., Wei, G., Pan, J., Yuan, Y., and Cheng, C.: Influence of substrate temperature on stress and morphology characteristics of Co-doped ZnO films prepared by laser-molecular beam epitaxy. J. Mater. Sci. Technol. 29, 1134 (2013).
11.Song, C., Pan, S.N., Liu, X.J., Li, X.W., Zeng, F., Yan, W.S., He, B., and Pan, F.: Evidence of structural defect enhanced room-temperature ferromagnetism in Co-doped ZnO. J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 19, 176229 (2007).
12.Benramache, S., Benhaoua, B., and Chabane, F.: Effect of substrate temperature on the stability of transparent conducting cobalt doped ZnO thin films. J. Semicond. 33, 093001 (2012).
13.Negi, D.S., Roy, A., Loukya, B., Dileep, K., Shetty, S., Kumar, N., Kumar, P.S.A., and Datta, R.: Epitaxial Co metal thin film grown by pulsed laser deposition using oxide target. J. Cryst. Growth 394, 112 (2014).
14.Liu, X.C., Shi, E.W., Chen, Z.Z., Zhang, H.W., Song, L.X., Wang, H., and Yao, S.D.: Structural, optical and magnetic properties of Co-doped ZnO films. J. Cryst. Growth 296, 135 (2006).
15.Wang, A., Zhong, Z., Lu, C., Lv, L., Wang, X., and Zhang, B.: Study on field-emission characteristics of electrodeposited Co-doped ZnO thin films. Phys. B 406, 1049 (2011).
16.Zukova, A., Teiserskis, A., Kazlauskiene, V., Gunko, Y.K., and Dijken, S.V.: Structural and magnetic properties of Co-doped ZnO films grown by pulse-injection MOCVD. J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 316, 203 (2007).
17.Mathis, J.E. and Christen, H.M.: Factors that influence particle formation during pulsed electron deposition of YBCO precursors. Phys. C 459, 47 (2007).
18.Graziosi, P., Prezioso, M., Gambardella, A., Kitts, C., Rakshit, R.K., Riminucci, A., Bergenti, I., Borgatti, F., Pernechele, C., Solzi, M., Pullini, D., Mataix, D.B., and Dediu, V.A.: Conditions for the growth of smooth La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 thin films by pulsed electron ablation. Thin Solid Films 534, 83 (2013).
19.Tricot, S., Nistor, M., Millon, E., Leborgne, C.B., Mandache, N.B., Perrière, J., and Seiler, W.: Epitaxial ZnO thin films grown by pulsed electron beam deposition. Surf. Sci. 604, 2024 (2010).
20.Nistor, M., Mihut, L., Millon, E., Cachoncinlle, C., Hebertd, C., and Perriered, J.: Tailored electric and optical properties of Nd doped ZnO: From transparent conducting oxide to photon down-shifting thin films. RSC Adv. 6, 41465 (2016).
21.Pattini, F., Annoni, F., Bissoli, F., Bronzoni, M., Garcia, J.P., Gilioli, E., and Rampino, S.: Comparative study about Al-doped zinc oxide thin films deposited by pulsed electron deposition and radio frequency magnetron sputtering as transparent conductive oxide for Cu(In,Ga)Se2-based solar cells. Thin Solid Films 582, 317 (2015).
22.Kovaleski, S.D., Gilgenbach, R.M., Ang, L.K., Lau, Y.Y., and Lash, J.S.: Electron beam ablation versus laser ablation: Plasma plume diagnostic studies. Appl. Surf. Sci. 127, 947 (1998).
23.Strikovski, M., Kim, J., and Kolagani, S.H.: Plasma energetics in pulsed laser and pulsed electron deposition. In Springer Handbook of Crystal Growth, Dhanaraj, G., Byrappa, K., Prasad, V., and Dudley, M., eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2010); p. 1193.
24.Ali, A., Henda, R., and Fagerberg, R.: Effect of temperature and discharge voltage on the properties of Co-doped ZnO thin films deposited by pulsed electron beam ablation. Appl. Surf. Sci. 422, 1082 (2017).
25.Moholkar, A.V., Shinde, S.S., Babar, A.R., Sim, K.U., Kwon, Y., Rajpure, K.Y., Patil, P.S., Bhosale, C.H., and Kim, J.H.: Development of CZTS thin films solar cells by pulsed laser deposition: Influence of pulse repetition rate. Sol. Energy 85, 1354 (2011).
26.Zhang, Q.Y. and Chu, P.K.: Study on the early stage of thin film growth in pulsed beam deposition by kinetic Monte Carlo simulation. Surf. Coat. Technol. 158, 247 (2002).
27.Fuenzalida, V.M.: Pulsed deposition: Model for the cluster size distribution after the first pulse. J. Cryst. Growth 183, 497 (1998).
28.Myoung, J-M., Yoon, W-H., Lee, D-H., Yun, I., Baf, S-H., and Lee, S-Y.: Effects of thickness variation on properties of ZnO thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 28 (2002).
29.Karaca, H., Safonova, O.V., Chambrey, S., Fongarland, P., Roussel, P., Constant, A.G., Lacroix, M., and Khodakov, A.Y.: Structure and catalytic performance of Pt-promoted alumina-supported cobalt catalysts under realistic conditions of Fischer–Tropsch synthesis. J. Catal. 277, 14 (2011).
30.Ali, A., Pinto, A.L., Henda, R., and Fagerberg, R.: Influence of Co loading on structural and morphological properties of Co-doped ZnO thin films grown by pulsed electron beam ablation. J. Alloys Compd. 731, 181 (2018).
31.Ali, A., Morrow, P., Henda, R., and Fagerberg, R.: Deposition of cobalt doped zinc oxide thin film nano-composites via pulsed electron beam ablation. MRS Adv. 1, 433 (2016).
32.Ohring, M.: The Materials Science of Thin Films: Deposition and Structure, 2nd ed. (Academic Press, London, U.K., 2002); p. 375.
33.Semaltianos, N.G.: Thermally evaporated aluminum thin films. Appl. Surf. Sci. 183, 223 (2001).
34.Vanalakar, S.A., Mali, S.S., Agwane, G.L., Kamble, A., Kim, I.Y., Patil, P.S., Kim, J.Y., and Kim, J.H.: Influence of laser repetition rate on the Cu2ZnSn(SSe)4 thin films synthesized via pulsed laser deposition technique. Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 157, 331 (2016).
35.Zangwill, A.: Some causes and a consequence of epitaxial roughening. J. Cryst. Growth 163, 8 (1996).
36.Ivill, M., Peartonm, S.J., Rawal, S., Leu, L., Sadik, P., Das, R., Hebard, A.F., Chisholm, M., Budai, J.D., and Norton, D.P.: Structure and magnetism of cobalt-doped ZnO thin films. New J. Phys. 10, 065002 (2008).
37.Peng, Y.Z., Liew, T., Song, W.D., An, C.W., Teo, K.L., and Chong, T.C.: Structural and optical properties of Co-doped ZnO thin films. J. Supercond. Novel Magn. 18, 97 (2005).
38.Tortosa, M., Mollar, M., Manjón, F.J., Marí, B., and Royo, J.F.S.: Cathodic electrodeposition of ZnCoO thin films. Phys. Status Solidi C 5, 3358 (2008).
39.Zhou, Z., Zhang, Y., Wang, Z., Wei, W., Tang, W., Shi, J., and Xiong, R.: Electronic structure studies of the spinel CoFe2O4 by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Appl. Surf. Sci. 254, 6972 (2008).
40.de Lima Alves, T.M., Amorim, B.F., Torres, M.A.M., Bezerra, C.G., de Medeiros, S.N., Gastelois, P.L., Outon, L.E.F., and de Almeida Macedo, W.A.: Wasp-waisted behavior in magnetic hysteresis curves of CoFe2O4 nanopowder at a low temperature: Experimental evidence and theoretical approach. RSC Adv. 7, 22187 (2017).
41.Vadiyar, M.M., Kolekar, S.S., Chang, J-Y., Kashalec, A.A., and Ghulec, A.V.: Reflux condensation mediated deposition of Co3O4 nanosheets and ZnFe2O4 nanoflakes electrodes for flexible asymmetric supercapacitor. Electrochim. Acta 222, 1604 (2016).
42.Shewalea, P.S. and Yua, Y.S.: The effects of pulse repetition rate on the structural, surface morphological and UV photodetection properties of pulsed laser deposited Mg-doped ZnO nanorods. Ceram. Int. 42, 7125 (2016).

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed