Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Influence of Electrode Modification by Ar+ Ion Beam Upon Passivation and Electrical Characteristics in Organic Light-Emitting Diodes

  • Soon Moon Jeong (a1), Won Hoi Koo (a1), Sang Hun Choi (a1), Sung Jin Jo (a1), Hong Koo Baik (a1), Se-Jong Lee (a2) and Kie Moon Song (a3)...

Abstract

Ion-beam-assisted deposition (IBAD) was used for cathode preparation in organic light-emitting diodes to fabricate dense electrode. Dark spot growth rate was decreased by employing the IBAD process due to a highly packed aluminum structure inhibiting the permeation of H2O and O2. However, undesirable leakage current was generated because energetic particles of Al assisted by Ar+ ion may damage the organic material resulting in reduction of contact resistance. The decrease of contact resistance in the IBAD device may be caused by large contact area, increase of density of states, and Li diffusion to phenyl-substituted poly-p-phenylene vinylene.

Copyright

Corresponding author

a)Address all correspondence to this author. e-mail: thinfilm@yonsei.ac.kr

References

Hide All
1Tang, C.W. and VanSlyke, S.A.: Organic electroluminescent diodes. Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 913 (1987).
2Burroughes, J.H., Bradley, D.D.C., Brown, A.R., Marks, R.N., Mackay, K., Friend, R.H., Burn, P.L. and Holmes, A.B.: Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers. Nature 347, 539 (1990).
3Rothberg, L.J. and Lovinger, A.J.: Status of and prospects for organic electroluminescence. J. Mater. Res. 11, 3174 (1996).
4Burrows, P.E., Bulovic, V., Forrest, S.R., Sapochak, L.S., McCarty, D.M. and Thompson, M.E.: Reliability and degradation of organic light-emitting devices. Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2922 (1994).
5Vimrova, V., Nespurek, S., Kuzel, R. and Schnabel, W.: Electrode-limited photoinjection at metal/polymer interface. Synth. Met. 67, 103 (1994).
6McElvain, J., Antoniadis, H., Hueschen, M.R., Miller, J.N., Roitman, D.M., Sheats, J.R. and Moon, R.L.: Formation and growth of black spots in organic light-emitting diodes. J. Appl. Phys. 80, 6002 (1996).
7Do, L.M., Oyamada, M., Koike, A., Han, E.M., Yamamoto, N. and Fujira, M.: Morphological change in the degradation of Al electrode surfaces of electroluminescent devices by fluorescence microscopy and AFM. Thin Solid Films 273, 209 (1996).
8Savvateev, V.N., Yakimov, A.V., Davidov, D., Pogreb, R.M., Neumann, R. and Avny, Y.: Degradation of nonencapsulated polymer-based light-emitting diodes: Noise and morphology. Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3344 (1997).
9Liao, L.S., Hung, L.S., Chan, W.C., Ding, X.M., Sham, T.K., Bellow, I., Lee, C.S. and Lee, S.T.: Ion-beam-induced surface damages on tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum. Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1619 (1999).
10Suzuki, H. and Hikita, M.: Organic light-emitting diodes with radio frequency sputter-deposited electron injecting electrodes. Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2276 (1996).
11Gu, G., Bulovic, V., Burrows, P.E., Forrest, S.R. and Thompson, M.E.: Transparent organic light-emitting devices. Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2606 (1996).
12Hung, L.S., Liao, L.S., Lee, C.S. and Lee, S.T.: Sputter deposition of cathodes in organic light emitting diodes. J. Appl. Phys. 86, 4607 (1999).
13Parker, I.D.: Carrier tunneling and device characteristics in polymer light-emitting diodes. J. Appl. Phys. 75, 1656 (1994).
14Blom, P.W.M., de Jong, M.J.M. and Vleggaar, J.J.M.: Electron and hole transport in poly(p-phenylene vinylene) devices. Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3308 (1996).
15Campbell, A.J., Bradley, D.D.C. and Lidzey, D.G.: Space-charge limited conduction with traps in poly(phenylene vinylene) light emitting diodes. J. Appl. Phys. 82, 6326 (1997).
16Shen, J. and Yang, J.: Physical mechanisms in double-carrier trap-charge limited transport processes in organic electroluminescent devices: A numerical study. J. Appl. Phys. 83, 7706 (1998).
17Antoniadis, H., Abkowitz, M.A. and Hsieh, B.R.: Carrier deep-trapping mobility-lifetime products in poly(p-phenylene vinylene). Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2030 (1994).
18Cuomo, J.J., Rossnagel, S.M. and Kaufman, H.R. Handbook of Ion Beam Processing Technology-Principles, Deposition, Film Modification and Synthesis, (Noyes Publications, Park Ridge, NJ, 1989), p. 263.
19Henry, B.M., Dinelli, F., Zhao, K-Y., Grovenor, C.R.M., Kolosov, O.V., Briggs, G.A.D., Roberts, A.P., Kumar, R.S. and Howson, R.P.: A microstructural study of transparent metal oxide gas barrier films. Thin Solid Films 355, 500 (1999).
20Tropsha, Y.G. and Harvey, N.G.: Activated rate theory treatment of oxygen and water transport through silicon oxide/poly(ethylene terephthalate) composite barrier structures. J. Phys. Chem. B. 101, 2259 (1997).
21Erlat, A.G., Spontak, R.J., Clarke, R.P., Robinson, T.C., Haaland, P.D., Tropsha, Y., Harvey, N.G. and Vogler, E.A.: SiOx gas barrier coatings on polymer substrates: Morphology and gas transport considerations. J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 6047 (1999).
22Sobrinho, A.S. da Silva, Czeremuszkin, G., Latreche, M. and Wertheimer, M.R.: Defect-permeation correlation for ultrathin transparent barrier coatings on polymers. J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 149 (2000).
23Henry, B.M., Dinelli, F., Zhao, K-Y., Grovenor, C.R.M., Kolosov, O.V., Briggs, G.A.D., Roberts, A.P., Kumar, R.S. and Howson, : A microstructural study of transparent metal oxide gas barrier films. Thin Solid Films. 335356.
24Roberts, A.P., Henry, B.M., Sutton, A.P., Grovenor, C.R.M., Briggs, G.A.D., Miyamoto, T., Kano, M., Tsukahara, Y. and Yanaka, M.: Gas permeation in silicon-oxide/polymer (SiOx/PET) barrier films: Role of the oxide lattice, nano-defects and macro-defects. J. Membr. Sci. 208, 75 (2002).
25Kwak, J.S., Baik, H.K., Kim, J.H. and Lee, S.M.: Suppression of silicide formation in Ta/Si system by ion-beam-assisted deposition. Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2451 (1997).
26Burrows, P.E. and Forrest, S.R.: Electroluminescence from trap-limited current transport in vacuum-deposited organic light-emitting devices. Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2285 (1994).
27Burrows, P.E., Shen, Z., Bulovic, V., McCarty, D.M. and Forrest, S.R.: Relationship between electroluminescence and current transport in organic heterojunction light-emitting devices. J. Appl. Phys. 79, 7991 (1996).
28Meier, M., Karg, S. and Riess, W.: Light-emitting diodes based on poly-p-phenylene-vinylene: II. Impedance spectroscopy. J. Appl. Phys. 82, 1961 (1997).
29Aziz, H. and Xu, G.: Electric-field-induced degradation of poly(p-phenylenevinylene) electroluminescent devices. J. Phys. Chem. 101, 4009 (1997).
30Parthasarathy, G., Burrows, P.E., Khalfin, V., Kozlov, V.G. and Forrest, S.R.: A metal-free cathode for organic semiconductor devices. Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2138 (1998).
31Bulovic, V., Tian, P., Burrows, P.E., Gokhale, M.R. and Forrest, S.R.: A surface-emitting vacuum-deposited organic light emitting device. Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2954 (1997).
32Forrest, S.R., Leu, L.Y., So, F.F. and Yoon, W.Y.: Optical and electrical properties of isotype crystalline molecular organic heterojunctions. J. Appl. Phys. 66, 5908 (1989).
33Rajagopal, A., Wu, C.I. and Kahn, A.: Energy level offset at organic semiconductor heterojunctions. J. Appl. Phys. 83, 2649 (1998).
34Parthasarathy, G., Adachi, C., Burrows, P.E. and Forrest, S.R.: High-efficiency transparent organic light-emitting devices. Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2128 (2000).
35Haskal, E.I., Curioni, A., Seidler, P.F. and Andreoni, W.: Transparent organic light-emitting devices. Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2606 (1997).
36Kido, J. and Matsumoto, T.: Bright organic electroluminescent devices having a metal-doped electron-injecting layer. Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2866 (1998).

Keywords

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Influence of Electrode Modification by Ar+ Ion Beam Upon Passivation and Electrical Characteristics in Organic Light-Emitting Diodes

  • Soon Moon Jeong (a1), Won Hoi Koo (a1), Sang Hun Choi (a1), Sung Jin Jo (a1), Hong Koo Baik (a1), Se-Jong Lee (a2) and Kie Moon Song (a3)...

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.