The influence of organic binders on fiber/matrix bonding during the powder metallurgy fabrication of sapphire fiber-reinforced NiAl matrix composites (sapphire/NiAl) was investigated. One composite panel was fabricated using a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) fiber binder and a teflon matrix powder binder; another panel was fabricated by binderless powder metallurgy consolidation. The effect of the binders on fiber/matrix bonding was evaluated by fiber push-out testing from room temperature to 900 °C. Examination of mating fiber and matrix-trough fracture surfaces by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) revealed differences in interfacial morphology and chemistry, depending on the use of binders in fabrication. The primary difference between the two composites was the much higher concentration of carbon at the fiber/matrix interface in sapphire/NiAl fabricated with binders. This carbon residue from binder burnout prevented clean contact between the sapphire fiber and NiAl matrix surfaces, resulting in a weak, thermomechanically clamped fiber/matrix interface, in contrast to the stronger, less temperature dependent, interfacial bonding observed without binders.