Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Importance of line and interfacial energies during VLS growth of finely stranded silica nanowires

  • Martin Bettge (a1), Scott MacLaren (a2), Steve Burdin (a2), Daniel Abraham (a3), Ivan Petrov (a4), Min-Feng Yu (a5) and Ernie Sammann (a6)...

Abstract

A rich research history exists for crystalline growth by vapor–liquid–solid (VLS) methods, but not for amorphous growth. Yet VLS growth in the absence of crystallographic influences provides an ideal laboratory for exploring surface energy effects, including the role of line tension. We discuss the growth of amorphous silica nanowires from indium droplets by a modified VLS method. Multiple strands issue from each droplet, each strand having <1% (i.e., < 5 nm) of the radius of the droplet. We analyze the surface forces for this system, including line tension, and combine data in a novel way to estimate the surface energy of silica, the interfacial energy of liquid indium on silica, and the line tension at the three-phase boundary. The results suggest that the growth of these silica strands would be impossible without the presence of a negative line tension that also serves to stabilize the strand radii against perturbation.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Importance of line and interfacial energies during VLS growth of finely stranded silica nanowires
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Importance of line and interfacial energies during VLS growth of finely stranded silica nanowires
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Importance of line and interfacial energies during VLS growth of finely stranded silica nanowires
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

a)Address all correspondence to this author. e-mail: bettge@mrl.uiuc.edu

References

Hide All
1.Wagner, R.S.: Whisker Technology, edited by Levitt, A.P.. (Wiley Interscience, New York, 1970), p. 47.
2.Givargizov, E.I.: Fundamental aspects of VLS growth. J. Cryst. Growth 31, 20 (1975).
3.Schwarz, K.W. and Tersoff, J.: From droplets to nanowires: Dynamics of vapor–liquid–solid growth. Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 206101 (2009).
4.Li, N., Tan, T.Y., and Gösele, U.: Chemical tension and global equilibrium in VLS nanostructure growth process. Appl. Phys. A 86, 433 (2007).
5.Pan, Z., Dai, S., Beach, D.B., and Lowndes, D.H.: Temperature dependence of morphologies of aligned silicon oxide nanowire assemblies catalyzed by molten gallium. Nano Lett. 3, 1279 (2003).
6.Zheng, B., Wu, Y., Yang, P., and Liu, J.: Synthesis of ultra-long and highly oriented silicon oxide nanowires from liquid alloys. Adv. Mater. 14, 122 (2002).
7.Sunkara, M.K., Sharma, S., Chandrasekaran, H., Talbott, M., Krogman, K., and Bhimarasetti, G.: Bulk synthesis of a-SixNyH and a-SixOy straight and coiled nanowires. J. Mater. Chem. 14, 590 (2004).
8.Zhang, J., Yang, Y., Ding, S., Li, J., and Wang, X.: Bimetal Ga-Sn catalyzed growth for the novel morphologies of silicon oxide nanowires. Mater. Sci. Eng., B 150, 180 (2008).
9.Bettge, M., MacLaren, S., Burdin, S., Wen, J.-G., Abraham, D., Petrov, I., and Sammann, E.: Low-temperature vapour–liquid–solid (VLS) growth of vertically aligned silicon oxide nanowires using concurrent ion bombardment. Nanotechnology 20, 115607 (2009).
10.Neumann, A.W. and Jan, K.: Spelt: Applied Surface Thermodynamics. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1996).
11.Schmidt, V., Senz, S., and Gösele, U.: The shape of epitaxially grown silicon nanowires and the influence of line tension. Appl. Phys. A 80, 445 (2005).
12.Amirfazli, A. and Neumann, A.W.: Status of the three-phase line tension. Adv. Colloid. Interfac. 110, 121(2004).
13.Sivaramakrishnan, S., Wen, J.G., Scarpelli, M.E., Pierce, B.J., and Zuo, J.-M.: Equilibrium shapes and triple line energy of epitaxial gold nanocrystals supported on TiO2(110). Phys. Rev. B 82, 195421 (2010).
14.Kodambaka, S., Tersoff, J., Reuter, M.C., and Ross, F.M.: Diameter-independent kinetics in the vapor-liquid-solid growth of Si nanowires. Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 096105 (2006).
15.Kodambaka, S., Tersoff, J., Reuter, M.C., and Ross, F.M.: Germanium nanowire growth below the eutectic temperature. Science 316, 729 (2007).
16.Lang, G.: Surface tension of liquid elements, in Section 20, CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 89th ed. (Internet Version 2009), edited by Haynes, W.M. (CRC Press/Taylor and Francis, Boca Raton, FL, 2009).
17.Naidich, J.V. and Chuvashov, J.N.: Wettability and contact interaction of gallium-containing melts with non-metallic solids. J. Mater. Sci. 18, 2071 (1983).
18.Livey, D.T. and Murray, P.: Surface energies of solid oxides and carbides. J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 39, 363 (1956).
19.Tarasevich, Y.I.: Surface energies of oxides and silicates. Theor. Exp. Chem. 42, 145 (2006).
20.Harding, F.L. and Rossington, D.R.: Wetting of ceramic oxides by molten metals under ultrahigh Vacuum. J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 53, 87 (1970).
21.Marmur, A.: Line tension and the intrinsic contact angle in solid–liquid–fluid systems. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 186, 462 (1997).

Keywords

Importance of line and interfacial energies during VLS growth of finely stranded silica nanowires

  • Martin Bettge (a1), Scott MacLaren (a2), Steve Burdin (a2), Daniel Abraham (a3), Ivan Petrov (a4), Min-Feng Yu (a5) and Ernie Sammann (a6)...

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed