Skip to main content Accessibility help

Hot pressing and characterizations of mechanically alloyed Zr52Al6Ni8Cu14W20 glassy powders.

  • M. Sherif El-Eskandarany (a1) and A. Inoue (a2)


Low-energy ball milling technique was successfully used to synthesis new glassy Zr52Al6Ni8Cu14W20 multicomponent alloy powders using mechanical alloying method. During the intermediate stage of milling the atoms of Zr, Al, Ni, and Cu migrated and diffused into the W lattice to form a body-centered cubic solid solution phase. As the milling time increases, the obtained metastable powders are subsequently subjected to continuous defects and lattice imperfections that lead to a gradual change in the free energy so that solid solution phase transformed to another metastable phase (glassy). The glassy powders that were obtained after 720 ks milling are fully amorphous and have spherical-like morphology with an average particle size of 0.60 μm in diameter. The synthetic glassy Zr52Al6Ni8Cu14W20 alloy powder, which exhibits a glass transition temperature of 811 K, crystallizes at a high temperature (884 K) through a single sharp exothermic peak with an enthalpy change of crystallization of −5.48 kJ/mol. Whereas the supercooled liquid region before crystallization of the obtained glassy powders is 73 K, the reduced glass transition temperature (ratio between Tg and liquidus temperatures) was found to be 0.46. The fabricated glassy powders were consequently hot-pressed into bulk samples in an argon gas atmosphere at several temperatures with a pressure of 936 MPa. The samples that were consolidated within the temperature of the supercooled liquid region are fully dense, with relative density above ∼99.82%, and maintain their original homogeneous glassy structure. They have high Vickers microhardness values in the range between 8.46 and 8.62 GPa. They also show very high fracture strength (2.13 GPa) with an extraordinary high Young's modulus of 138 GPa. Neither yielding stress, nor plastic strain could be detected for this glassy alloy, the elastic strain of which is 1.47%.


Corresponding author

a) Address all correspondence to this author. Present Address: Technology Development & Scientific Services Sector, Academy of Scientific Research & Technology, Ministry of Scientific Research, 101 Kasr Al-Aini St., Cairo 11516, Egypt. e-mail:


Hide All
1.Inoue, A.: Bulk Amorphous Alloys: Practical Characteristics and Applications, 1st ed., edited by Magini, M. and Wöhlbier, F.H. (Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland, 1999), p. 140.
2.El-Eskandarany, M. Sherif: Mechanical Alloying for Fabrication of Advanced Engineering Materials, 1st ed. (William Andrew Publishing, New York, 2001), p. 5.
3.Wang, W.H., Dong, C., Shek, C.H.: Bulk metallic glasses. Mater. Sci. Eng. R 44, 45 (2004).
4.Koshiba, H., Inoue, A.: Preparation and magnetic properties of Co-based bulk glassy alloys. Mater. Trans. JIM 42, 2572 (2001).
5.Shen, B., Kimura, H., Inoue, A., Mizushima, T.: Bulk glassy Fe–Ga–P–C–B alloys with high saturation magnetization and good soft magnetic properties synthesized by fluxing treatment and copper mold casting. Mater. Trans. JIM 42, 660 (2001).
6.Shen, B., Kimura, H., Inoue, A., Omori, M., Okubo, A.: Preparation of Fe65Co10Ga5P12C4B4 bulk glassy alloy with good soft magnetic properties by spark-plasma sintering of glassy powder. Mater. Trans. JIM 43, 1961 (2002).
7.Ishihara, S., Zhang, W., Inoue, A.: Hot pressing of Fe–Co–Nd– Dy–B glassy powders in supercooled liquid state and hard magnetic properties of the consolidated alloys. Scripta Metall. 47, 231 (2002).
8.Duan, G., Xu, D., Johnson, W.L.: High copper bulk glass formation in bimetallic Cu–Hf system.. Metall. Trans. 36A, 455 (2005).
9.Gu, X., Shiflet, G.J.: Mg–Ca–Zn bulk metallic glasses with high strength and significant ductility. J. Mater. Res. 20, 1935 (2005).
10.Xi, X.K., Li, S., Wang, R.J., Zhao, D.Q., Pan, M.X., Wang, W.H.: Bulk scandium-based metallic glasses. J. Mater. Res. 20, 2243 (2005).
11.Ma, H., Zheng, Q., Xu, J., Li, Y., Ma, E.: Doubling the critical size for bulk metallic glass formation in the Mg–Cu–Y ternary system. J. Mater. Res. 20, 2252 (2005).
12.Zhang, J., Zhao, Y.: Formation of zirconium metallic glass. Nature 430, 332 (2004).
13.El-Eskandarany, M. Sherif, Zhang, W., Inoue, A.: Mechanically induced solid-state reaction for synthesizing of glassy Co75Ti25 soft magnet alloy powders with wide supercooled liquid region. J. Mater. Res. 17, 2447 (2002).
14.El-Eskandarany, M. Sherif, Ishihara, S., Inoue, A.: Mechanism of solid-state reaction for fabrication of new glassy V45Zr22Ni22Cu11 alloy powders and subsequent consolidation. J. Mater. Res. 18, 2435 (2003).
15.El-Eskandarany, M. Sherif, Ishihara, S., Zhang, W., Inoue, A.: Fabrication and characterizations of new glassy Co71Ti24B5 alloy powders and subsequent hot pressing into a fully dense bulk glass. Metall. Trans. 36A, 141 (2005).
16.Shen, B., Inoue, A.: Fabrication of large-size-Fe-based glassy cores with good soft magnetic properties by spark plasma sintering. J. Mater. Res. 18, 2115 (2003).
17.Kawamura, Y., Shibata, T., Inoue, A., Masumoto, T.: Superplastic deformation of Zr65Al10Ni10Cu15 metallic glass. Scripta Metall. 37, 431 (1997).
18.Itoi, T., Takamizawa, T., Kawamura, Y., Inoue, A.: Fabrication of Co40Fe22Nb8B30 bulk metallic glasses by consolidation of gas-atomized powders and their soft-magnetic properties. Scripta Metall. 45, 1131 (2001).
19.Li, F., Zhang, T., Guan, S., Ningfu, : A novel dual-amorphous-phased bulk metallic glass with soft magnetic properties. Mater. Lett. 59, 1453 (2005).
20.Inoue, A., Shen, B.: Soft magnetic properties of nanocrystalline Fe–Co–B–Si–Nb–Cu alloys in ribbon and bulk forms. J. Mater. Res. 18, 2799 (2003).
21.Bednarčik, J., Kollár, P., Roth, S., Eckert, J.: Co-based soft magnetic bulk amorphous ferromagnets prepared by powder consolidation. Phys. Status Solidi 199, 299 (2003).
22.Ponnambalam, V., Poon, S.J., Shiflet, J.G.: Fe-based bulk metallic glasses with diameter thickness larger than one centimeter. J. Mater. Res. 19, 1320 (2004).
23.Kollár, P., Bednarčik, J., Roth, S., Grahl, H., Eckert, J.: Structure and magnetic properties of hot pressed Co-based powder. J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 278, 373 (2004).
24.El-Eskandarany, M. Sherif, Saida, J., Inoue, A.: Structural and calorimetric evolutions of mechanically-induced solid-state devitrificated Zr70Ni25Al15 glassy alloy powder. Acta Mater. 51, 148 (2003).
25.El-Eskandarany, M. Sherif, Saida, J., Inoue, A.: Mechanically induced devitrifications of ball-milled Zr70Pd20Ni10 glassy alloy powders. J. Mater. Res. 18, 250 (2003).
26.El-Eskandarany, M. Sherif, Saida, J., Inoue, A.: Room-temperature mechanically induced solid state devitrifications of glassy Zr65Al 7.5Ni10Cu 12.5Pd 5 alloy powders. Acta Mater. 51, 4519 (2003).
27.Sunol, J.J., Gonzalez, A., Clavaguera-Mora, M.T., Clavaguera, N.: Mechanically induced thermal changes in amorphous metallic melt-spun alloys. Mater. Lett. 57, 4222 (2003).
28.Zhang, L.C., Xu, J.: Formation of glassy Ti50Cu20Ni24Si4B2 alloy by high-energy ball milling. Mater. Lett. 56, 615 (2002).
29.Liu, Y.J., Chang, I.T.H.: The correlation of microstructural development and thermal stability of mechanically alloyed multicomponent Fe–Co–Ni–Zr–B alloys. Acta Mater. 50, 2747 (2002).
30.Lin, C-K., Wang, C-C., Jeng, R-R., Lin, Y-L., Yeh, C-H., Chu, J.P., Lee, P-Y.: Prepartation and thermal stability of mechanically alloyed Ni–Zr–Ti–Y amorphous powders. Intermetallics 12, 1011 (2004).
31.Scudino, S., Eckert, J., Mickel, C., Schultz, L.: On the amorphous-to-quasicrystalline phase transformation in ball-milled and melt-spun Zr58.5Ti8.2Cu14.2Ni11.4Al7.7 glassy alloys. J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351, 856 (2005).
32.El-Eskandarany, M. Sherif, Omori, M., Inoue, A.: Solid-state synthesizing of new glassy Co65Ti20W15 alloy powders and subsequent densification into a fully dense bulk glass. J. Mater. Res. 20, 2845 (2005).
33.Inoue, A.: Stabilization of metallic supercooled liquid and bulk amorphous alloys. Acta Mater. 48, 279 (2000).
34.Boer, F.R., Boom, R., Mattens, W.C., Miedema, A.R., Nissen, A.K. Cohesion in metals, in Transition Metal Alloys 1st ed. Vol. 1 (North-Holland, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1988).
35.Kittel, C.: Introduction to Solid State Physics 6th ed. (John Wiley & Sons Inc., New York, 1986), p. 76.
36.Schwarz, R.B., Johnson, W.L.: Formation of an amorphous alloy by solid-state reaction of the pure polycrystalline metals. Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 415 (1983).
37.Sagel, A., Wunderlich, R.K., Fecht, H.J.: Investigation of amorphization in an intermetallic powder mixture of bulk glass forming composition. Mater. Sci. Forum 269–272, 81 (1998).
38.Sagel, A., Sieber, H., Fecht, H-J., Perepezko, J.H.: Synthesis of an amorphous Zr–Al–Ni–Cu alloy with large supercooled liquid region by cold-rolling of elemental foils. Acta Mater. 46, 4233 (1998).
39.Sagel, A., Wunderlich, R.K., Perepezko, J.H., Fecht, H-J.: Glass formation in a multicomponent Zr-based alloy by mechanical attrition and liquid undercooling. Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 580 (1997).
40.Schwarz, R.B., Petrich, R.R., Saw, C.K.: The synthesis of amorphous Ni–Ti alloy powders by mechanical alloying. J. Non-Cryst. Solids 76, 281 (1985).


Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Hot pressing and characterizations of mechanically alloyed Zr52Al6Ni8Cu14W20 glassy powders.

  • M. Sherif El-Eskandarany (a1) and A. Inoue (a2)


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.