- Cited by 76
Carbonell, L Ratchev, P Caluwaerts, R Van Hove, M Verlinden, B and Maex, K 2002. Dry oxidation mechanisms of copper in trenches. Microelectronic Engineering, Vol. 64, Issue. 1-4, p. 63.
Van Olmen, J. Wu, W. Van Hove, M. Travaly, Y. Brongersma, S.H. Eyckens, B. Maenhoudt, M. Van Aelst, J. Struyf, H. Demuynck, S. Tokei, Z. Vervoort, I. Sijmus, B. Vos, I. Ciofi, I. Stucchi, M. Maex, K. and Iacopi, F. 2003. Integration of Single Damascene 85/85 nm L/S copper trenches in Black Diamond using 193 nm optical lithography with dipole illumination. p. 171.
Detavernier, C. Rossnagel, S. Noyan, C. Guha, S. Cabral, C. and Lavoie, C. 2003. Thermodynamics and kinetics of room-temperature microstructural evolution in copper films. Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 94, Issue. 5, p. 2874.
Satta, Alessandra Shamiryan, Denis Baklanov, Mikhaı̈l R. Whelan, Caroline M. Toan Le, Quoc Beyer, Gerald P. Vantomme, André and Maex, Karen 2003. The Removal of Copper Oxides by Ethyl Alcohol Monitored In Situ by Spectroscopic Ellipsometry. Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 150, Issue. 5, p. G300.
Vas’ko, V. A. Tabakovic, I. and Riemer, S. C. 2003. Structure and Room-Temperature Recrystallization of Electrodeposited Copper. Electrochemical and Solid-State Letters, Vol. 6, Issue. 7, p. C100.
Wu, W. Ernur, D. Brongersma, S.H. Van Hove, M. and Maex, K. 2004. Grain growth in copper interconnect lines. Microelectronic Engineering, Vol. 76, Issue. 1-4, p. 190.
Wu, W. Brongersma, S. H. Van Hove, M. and Maex, K. 2004. Influence of surface and grain-boundary scattering on the resistivity of copper in reduced dimensions. Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 84, Issue. 15, p. 2838.
Militzer, Matthias Freundlich, P. and Bizzotto, D. 2004. Abnormal Grain Growth in Electrochemically Deposited Cu Films. Materials Science Forum, Vol. 467-470, Issue. , p. 1339.
Maznev, A.A. Mazurenko, A. Gostein, M. Alper, G. Tower, J. and Carpio, R. 2004. Monitoring thickness, resistivity and grain structure of electroplated copper films with laser-based surface wave metrology. p. 477.
Wang, Grace Jong, Yoo Won Balakumar, S. Seah, C. H. and Hara, T. 2004. Enhancement of adhesion strength of Cu seed layer with different thickness in Cu∕low-k multilevel interconnects. Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B: Microelectronics and Nanometer Structures, Vol. 22, Issue. 5, p. 2384.
Balakumar, S Wong, Grace Fo Tsang, Chi Hara, T and Yoo, W.J 2004. Enhancement of adhesion strength of Cu layer on single and multi-layer dielectric film stack in Cu/low k multi-level interconnects. Microelectronic Engineering, Vol. 75, Issue. 2, p. 183.
Carbonell, L. Whelan, C.M. Kinsella, M. and Maex, K. 2004. A thermal stability study of alkane and aromatic thiolate self-assembled monolayers on copper surfaces. Superlattices and Microstructures, Vol. 36, Issue. 1-3, p. 149.
Vas'ko, V.A Tabakovic, I Riemer, S.C and Kief, M.T 2004. Effect of organic additives on structure, resistivity, and room-temperature recrystallization of electrodeposited copper. Microelectronic Engineering, Vol. 75, Issue. 1, p. 71.
Stangl, M. Dittel, V. Acker, J. Hoffmann, V. Gruner, W. Strehle, S. and Wetzig, K. 2005. Investigation of organic impurities adsorbed on and incorporated into electroplated copper layers. Applied Surface Science, Vol. 252, Issue. 1, p. 158.
Stangl, M. Acker, J. Dittel, V. Gruner, W. Hoffmann, V. and Wetzig, K. 2005. Characterization of electroplated copper self-annealing with investigations focused on incorporated impurities. Microelectronic Engineering, Vol. 82, Issue. 2, p. 189.
Zhang, W. Brongersma, S. H. Heylen, N. Beyer, G. Vandervorst, W. and Maex, K. 2005. Geometry Effect on Impurity Incorporation and Grain Growth in Narrow Copper Lines. Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 152, Issue. 12, p. C832.
Mirpuri, Kabirkumar and Szpunar, Jerzy 2005. Impact of annealing, surface/strain energy and linewidth to line spacing ratio on texture evolution in damascene Cu interconnects. Materials Characterization, Vol. 54, Issue. 2, p. 107.
Tzanavaras, Andrew Young, Gregory and Gleixner, Stacy 2005. The Grain Size and Microstructure of Jet-Electroplated Damascene Copper Films. Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 152, Issue. 2, p. C101.
Wang, Tony Lindquist, Paul Erdemli, Serkan Basol, Erol C. Zhang, Richard Uzoh, Cyprian E. and Basol, Bulent M. 2005. Characterization of copper layers grown by electrochemical mechanical deposition technique. Thin Solid Films, Vol. 478, Issue. 1-2, p. 345.
Zhang, W. Brongersma, S. H. Conard, T. Wu, W. Van Hove, M. Vandervorst, W. and Maex, K. 2005. Impurity Incorporation during Copper Electrodeposition in the Curvature-Enhanced Accelerator Coverage Regime. Electrochemical and Solid-State Letters, Vol. 8, Issue. 7, p. C95.
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The widely observed secondary grain growth in electroplated Copper layers is shown to be incomplete after the sheet resistance and stress of the layer appear to have stabilized. Instead the layer is in an intermediate state with a grain size distribution that depends on the plating conditions. Further extensive annealing at high temperatures results in an additional considerable enlargement of the grain structure, accompanied by an additional decrease of the sheet resistance and desorption of impurities that were incorporated during plating.
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- ISSN: 0884-2914
- EISSN: 2044-5326
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