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Electromigration failure in flip chip solder joints due to rapid dissolution of copper

  • Y.C. Hu (a1), Y.H. Lin (a1), C.R. Kao (a1) and K.N. Tu (a2)


An electromigration failure mechanism in flip chip solder joints is reported in this communication. The solder joints failed by a very rapid, asymmetrical, and localized dissolution of the Cu metallization on the cathode side. The average dissolution rate was about 1 μm/min. The dissolved Cu included not only the Cu under bump metallurgy but also the on-chip Cu conducting trace. From the location and geometry of the dissolved Cu, it can be concluded that current crowding plays a critical role in the rapid dissolution. The dissolved Cu atoms were driven to the anode side by electromigration, and a large amount of Cu6Sn5 was formed there.


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