- Cited by 102
Min Ding Matsuhashi, H. Guotao Wang and Ho, P.S. 2004. Electromigration study of high lead solders in flip-chip packages using the Wheatstone bridge method. p. 968.
Ho, Paul S. Wang, Guotao Ding, Min Zhao, Jie-Hua and Dai, Xiang 2004. Reliability issues for flip-chip packages. Microelectronics Reliability, Vol. 44, Issue. 5, p. 719.
Lin, Y.H. Hu, Y.C. Tsai, C.M. Kao, C.R. and Tu, K.N. 2005. In situ observation of the void formation-and-propagation mechanism in solder joints under current-stressing. Acta Materialia, Vol. 53, Issue. 7, p. 2029.
Lin, Y. H. Tsai, C. M. Hu, Y. C. Lin, Y. L. and Kao, C. R. 2005. Electromigration-induced failure in flip-chip solder joints. Journal of Electronic Materials, Vol. 34, Issue. 1, p. 27.
Wei, C.C. and Liu, C.Y. 2005. Electromigration Studies of Sn(Cu) and Sn(Ni) Alloy Stripes. Journal of Materials Research, Vol. 20, Issue. 08, p. 2072.
Wu, B.Y. and Chan, Y.C. 2005. Electric current effect on microstructure of ball grid array solder joint. Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Vol. 392, Issue. 1-2, p. 237.
Shengquan Ou and Tu, K.N. 2005. A study of electromigration in Sn3.5Ag and Sn3.8Ag0.7Cu solder lines. Vol. 2, Issue. , p. 1445.
Peng Su Min Ding Uehling, T. Wontor, D. and Ho, P.S. 2005. An evaluation of electromigration performance of SnPb and Pb-free flip chip solder joints. Vol. 2, Issue. , p. 1431.
Lin, Y.H. Tsai, C.M. Hu, Y.C. Lin, Y.L. Tsai, J.Y. and Kao, C.R. 2005. Electromigration Induced Metal Dissolution in Flip-Chip Solder Joints. Materials Science Forum, Vol. 475-479, Issue. , p. 2655.
Min Ding Guotao Wang Chao, B. Ho, P.S. Peng Su Uehling, T. and Wontor, D. 2005. A study of electromigration failure in PB-free solder joints. p. 518.
Seung-Hyun Chae Xuefeng Zhang Huang-Lin Chao Kuan-Hsun Lu Ho, P.S. Min Ding Peng Su Uehling, T. and Ramanathan, L.N. 2006. Electromigration Lifetime Statistics for Pb-Free Solder Joints with Cu and Ni UBM in Plastic Flip-Chip Packages. p. 650.
Tsai, C. M. Lin, Y. L. Tsai, J. Y. Lai, Yi-Shao and Kao, C. R. 2006. Local melting induced by electromigration in flip-chip solder joints. Journal of Electronic Materials, Vol. 35, Issue. 5, p. 1005.
Chen, Long-tai and Chen, Chih-ming 2006. Electromigration study in the eutectic SnBi solder joint on the Ni/Au metallization. Journal of Materials Research, Vol. 21, Issue. 04, p. 962.
Chien Chen Lee Chang Chun Lee Chien Chia Chiu Kuo Ming Chen Kuo, F. and Kuo Ning Chiang 2006. Electromigration Characteristic of SnAg3.0Cu0.5 Flip Chip Interconnection. p. 1164.
Chae, Seung-Hyun Zhang, Xuefeng Lu, Kuan-Hsun Chao, Huang-Lin Ho, Paul S. Ding, Min Su, Peng Uehling, Trent and Ramanathan, Lakshmi N. 2006. Electromigration statistics and damage evolution for Pb-free solder joints with Cu and Ni UBM in plastic flip-chip packages. Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, Vol. 18, Issue. 1-3, p. 247.
Wu, B. Y. Zhong, H. W. Chan, Y. C. and Alam, M. O. 2006. Degradation of Sn37Pb and Sn3.5Ag0.5Cu solder joints between Au/Ni (P)/Cu pads stressed with moderate current density. Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, Vol. 17, Issue. 11, p. 943.
Nah, Jae-Woong Suh, J. O. Tu, K. N. Yoon, Seung Wook Rao, Vempati Srinivasa Kripesh, Vaidyanathan and Hua, Fay 2006. Electromigration in flip chip solder joints having a thick Cu column bump and a shallow solder interconnect. Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 100, Issue. 12, p. 123513.
Subramanian, K.N. and Lee, J.G. 2006. Effects of internal stresses on the thermomechanical behavior of Sn-based solder joints. Materials Science and Engineering: A, Vol. 421, Issue. 1-2, p. 46.
Lin, Y. L. Chang, C. W. Tsai, C. M. Lee, C. W. and Kao, C. R. 2006. Electromigration-induced UBM consumption and the resulting failure mechanisms in flip-chip solder joints. Journal of Electronic Materials, Vol. 35, Issue. 5, p. 1010.
Alam, M.O. Wu, B.Y. Chan, Y.C. and Tu, K.N. 2006. High electric current density-induced interfacial reactions in micro ball grid array (μBGA) solder joints. Acta Materialia, Vol. 54, Issue. 3, p. 613.
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An electromigration failure mechanism in flip chip solder joints is reported in this communication. The solder joints failed by a very rapid, asymmetrical, and localized dissolution of the Cu metallization on the cathode side. The average dissolution rate was about 1 μm/min. The dissolved Cu included not only the Cu under bump metallurgy but also the on-chip Cu conducting trace. From the location and geometry of the dissolved Cu, it can be concluded that current crowding plays a critical role in the rapid dissolution. The dissolved Cu atoms were driven to the anode side by electromigration, and a large amount of Cu6Sn5 was formed there.
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- ISSN: 0884-2914
- EISSN: 2044-5326
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