Skip to main content Accessibility help

Electrochemical Synthesis and Room Temperature Oxidation Behavior of Cu Nanowires

  • Xingmin Liu (a1) and Yanchun Zhou (a1)


Highly oriented copper nanowires were electrochemically synthesized in a porous alumina membrane template using a new type of weak-acid electrolyte. The Cu nanowires that were deposited have (110) preferred orientation, which is different from most electrochemically deposited Cu nanowires, and they can grow homogeneously. Transmission electron microscopy was used to investigate the room-temperature oxidation behavior, and it was observed that sample treatment methods greatly influence the oxidation rate of the wires. Cu nanowires with different diameters have different resistance to oxidation. The orientation relationship between oxide layer and small-diameter Cu nanowire was determined to be (001) Cu2O // (111) Cu, (110) Cu2O // (110) Cu, and [110] Cu2O // [112] Cu. The possible oxidation process is also discussed.


Corresponding author

a) Address all correspondence to this author. e-mail:


Hide All
1Takasago, H., Adachi, K. and Takada, M.: A copper polyimide metal–base packaging technology. J. Electron. Mater. 12, 319 (1989).
2Xia, Y.N., Yang, P.D., Sun, Y.G., Wu, Y.Y., Mayers, B., Gates, B., Yin, Y.D., Kim, F. and Yan, Y.Q.: One-dimensional nanostructures: Synthesis, characterization, and application. Adv. Mater. 15, 353 (2003).
3Nalwa, H.S.: Handbook of Nanostructured Materials and Nanotechnology (Academic Press, New York, 2000).
4Shalaev, V.M. and Moskovits, M.: Nanostructured Materials: Clusters, Composites, and Thin Films (American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 1997).
5Edelstein, A.S. and Cammarata, R.C.: Nanomaterials: Synthesis, Properties, and Applications (Institute of Physics, Philadelphia, PA, 1996).
6Toimil-Molares, M.E., Buschmann, V., Dobrev, D., Neumann, R., Scholz, R., Schuchert, I.U. and Vetter, J.: Single-crystalline copper nanowires produced by electrochemical deposition in polymeric ion track membranes. Adv. Mater. 13, 62 (2001).
7Konishi, Y., Motoyama, M., Matsushima, H., Fukunaka, Y., Ishii, R. and Ito, Y.: Electrodeposition of Cu nanowire arrays with a template. J. Electroanal. Chem. 559, 149 (2003).
8Tian, M.L., Wang, J.U., Kurtz, J., Mallouk, T.E. and Chan, M.H.W.: Electrochemical growth of single-crystal metal nanowires via a two-dimensional nucleation and growth mechanism. Nano Lett. 3, 919 (2003).
9Gao, T., Meng, G.W., Zhang, J., Wang, Y.W., Liang, C.H., Fan, J.C. and Zhang, L.D.: Template synthesis of single-crystal Cu nanowire arrays by electrodeposition. Appl. Phys. A-Mater. 73, 251 (2001).
10Sehayek, T., Vaskevich, A. and Rubinstein, I.: Preparation of graded materials by laterally controlled template synthesis. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125, 4718 (2003).
11Lisiecki, I., Filankembo, A., Sack-Kongehl, H., Weiss, K., Pileni, M.P. and Urban, J.: Structural investigations of copper nanorods by high-resolution TEM. Phys. Rev. B. 61, 4968 (2000).
12Tanori, J. and Pileni, M.P.: Change in the shape of copper nanoparticles in ordered phases. Adv. Mater. 7, 862 (1995).
13Tanori, J. and Pileni, M.P.: Control of the shape of copper metallic particles by using a colloidal system as template. Langmuir 13, 639 (1997).
14Pileni, M.P., Guilk-Krzywicki, T., Tanori, J., Filankembo, A. and Dedieu, J.C.: Template design of microreactors with colloidal assemblies: Control the growth of copper metal rods. Langmuir 14, 7359 (1998).
15Liu, Z.P., Yang, Y., Liang, J.B., Hu, Z.K., Li, S., Peng, S. and Qian, Y.T.: Synthesis of copper nanowires via a complex-surfactant-assisted hydrothermal reduction process. J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 12658 (2003).
16Yadav, R.M., Singh, A.K. and Srivastava, O.N.: Synthesis and characterization of Cu nanotubes and nanothreads by electrical arc evaporation. J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 3, 223 (2003).
17Cao, M.H., Hu, C.W., Wang, Y.H., Guo, Y.H., Guo, C.X. and Wang, E.B.: A controllable synthetic route to Cu, Cu2O, and CuO nanotubes and nanorods. Chem. Commun. 15, 1884 (2003).
18Li, Q. and Wang, C.R.: Cu nanostructures formed via redox reaction of Zn nanowire and Cu2+ containing solutions. Chem. Phys. Lett. 375, 525 (2003).
19Monson, C.F. and Woolley, A.T.: DNA-templated construction of copper nanowires. Nano Lett. 3, 359 (2003).
20Martin, C.R.: Nanomaterials—A membrane-based synthetic approach. Science 266, 1961 (1994).
21Hulteen, J.C. and Martin, C.R.: General template-based method for the preparation of nanomaterials. J. Mater. Chem. 7, 1075 (1997).
22Sides, C.R., Li, N.C., Patrissi, C.J., Scrosati, B. and Martin, C.R.: Nanoscale materials for lithium-ion batteries. MRS Bull. 27, 604 (2002).
23Rabin, O., Herz, P.R., Lin, Y.M., Akinwande, A.I., Cronin, S.B. and Dresselhaus, M.S.: Formation of thick porous anodic alumina films and nanowire arrays on silicon wafers and glass. Adv. Funct. Mater. 13, 631 (2003).
24Sander, M.S. and Tan, L.S.: Nanoparticle arrays on surfaces fabricated using anodic alumina films as templates. Adv. Funct. Mater. 13, 393 (2003).
25Wu, Y.Y. and Yang, P.D.: Melting and welding semiconductor nanowires in nanotubes. Adv. Mater. 13, 520 (2001).
26Wu, Y.Y. and Yang, P.D.: Germanium/carbon core-sheath nanostructures. Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 43 (2000).
27Wang, Z.L., Kong, X.Y., Wen, X.G. and Yang, S.H.: In situ structure evolution from Cu(OH)2 nanobelts to copper nanowires. J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 8275 (2003).
28Tang, C.C., Bando, Y. and Liu, Z.W.: Thermal oxidation of gallium nitride nanowires. Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3177 (2003).
29Kamins, T.I., Li, X. and Williams, R.S.: Thermal stability of Ti-catalyzed Si nanowires. Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 263 (2003).
30Toimil-Molares, M.E., Balogh, A.G., Cornelius, T.W., Neumann, R. and Trautmann, C.: Fragmentation of nanowires driven by Rayleigh instability. Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5337 (2004).
31Liu, Z.W. and Bando, Y.: Oxidation behaviour of copper nanorods. Chem. Phys. Lett. 378, 85 (2003).
32Toimio-Molares, M.E., Hohberger, E.M., Schaeflein, C., Blick, R.H., Neumann, R. and Trautmann, C.: Electrical characterization of electrochemically grown single copper nanowires. Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2139 (2003).
33Kunze, J., Maurice, V., Klein, L.H., Strehblow, H.H. and Marcus, P.: In situ STM study of the anodic oxidation of Cu (001) in 0.1 M NaOH. J. Electroanal. Chem. 554, 113 (2003).
34Jovic, V.D. and Jovic, B.M.: EIS and differential capacitance measurements onto single-crystal faces in different solutions—Part II: Cu (111) and Cu (100) in 0.1 M NaOH. J. Electroanal. Chem. 541, 13 (2003).
35Whitney, T.M., Jiang, J.S., Searson, P.C. and Chien, C.L.: Fabrication and magnetic properties of metallic nanowires. Science 261, 1316 (1993).
36Wang, J.G., Tian, M.L., Mallouk, T.E. and Chan, M.H.W.: Microtwinning in template-synthesized single-crystal metal nanowires. J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 841 (2004).
37Barton, J.K., Vertegel, A.A., Bohannan, E.W. and Switzer, J.A.: Epitaxial electrodeposition of copper(I) oxide on single-crystal copper. Chem. Mater. 13, 952 (2001).
38Witte, G., Braun, J., Nowack, D., Bartels, L., Neu, B. and Meyer, G.: Oxygen-induced reconstructions on Cu(211). Phys. Rev. B 58, 13224 (1998).
39Wang, Z.X. and Tian, F.H.: The adsorption of O atom on Cu(100), (110), and (111) low-index and step defect surfaces. J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 6153 (2003).


Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Electrochemical Synthesis and Room Temperature Oxidation Behavior of Cu Nanowires

  • Xingmin Liu (a1) and Yanchun Zhou (a1)


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.