Skip to main content Accessibility help

Effects of electronic and recoil processes in polymers during ion implantation

  • E. H. Lee (a1), G. R. Rao (a1), M. B. Lewis (a1) and L. K. Mansur (a1)


It has been shown that ion implantation produces remarkable improvements in surface-sensitive mechanical properties, as well as other physical and chemical properties in polymers. To understand mechanisms underlying such property changes, various polymeric materials were subjected to bombardment by energetic ions in the range of 200 keV to 2 MeV. The magnitude of property changes is strongly dependent upon ion species, energy, and dose. Analysis indicated that hardness and electrical conductivity increased by employing ion species with larger electronic cross sections and with increasing ion energy and dose. The results showed that electronic stopping or linear energy transfer (LET, energy deposited per unit track length per ion) for ionization was the most important factor for the enhancement of hardness, while nuclear stopping or linear energy transfer for displacement generally appeared to reduce hardness.



Hide All
1Lee, E. H., Lewis, M. B., Blau, P. J., and Mansur, L. K., J. Mater. Res. 6, 610 (1991).
2Lee, E. H., Rao, G. R., and Mansur, L. K., J. Mater. Res. 7, 1900 (1992).
3Lee, Y., Lee, E. H., and Mansur, L. K., Surf. Coatings Technol. 51, 267 (1992).
4Lee, E. H., Rao, G. R., Lewis, M. B., and Mansur, L. K., Nucl. Instrum. Methods B74, 326 (1992).
5Venkatesan, T., Nucl. Instrum. Methods B7/8, 461 (1985).
6Bedell, C. J., Sofield, C. J., Bridwell, L. B., and Brown, I. M., J. Appl. Phys. 67, 1736 (1990).
7Soaane, D. S. and Martynenko, Z., Polymers in Microelectronics, Chap. 3 (Elsevier, New York, 1989), p. 77.
8Radiation Effects on Polymers, edited by Clough, R. L. and Shalaby, S. W. (American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, 1991).
9Aoki, Y., Kouchi, N., Shibata, H., Tagawa, S., Tabata, Y., and Imamura, S., Nucl. Instrum. Methods B33, 799 (1988).
10Chapiro, A., Radiation Chemistry of Polymeric Systems: High Polymers (Interscience Publishers, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1962), Vol. 15.
11Hioki, T., Noda, S., Sugiura, M., Kakeno, M., Yamada, K., and Kawameto, J., Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 30 (1983).
12Costantini, J. M., Flament, J. L., Mori, V., Sinopoli, L., Trochon, J., and Uzureau, J. L., Radiat. Eff. Defects in Solids 115, 83 (1990).
13Bridwell, L. B., Gied, R. E., Wang, Y. Q., Mohite, S. S., and Jahnke, T., Nucl. Instrum. Methods B56/57, 656 (1991).
14Charlesby, A., Radiat. Phys. Chem. 40, 117 (1992).
15Radiation Chemistry, Principles and Applications, edited by Farhataziz, and Rodgers, Michael A. J. (VCH Publishers, Inc., New York, 1987).
16The Effects of Radiation on High-Technology Polymers, edited by Reichmanis, E. and O'Donnell, J. H. (American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, 1989).
17An Introduction to Radiation Chemistry, edited by Spinks, J. W. T. and Woods, R. J. (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1990).
18O'Donnell, J. H., The Effects of Radiation on High-Technology Polymers, edited by Reichmanis, E. and O'Donnell, J.H. (American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, 1989), p. 4.
19Silverman, J., Radiation Processing of Polymers, edited by Singh, A. and Silverman, J. (Hanser Publishers, New York, 1992), p. 17.
20Lewis, M. B. and Lee, E. H., Nucl. Instrum. Methods B61, 457 (1991).
21Lewis, M. B., Allen, W. R., Buhl, R. A., Packan, N. H., Cook, S. W., and Mansur, L. K., Nucl. Instrum. Methods B43, 243 (1989).
22Oliver, W. C. and Pharr, G. M., J. Mater. Res. 7, 1564 (1992).
23Lee, E. H., Lee, Y., Oliver, W. C., and Mansur, L. K., J. Mater. Res. 8, 377 (1993).
24Calcagno, L. and Foti, G., Nucl. Instrum. Methods B59/60, 1153 (1991).
25Puglisi, O., Licciardello, A., Calcagno, L., and Foti, G., J. Mater. Res. 3, 1247 (1988).
26Hill, D. J. T., O'Donnell, J. H., Senake Perera, M. C., and Pomery, P. J., Radiat. Phys. Chem. 40, 127 (1992).
27Brown, W. L., Radiat. Eff. 98, 115 (1986).
28Calcagno, L., Sheng, K. L., Torrisi, L., and Foti, G., Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 596 (1976).
29Nethsinghe, L. P. and Gilbert, M., Polymer 29, 1935 (1988).
30Baltá Calleja, F. J., Adv. Polymer Sci. 66, 117 (1985).
31Ziegler, J. F., Biersack, J. P., and Littmark, U., The Stopping and Range of Ions in Solids (Pergamon Press, Oxford, U.K., 1985), Vol. 1.
32Sigmund, P., Radiat. Eff. 1, 15 (1969).
33Norgett, M. J., Robinson, M. T., and Torrens, I. M., Nucl. Eng. Design 33, 50 (1974).
34Lee, E. H., Hembree, D. M. Jr., Rao, G. R., and Mansur, L. K., Phys. Rev. B (in press).
35Tsai, H-C. and Bogy, D. B., J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 5 (6), 3287 (1987).


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed