Silicon nitride–Si2N2O in situ composites were prepared by hot pressing powder mixtures of α–Si3N4, 6 wt% Y2O3, 1 wt% Al2O3, and 0–12 wt% SiO2. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis indicated that the volume percents of Si2N2O were 0, 13, 31, and 54 for the composites prepared with 0, 4, 8, and 12 wt% SiO2, respectively. XRD results also indicated that both silicon nitride grains and Si2N2O grains were laid down perpendicular to hot pressing direction. As the volume percent of Si2N2O increased, the width and the amount of elongated silicon nitride grains decreased, but the fracture toughness increased. Young's modulus of the in situ composites decreased as the Si2N2O content was increased. The erosion rate decreased as the Si2N2O content was increased, in part, due to both the increased fracture toughness and the reduced grain size. Erosion of the composites occurred primarily due to the grain dislodgment. The sample without Si2N2O experienced micro-chipping due to transgranular fracture.