Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Effect of humidity on tin whisker growth from Sn3Nd intermetallic compound

  • Ai-Ping Xian (a1) and Meng Liu (a1)

Abstract

The spontaneous whisker growth phenomenon was investigated by exposing Sn3Nd intermetallic compound (IMC) to different environments. In a humid environment, tin whiskers grew rapidly; the incubation time for whisker formation was only 0.75 h. However, no whiskers were formed when Sn3Nd IMC was exposed to dry argon for 33 days or dry oxygen (DO) for 7 days. In situ observation of whisker growth during room ambient (RA) exposure gave an average whisker growth rate of the Sn3Nd IMC of about 11 Å/s, which are 2–3 orders of magnitude faster than that previously reported for tin plating. Following whisker growth, a new hydroxide compound, Nd(OH)3, was found to have formed on the Sn3Nd. The results show that the presence of humidity in the exposure environment is necessary for whisker growth from Sn3Nd. Finally, the driving force for whisker growth is also discussed.

Copyright

Corresponding author

a)Address all correspondence to this author. e-mail: ap.xian@imr.ac.cn

References

Hide All
1.Compton, K.G., Mendizza, A., and Arnold, S.M.: Filamentary growths on metal surfaces whiskers. Corrosion 7, 327 (1951).
2.Brusse, J.A., Ewell, G.J., and Siplon, J.P.: Tin whiskers: Attributes and mitigation, presented at CARTS EUROPE 2002, Nice, France: in 16th Passive Components Symposium (2002); pp. 221233.
3.Eshelby, J.D.: A tentative theory of metallic whisker growth. Phys. Rev. 91, 755 (1953).
4.Ellis, W.C., Gibbons, D.F., and Treuting, R.C.: Growth of metal whiskers from the solid, in Growth and Perfection of Crystals; R.H. Doremus, B.W. Roberts, and D. Turnbull, eds. (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1958); pp. 102120.
5.Tu, K.N.: Irreversible-processes of spontaneous whisker growth in bimetallic Cu-Sn thin-film reactions. Phys. Rev. B 49, 2030 (1994).
6.Jiang, B. and Xian, A.P.: Spontaneous growth of tin whiskers on tin-rare-earth alloys. Philos. Mag. Lett. 87, 657 (2007).
7.Chuang, T.H., Lin, H.J., and Chi, C.C.: Rapid growth of tin whiskers on the surface of Sn-6.6Lu alloy. Scr. Mater. 56, 45 (2007).
8.Oberndoff, P., Ditte, M., Crema, P., Su, P., and Yu, E.: Humidity effects on Sn whisker formation. IEEE Trans. Electron. Packag. Manuf. 29(4), 239 (2006).
9.Reynolds, H.L., Osenbach, J.W., Henshall, G., Parker, R.D., and Su, P.: Tin whisker test development—temperature and humidity effects part I: Experimental design, observations, and data collection. IEEE Trans. Electron. Packag. Manuf. 33(1), 1 (2010).
10.Osenbach, J.W., Reynolds, H.L., Henshall, G., Parker, R.D., and Su, P.: Tin whisker test development—temperature and humidity effects part II: Acceleration model development. IEEE Trans. Electron. Packag. Manuf. 33(1), 16 (2010).
11.Liu, M. and Xian, A.P.: TEM observation of tin whisker. Sci. China Technol. Sci. 54(6), 1546 (2011).
12.Jain, C.C., Chen, C.L., and Lai, H.J.: The inhibition of tin whiskers on the surface of Sn-8Zn-3Bi-0.5Ce solders. J. Mater. Eng. Perform. 20, 1043 (2011).
13.Chuang, T.H. and Jain, C.C.: Morphology of the tin whiskers on the surface of Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu-0.5Nd alloy. Metall. Mater. Trans. A 42, 684 (2011).
14.Liu, M. and Xian, A.P.: Tin whisker growth on the surface of Sn-0.7Cu lead-free solder with a rare earth (Nd) addition. J. Electron. Mater. 38, 2353 (2009).
15.Liu, M. and Xian, A.P.: Tin whisker growth on bulk Sn-Pb eutectic doping with Nd. Microelectron. Reliab. 49, 667 (2009).
16.Dudek, M.A. and Chawla, N.: Mechanisms for Sn whisker growth in rare earth-containing Pb-free solders. Acta Mater. 57, 4588 (2009).
17.Chuang, T.H. and Lin, H.J.: Size effect rare-earth intermetallics Sn-9Zn-0.5Ce Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu-0.5Ce solders growth tin whiskers. Metall. Mater. Trans. A 39, 2862 (2008).
18.Chuang, T.H., Chi, C.C., and Lin, H.J.: Formation of whiskers and hillocks on the surface of Sn-6.6RE alloys. Metall. Mater. Trans. A 39, 604 (2008).
19.Chuang, T.H., Lin, H.J., and Chi, C.C.: Oxidation-induced whisker growth on the surface of Sn-6.6(La, Ce) alloy. J. Electron. Mater. 36, 1697 (2007).
20.Xian, A.P. and Liu, M.: Observations of continuous tin whisker growth in NdSn3 intermetallic compound. J. Mater. Res 24, 2775 (2009).
21.Jiang, B. and Xian, A.P.: Spontaneous growth of tin whiskers on tin-rare-earth alloys. Philos. Mag. Lett. 87, 657 (2007).
22.Liszkowski, P., Turek, K., Figiel, H., and Gajerski, R.: The intermediate stages of the corrosion of Nd-Fe-B powders in ambient air. J. Alloys Compd. 315, 270 (2001).
23.Fisher, M., Darken, L.S., and Carroll, K.G.: Accelerated growth of tin whiskers. Acta Metall. 2(3), 368 (1954).
24.Franks, J.: Growth of whiskers in the solid phase. Acta Metall. 6(2), 103 (1958).
25.Lee, B. and Lee, D.: Spontaneous growth mechanism of tin whiskers. Acta Mater. 46(10), 3701 (1998).
26.Xu, C., Zhang, Y., Fan, C., Abys, J., Hopkins, L., and Stevie, F.: Understanding whisker phenomenon: The driving force for whisker formation. CircuiTree 15(5), 10 (2002).
27.Shi, H.C. and Xian, A.P.: Tin whisker growth from Sn3Nd powders. J. Electron. Mater. 40, 1697 (2011).
28.Iida, T. and Guthrie, R.I.L.: In the Physical Properties of Liquid Metals (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1993), p. 9.

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed