Skip to main content Accessibility help

Effect of Ag addition on local structure of Cu–Zr glassy alloy

  • Dmitri V. Louzguine-Luzgin (a1), Kostas Georgarakis (a2), Alain R. Yavari (a3), Gavin Vaughan (a4), Guoqiang Xie (a5) and Akihisa Inoue (a5)...


The effect of Ag substituting Cu on the structural features of the Cu55Zr45, Cu45Zr45Ag10, and Cu35Zr45Ag20 glassy alloys was studied using the real-space pair distribution and radial distribution functions. The experimental x-ray diffraction data obtained in a synchrotron beam were used to derive pair and radial distribution functions through Fourier transformation processing. These results suggest that a certain degree of medium-range order in this alloy is maintained up to about 2.5 nm distance. It is suggested that the addition of Ag causes formation of a more homogeneous local atomic structure compared with that of a binary Cu–Zr alloy, which could be considered as a reason for the improved glass-forming ability of this alloy.


Corresponding author

a) Address all correspondence to this author. e-mail:


Hide All
1.Klement, W., Willens, R.H., Duwez, P.: Non-crystalline structure in solidified gold–silicon alloys. Nature 187, 869 1960
2.Inoue, A.: Stabilization of metallic supercooled liquid and bulk amorphous alloys. Acta Mater. 48, 279 2000
3.Inoue, A.: High strength bulk amorphous alloys with low critical cooling rates. Mater. Trans. JIM 36, 866 1995
4.Johnson, W.L.: Bulk glass-forming metallic alloys: Science and technology. MRS Bull. 24, 1042 1999
5.Egami, T.: Nano-glass mechanism of bulk metallic glass formation. Mater. Trans. 43, 510 2002
6.Wang, G.Y., Liaw, P.K., Peter, W.H., Yang, B., Yokoyama, Y., Benson, M.L., Green, B.A., Kirkham, M.J., White, S.A., Saleh, T.A., McDaniels, R.L., Steward, R.V., Buchanan, R.A., Liu, C.T., Brooks, C.R.: Fatigue behavior of bulk-metallic glasses. Intermetallics 12, 885 2004
7.Louzguine-Luzgin, D.V., Inoue, A.: Nano-devitrification of glassy alloys. J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 5, 999 2005
8.Yavari, A.R., Uriarte, J.L., Nishiyama, N., Zhang, T., Inoue, A., Heunen, G.: The glass transition of bulk metallic glasses studied by real-time diffraction in transmission using high-energy synchrotron radiation. Mater. Sci. Eng., A 375–377, 709 2004
9.Louzguine, D.V., Yavari, A.R., Ota, K., Vaughan, G., Inoue, A.: Synchrotron x-ray radiation diffraction studies of thermal expansion, free volume change and glass transition phenomenon in Cu-based glassy and nanocomposite alloys on heating. J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351, 1639 2005
10.Louzguine-Luzgin, D.V., Inoue, A., Yavari, A.R., Vaughan, G.: Thermal expansion of a glassy alloy studied using a real-space pair distribution function. Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 121926 2006
11.Xu, D., Lohwongwatana, B., Duan, G., Johnson, W.L., Garland, C.: Bulk metallic glass formation in binary Cu-rich alloy series—Cu100-xZrx (X = 34, 36, 38.2, 40 at.%) and mechanical properties of bulk Cu64 Zr36 glass. Acta Mater. 52, 2621 2004
12.Wang, D., Li, Y., Sun, B.B., Sui, M.L., Lu, K., Ma, E.: Bulk metallic glass formation in the binary Cu-Zr system. Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4029 2004
13.Inoue, A., Zhang, W., Saida, J.: Synthesis and fundamental properties of Cu-based bulk glass alloys in binary and multi- component systems. Mater. Trans. 45, 1153 2004
14.Figuero, I.A., Davis, H.A., Todd, I.: Formation of Cu-Hf-Ti bulk metallic glasses. J. Alloys Compd. 434–435, 164 2007
15.Zhang, Q., Zhang, W., Inoue, A.: New Cu-Zr-based bulk metallic glasses with large diameters of up to 1.5 cm. Scr. Mater. 55, 711 2006
16.Desré, P.J.: On the effect of the number of components on glass-forming ability of alloys from the liquid state: Application to the new generation of multicomponent bulk glasses. Mater. Trans. JIM 38, 583 1997
17.Yang, Y.J., Xing, D.W., Li, C.P., Wei, S.D., Sun, J.K., Shen, Q.K.: A new way of designing bulk metallic glasses in Cu-Ti-Zr-Ni system. Mater. Sci. Eng., A 448, 15 2007
18.Jia, P., Guo, H., Li, Y.Xu, J., Ma, E.: A new Cu-Hf-Al ternary bulk metallic glass with high glass forming ability and ductility. Scr. Mater. 54, 2165 2006
19.Eckert, J., Das, J., Kim, K.B., Baier, F., Tang, M.B., Wang, W.H., Zhang, Z.F.: High strength ductile Cu-base metallic glass. Intermetallics 14, 876 2006
20.Inoue, A., Zhang, W., Zhang, T., Kurosaka, K.: High-strength Cu-based bulk glassy alloys in Cu–Zr–Ti and Cu–Hf–Ti ternary systems. Acta Mater. 49, 2645 2001
21.Zhang, W., Inoue, A.: High glass-forming ability and good mechanical properties of new bulk glassy alloys in Cu–Zr–Ag ternary system. J. Mater. Res. 21, 234 2006
22.Dai, C-L., Guo, H., Shen, Y., Li, Y., Ma, E., Xu, J.: A new centimeter-diameter Cu-based bulk metallic glass. Scr. Mater. 54, 1403 2006
23.Sung, D-S., Kwon, O.J., Fleury, E., Kim, K.B., Lee, J.C., Kim, D.H., Kim, Y.C.: Enhancement of the glass forming ability of Cu–Zr–Al alloys by Ag addition. Metals Mater. Inter. 10, 575 2004
24.Zhang, Q., Zhang, W., Inoue, A.: Preparation of Cu36Zr48 Ag8Al8 bulk metallic glass with a diameter of 25 mm by copper mold casting. Mater. Trans. 48, 629 2007
25.Wagner, C.N.J.: Direct methods for the determination of atomic-scale structure of amorphous solids (x-ray, electron, and neutron scattering). J. Non-Cryst. Solids 31, 1 1978
26.Cromer, D.T.: Compton scattering factors for aspherical free atoms. J. Chem. Phys. 47, 4857 1969
27.Wagner, C.N.J., Ocken, H., Joshi, M.L.: Interference and radial distribution functions of liquid Cu, Ag, Sn, and Hg. Z. Naturforsch. B 20a, 325 1965
28.International Tables for X-ray Crystallography Vol. 4 edited by J.A. Ibers and W.C. Hamilton Kynoch Birmingem 1974 1
29.Waseda, Y.: The Structure of Non-Crystalline Materials McGraw-Hill New York 1980 26
30.Gale, W.F., Totemeier, T.C.: Smithells Metals Reference Book 8th ed.Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd. Oxford, UK 2004 444
31.Louzguine, D.V., Inoue, A.: Nanocrystallization of Cu–(Zr or Hf)–Ti metallic glasses. J. Mater. Res. 17, 2112 2002
32.Louzguine-Luzgin, D.V., Xie, G., Zhang, W., Inoue, A.: Devitrification behavior and glass-forming ability of Cu–Zr–Ag alloys. Mater. Sci. Eng., A 465, 146 2007
33.Daams, J.L.C., Villars, P., van Vucht, J.H.N.: Atlas of Crystal Structure Types Vol. 2, ASM International Materials Park, PA 1991 3051
34.Matsubara, E., Tamura, T., Waseda, Y., Inoue, A., Zhang, T., Masumoto, T.: Structural study of Zr60Al15Ni25 amorphous alloys with a wide supercooled liquid region by the anomalous x-ray scattering (AXS) method. Mater. Trans. JIM 33, 873 1992
35.Sato, S., Sanada, T., Saida, J., Imafuku, M., Matsubara, E., Inoue, A.: Effect of Al on local structures of Zr–Ni and Zr–Cu metallic glasses. Mater. Trans. 46, 2893 2005
36.Inoue, A., Negishi, T., Kimura, H.M., Zhang, T., Yavari, A.R.: High packing density of Zr- and Pd-based bulk amorphous alloys. Mater. Trans. JIM 39, 318 1998
37.Louzguine-Luzgin, D.V., Yavari, A.R., Fukuhara, M., Ota, K., Xie, G., Vaughan, G., Inoue, A.: Free volume and elastic properties changes in Cu–Zr–Ti–Pd bulk glassy alloy on heating. J. Alloys Compd. 431, 136 2007
38.Villars, P., Okamoto, H., Prince, A.: Handbook of Ternary Alloy Phase Diagrams vol. 10, ASM International Materials Park, OH 1995 1500
39.Bernal, J.D.: Geometry of the structure of monatomic liquids. Nature 185, 68 1960
40.Miracle, D.B.: The efficient cluster packing model—An atomic structural model for metallic glasses. Acta Mater. 54, 4317 2006
41.Sheng, H.W., Luo, W.K., Alamgir, F.M., Bai, J.M., Ma, E.: Atomic packing and short-to-medium range order in metallic glasses. Nature 439, 419 2006
42.Yavari, A.R.: Materials science: A new order in metallic glasses. Nature 439, 405 2006
43.Kelton, K.F., Lee, G.W., Gangopadhyay, A.K., Hyers, R.W., Rathz, T.J., Rogers, J.R., Robinson, M.B., Robinson, D.S.: First x-ray scattering studies on electrostatically levitated metallic liquids: Demonstrated influence of local icosahedral order on the nucleation barrier. Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 195504 2003
44.Dmowski, W., Fan, C., Morrison, M.L., Liaw, P.K., Egami, T.: Structural changes in bulk metallic glass after annealing below the glass-transition temperature. Mater. Sci. Eng., A 471, 125 2007
45.Hirata, A., Morino, T., Hirotsu, Y., Itoh, K., Fukunaga, T.: Local atomic structure analysis of Zr–Ni and Zr–Cu metallic glasses using electron diffraction. Mater. Trans. 48, 1299 2007
46.Haruyama, O., Sugiyama, K., Sakurai, M., Waseda, Y.: A local structure change of bulk Pd40Ni40P20 glass during full relaxation. J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353, 3053 2007
47.Hirata, A., Hirotsu, Y., Ohkubo, T., Tanaka, N., Nieh, T.G.: Local atomic structure of Pd–Ni–P bulk metallic glass examined by high-resolution electron microscopy and electron diffraction. Intermetallics 14, 903 2006
48.Yavari, A.R., Le Moulec, A., Inoue, A., Nishiyama, N., Lupu, N., Matsubara, E., Botta, W.J., Vaughan, G., Di Michiel, M., Kvick, A.: Excess free volume in metallic glasses measured by x-ray diffraction. Acta Mater. 53, 1611 2005
49.Hosokawa, S., Berar, J-F., Boudet, N., Ichitsubo, T., Matsubara, E., Pilgrim, W.C., Nishiyama, N.: Partial structure of Pd42.5Ni7.5 Cu30P20 bulk metallic glass: Comparison to the reference Pd40Ni40P20 glass. J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 98, 012013 2008
50.Waseda, Y., Chen, H.S., Jacob, K.T., Shibata, H.: On the glass forming ability of liquid alloys. Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 9, 023003 2008
51.Takeuchi, A., Inoue, A.: Classification of bulk metallic glasses by atomic size difference, heat of mixing and period of constituent elements and its application to characterization of the main alloying element. Mater. Trans. 46, 2817 2005


Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Effect of Ag addition on local structure of Cu–Zr glassy alloy

  • Dmitri V. Louzguine-Luzgin (a1), Kostas Georgarakis (a2), Alain R. Yavari (a3), Gavin Vaughan (a4), Guoqiang Xie (a5) and Akihisa Inoue (a5)...


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.