Skip to main content Accessibility help

Distinctive characteristics of solid-state reactions in mechanically alloyed Ti–Al–Si–C powder mixtures

  • J.B. Zhou (a1) and K.P. Rao (a1)


Ti–Al–Si–C powder mixtures of two different compositions, namely, 58Ti–30Al–6Si–6C (at.%) and 50Ti–15Al–20Si–15C (at.%), were mechanically alloyed to investigate the solid-state reactions during such a process. The mechanically alloyed powders were characterized as a function of milling time by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectrometry, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). XRD results showed that solid solutions of Ti were formed for a powder mixture of 58Ti–30Al–6Si–6C in about 20 h of milling, whereas Ti5(Al,Si)3 and Ti(Al,Si)C compounds started to form in the powder mixture of 50Ti–15Al–20Si–15C within just 5 h of milling. TEM observations demonstrated that the particle sizes were of nano and submicron scale in both cases. This investigation indicated that in mechanically alloyed Ti–Al–Si–C powder mixtures, the main solid-state reactions are due to interdiffusion and mechanically induced self-propagating reaction.


Corresponding author

a) Address all correspondence to this author. e-mail:


Hide All
1.Koch, C.C.: Intermetallic matrix composites prepared by mechanical alloying—A review. Mater. Sci. Eng. A 244, 39 (1998).
2.Senkov, O.N., Cavusoglu, M. and Froes, F.H.: Synthesis and characterization of a TiAl/Ti5Si3 composite with a submicrocrystalline structure. Mater. Sci. Eng. A 300, 85 (2001).
3.Bohn, R., Fanta, G., Klassen, T. and Bormann, R.: Submicron-grained multiphase TiAlSi alloys: Processing, characterization, and microstructural design. J. Mater. Res. 16, 1850 (2001).
4.Zhang, G., Blenkinsop, P.A. and Wise, M.L.H.: Phase transformations in HIPped Ti–48Al–2Mn-2Nb powder during heat-treatments. Intermetallics 4, 447 (1996).
5.Gouma, P.I., Davey, S.J. and Loretto, M.H.: Microstructure and mechanical properties of a TiAl-based powder alloy containing carbon. Mater. Sci. Eng. A 241, 151 (1998).
6.Ramaseshan, R., Kakitsuji, A., Seshadri, S.K., Nair, N.G., Mabuchi, H., Tsuda, H., Matsui, T. and Morii, K.: Microstructure and some properties of TiAl–Ti2AlC composites produced by reactive processing. Intermetallics 7, 571 (1999).
7.Park, H.S., Huang, S.K., Lee, C.M., Yoo, Y.C., Nam, S.W. and Kim, N.J.: Microstructural refinement and mechanical properties improvement of elemental powder metallurgy processed Ti-46.6AI-1.4Mn-2Mo alloy by carbon addition. Metall. Mater. Trans. A 32, 251 (2001).
8.Patankar, S.N., Xiao, S.Q., Lewandowski, J.J. and Heuer, A.H.: Mechanism of mechanical alloying of MoSi2. J. Mater. Res. 8, 1311 (1993).
9.Gaffet, E. and Malhouroux-Gaffet, N.: Nanocrystalline MoSi2 phase formation induced by mechanically activated annealing. J. Alloys Compd. 205, 27 (1994).
10.Liu, L., Padella, F., Guo, W. and Magini, M.: Solid state reactions induced by mechanical alloying in metal–silicon (metal = Mo, Nb) systems. Acta Metall. Mater. 43, 3755 (1995).
11.Froes, F.H., Senkov, O.N. and Baburaj, E.G.: Synthesis of nanocrystalline materials — An overview. Mater. Sci. Eng. A 301, 44 (2001).
12.Villars, P., Prince, A. and Okamoto, H.: Handbook of Ternary Alloy Phase Diagrams, Vol. 4, (ASM International, Materials Park, Ohio, 1995), p. 4315.
13.Villars, P., Prince, A. and Okamoto, H.: Handbook of Ternary Alloy Phase Diagrams, Vol. 3, (ASM International, Materials Park, Ohio, 1995), p. 2905.
14.Suryanarayana, C.: Mechanical alloying and milling. Progr. Mater. Sci. 46, 1 (2001).
15., L. and Lai, M.O.: In Mechanical Alloying (Kluwer Academic Publishers, New York, 1998), p. 88.
16.Klassen, T., Oehring, M. and Bormann, R.: The early stages of phase formation during mechanical alloying of Ti–Al. J. Mater. Res. 9, 47 (1994).
17.Suryanarayana, C., Chen, G.H., Frefer, A. and Froes, F.H.: Structural evolution of mechanical alloyed Ti–Al alloys. Mater. Sci. Eng. A 158, 93 (1992).
18.Oehring, M., Klassen, T. and Bormann, R.: Formation of metastable Ti–Al solid solutions by mechanical alloying and ball milling. J. Mater. Res. 8, 2819 (1993).
19.Guan, Z.Q., Pfullmann, Th., Oehring, M. and Bormann, R.: Phase formation during ball milling and subsequent thermal decomposition of Ti–Al–Si powder blends. J. Alloys Compd. 252, 245 (1997).
20.Rao, K.P. and Zhou, J.B.: Characterization of mechanically alloyed Ti–Al–Si powder blends and their subsequent thermal stability. Mater. Sci. Eng. A 338, 282 (2002).
21.King, H.W.: Quantitative size-factors for metallic solid solutions. J. Mater. Sci. 1, 79 (1966).
22.Leonard, R.T. and Koch, C.C.: X-ray intensity decrease from absorption effects in mechanically milled systems. Scripta Mater. 36, 41 (1997).
23.Barrett, C.S. and Massalski, T.B.: Structure of Metals (Pergaman Press, Oxford, U.K., 1980), p. 621.
24.Yan, Z.H., Oehring, M. and Bormann, R.: Metastable phase formation in mechanically alloyed and ball milled Ti–Si. J. Appl. Phys. 72, 2478 (1992).
25.Oehring, M., Yan, Z.H., Klassen, T. and Bormann, R.: Competition between stable and metastable phases during mechanical alloying and ball milling. Phys. Status. Solidi. 131, 671 (1992).
26.Liu, Z.G., Guo, J.T., Ye, L.L., Li, G.S. and Hu, Z.Q.: Formation mechanism of TiC by mechanical alloying. Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2666 (1994).
27.El-Eskandarany, M.S.: Synthesis of nanocrystalline titanium carbide alloy powders by mechanical solid state reaction. Metall. Mater. Trans. A 27, 2374 (1996).
28.Choi, C.J.: Preparation of ultrafine TiC–Ni cermet powders by mechanical alloying. J. Mater. Proc. Tech. 104, 127 (2000).
29.Krasnowski, M., Witek, A. and Kulik, T.: The FeAl–30%TiC nanocomposite produced by mechanical alloying and hot-pressing consolidation. Intemetallics 10, 371 (2002).
30.Krivoroutchko, K., Kulik, T., Matyja, H., Portnoy, V.K. and Fadeeva, V.I.: Solid state reactions in Ni–Al–Ti–C system by mechanical alloying. J. Alloys Compd. 308, 230 (2000).
31.Zhou, L.Z., Guo, J.T. and Fan, G.J.: Synthesis of NiAl–TiC nanocomposite by mechanical alloying elemental powders. Mater. Sci. Eng. A 249, 103 (1998).
32.Schlesinger, M.E.: Thermodynamics of solid transition-metal silicides. Chem. Rev. 90, 607 (1990).
33.Rapp, R.A. and Zheng, X.: Thermodynamic consideration of grain refinement of aluminum alloys by titanium and carbon. Metall. Trans. A 22, 3071 (1991).
34.Pelleg, J. and Shor, Y.: Formation of C54 TiSi2 in a cosputtered (Ti+Si) blanket film in the presence of a TiN capping layer. Microelectron. Eng. 69, 65 (2003).
35.Joardar, J., Pabi, S.K. and Murty, B.S.: Estimation of entrapped powder temperature during mechanical alloying. Scripta Mater. 36, 1199 (2004).
36.Yen, B.K. and Aizawa, T.: Reaction synthesis of titanium silicides via self-propagating reaction kinetics. J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 81, 1953 (1998).
37.Ma, E., Pagan, J., Cranford, G. and Atzmon, M.: Evidence for self-sustained MoSi2 formation during room-temperature high-energy ball milling of elemental powders. J. Mater. Res. 8, 1836 (1993).
38.Camplell, S.J. and Kaczmarek, W.A.: Mössbauer effect studies of materials prepared by mechanochemical methods, in Mössbauer Spectroscopy Applied to Magnetism and Materials Science, Vol. 2, edited by Long, G.J. and Grandjean, F. (Plenum Press, New York, 1996), p. 288.


Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Distinctive characteristics of solid-state reactions in mechanically alloyed Ti–Al–Si–C powder mixtures

  • J.B. Zhou (a1) and K.P. Rao (a1)


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.