Skip to main content Accessibility help

Diffusion characteristics study of locally Er-doped noncongruent, Li-deficient Ti:Er:LiNbO3 strip waveguide

  • De-Long Zhang (a1), Bei Chen (a1), Ping-Rang Hua (a1), Dao-Yin Yu (a1) and Edwin Y-B. Pun (a2)...


Locally Er3+-doped noncongruent, Li-deficient Ti:Er:LiNbO3 strip waveguide was fabricated with a technological process in sequence of preparation of Li-deficient LiNbO3 substrate using Li-poor vapor transport equilibration (VTE), Er3+, and Ti4+ diffusion in wet O2. The Li2O content change was evaluated from the measured birefringence. The Ti4+ and Er3+ profile characteristics in the waveguide were studied by secondary ion mass spectrometry. The results show that the VTE and subsequent Er3+ diffusion procedures resulted in totally ∼0.8 mol% Li2O content reduction. The Ti4+ profile follows a sum of two error functions in the width direction and a Gaussian function in the depth direction of waveguide. The Er3+ profile follows also a Gaussian function. At 1130 °C, the Ti4+ surface/depth diffusivity and surface concentration are 8.5 ± 1.3/1.98 ± 0.06 μm2/h and ∼7 mol%, respectively, and the Er3+ diffusivity and surface concentration are (12.8 ± 0.3) × 10−2 μm2/h and ∼0.6 mol%, respectively.


Corresponding author

a)Address all correspondence to this author. e-mail:


Hide All
1.Brinkmann, R., Sohler, W., and Suche, H.: Continuous-wave erbium-diffused LiNbO3 waveguide laser. Electron. Lett. 27, 415 (1991).
2.Becker, Ch., Oesselke, T., Pandavenes, J., Ricken, R., Rochhausen, K., Schreiberg, G., Sohler, W., Suche, H., Wessel, R., Balsamo, S., Montrosset, I., and Sciancalepore, D.: Advanced Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide lasers. IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 101 (2000).
3.Amin, J., Aust, J.A., and Sanford, N.A.: Z-propagating waveguide lasers in rare-earth-doped Ti:LiNbO3. Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3785 (1996).
4.Helmfrid, S., Arvidsson, G., Webjorn, J., Linnarsson, M., and Pihl, T.: Stimulated emission in Er:Ti:LiNbO3 channel waveguides close to 1.53 micron transition. Electron. Lett. 27, 913 (1991).
5.Huang, C.H. and McCaughan, L.: 980-nm-pumped Er-doped LiNbO3 waveguide amplifiers: A comparison with 1484-nm pumping. IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 367 (1996).
6.Huang, C.H. and McCaughan, L.: Photorefractive-damage-resistant Er-indiffused MgO: LiNbO3 ZnO-waveguide amplifiers and lasers. Electron. Lett. 33, 1639 (1997).
7.Cantelar, E., Torchia, G.A., Sanz-García, J.A., Pernas, P.L., Lifante, G., and Cussó, F.: Red, green, and blue simultaneous generation in aperiodically poled Zn-diffused LiNbO3:Er3+/Yb3+ nonlinear channel waveguides. Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2991 (2003).
8.Das, B.K., Ricken, R., and Sohler, W.: Integrated optical distributed feedback laser with Ti:Fe:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide. Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1515 (2003).
9.Das, B.K., Ricken, R., Quiring, V., Suche, H., and Sohler, W.: Distributed feedback-distributed Bragg reflector coupled cavity laser with a Ti:(Fe:)Er:LiNbO3 waveguide. Opt. Lett. 29, 165 (2004).
10.Schreiber, G., Hofmann, D., Grundkotter, W., Lee, Y.L., Suche, H., Quiring, V., Ricken, R., and Sohler, W.: Nonlinear integrated optical frequency converters with periodically poled Ti:LiNbO3 waveguides. Proc. SPIE 4277, 144 (2001).
11.Caccavale, F., Segato, F., Mansour, I., Almeida, J.M., and Leite, A.P.: Secondary ion mass spectrometry study of erbium diffusion in lithium niobate crystals. J. Mater. Res. 13, 1672 (1998).
12.Baumann, I., Brinkmann, R., Dinand, M., Sohler, W., Beckers, L., Buchal, Ch., Fleuster, M., Holzbrecher, H., Paulus, H., Muller, K-H., Gog, Th., Materlik, G., Witte, O., Stolz, H., and von der Osten, W.: Erbium incorporation in LiNbO3 by diffusion-doping. Appl. Phys. A Mater. Sci. Process. 64, 33 (1997).
13.Zhang, D.L., Chen, B., and Pun, E.Y.B.: Locally Er-doped high-solubility LiNbO3 crystal prepared by Li-poor vapor transport equilibration and Er codiffusion. J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 93, 3837 (2010).
14.Zhang, D.L., Chen, B., Hua, P.R., Yu, D.Y., and Pun, E.Y.B.: Demonstration of Er3+ diffusivity and solubility increases in off-congruent, Li-deficient LiNbO3 crystal. J. Mater. Res. 26, 1524 (2011).
15.Holmes, R.J. and Smyth, D.M.: Titanium diffusion into LiNbO3 as a function of stoichiometry. J. Appl. Phys. 55, 3531 (1984).
16.Wöhlecke, M., Corradi, G., and Betzler, K.: Optical methods to characterise the composition and homogeneity of lithium niobate single crystals. Appl. Phys. B 63, 323 (1996).
17.Schlarb, U. and Betzler, K.: Refractive indices of lithium niobate as a function of temperature, wavelength, and composition: A generalized fit. Phys. Rev. B 48, 15613 (1993).
18.Sugii, K., Fukuma, M., and Iwasaki, H.: A study of titanium diffusion into LiNbO3 waveguides by electron probe analysis and x-ray diffraction methods. J. Mater. Sci. 13, 523 (1978).
19.Noda, J., Fukuma, M., and Saito, S.: Effect of Mg diffusion on Ti-diffused LiNbO3 waveguides. J. Appl. Phys. 49, 3150 (1978).
20.Noda, J. and Fukuma, M.: Optical properties of titanium-diffused LiNbO3 strip waveguides and their coupling-to-a-fiber characteristics. Appl. Opt. 19, 591 (1980).
21.Sjöberg, A., Arvidsson, G., and Lipovskii, A.A.: Characterization of waveguides fabricated by titanium diffusion in magnesium-doped lithium niobate. J. Opt. Soc. Am. B: Opt. Phys. 5, 285 (1988).
22.Baumann, I., Bosso, S., Brinkmann, R., Corsini, R., Dinand, M., Greiner, A., Schäfer, K., Söchtig, J., Sohler, W., Suche, H., and Wessel, R.: Er-doped integrated optical devices in LiNbO3. IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 355 (1996).
23.Bordui, P.F., Norwood, R.G., Jundt, D.H., and Fejer, M.M.: Preparation and characterization of off-congruent lithium niobate crystals. J. Appl. Phys. 71, 875 (1992).


Diffusion characteristics study of locally Er-doped noncongruent, Li-deficient Ti:Er:LiNbO3 strip waveguide

  • De-Long Zhang (a1), Bei Chen (a1), Ping-Rang Hua (a1), Dao-Yin Yu (a1) and Edwin Y-B. Pun (a2)...


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed