Skip to main content Accessibility help

A critical evaluation of reactive templated grain growth (RTGG) mechanisms in highly [001] textured Sr0.61Ba0.39Nb2O6 ferroelectric-thermoelectrics

  • Yunfei Chang (a1), Soonil Lee (a1), Stephen Poterala (a1), Clive A. Randall (a1) and Gary L. Messing (a1)...


In reactive templated grain growth (RTGG), oriented template crystals are used to seed both phase formation and crystallographic orientation in textured ceramics. This mechanism differs substantially from templated grain growth (TGG), in which texture forms via grain growth mechanism. In this work, characteristics of both RTGG and TGG processes are evaluated in [001] textured Sr0.61Ba0.39Nb2O6 ceramics produced from reactive SrNb2O6 and BaNb2O6 matrix powders and acicular KSr2Nb5O15 (KSN) templates. Above 1100 °C, SrxBa1−xNb2O6 (SBN) forms by oriented nucleation and growth on KSN (the RTGG process) and by nucleation of nonoriented matrix grains. RTGG occurs without densification or coarsening until phase formation is complete (∼1250 °C) and accounts for ∼60% of the texture in dense SBN ceramics. A later TGG process occurs from 1250–1350 °C and is characterized by simultaneous densification, grain growth, and additional texture development.


Corresponding author

a)Address all correspondence to this author. e-mail:


Hide All
1.Neurgaonkar, R.R. and Cross, L.E.: Piezoelectric tungsten bronze crystals for SAW device applications. Mater. Res. Bull. 21, 893 (1986).
2.Tian, L., Scrymgeour, D.A., Sharan, A., and Gopalan, V.: Anomalous electro-optic effect in Sr0.6Ba0.4Nb2O6 single crystals and its application in two-dimensional laser scanning. Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4375 (2003).
3.Neurgaonkar, R.R., Oliver, J.R., Cory, W.K., Cross, L.E., and Viehland, D.: Piezoelectricity in tungsten bronze crystals. Ferroelectrics 160, 265 (1994).
4.Malyshkina, O.V., Movchikova, A.A., and Ped’Ko, B.B.: Effect of annealing on the pyroelectric properties of SBN crystals. Phys. Solid State 48, 1038 (2006).
5.Lee, S.N., Wilke, R.H.T., Trolier-McKinstry, S., Zhang, S.J., and Randall, C.A.: SrxBa1-xNb2O6-δ ferroelectric-thermoelectrics: Crystal anisotropy, conduction mechanism, and power factor. Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 031910 (2010).
6.Lee, S.N., Dursun, S., Duran, C., and Randall, C.A.: Thermoelectric power factor enhancement of textured ferroelectric SrxBa1-xNb2O6-δ. J. Mater. Res. 26, 26 (2011).
7.Jamieson, P.B., Abrahams, S.C., and Bernstein, J.I.: Ferroelectric tungsten bronze-type crystal structures. I. barium strontium niobate Ba0.27Sr0.75Nb2O5.78. J. Chem. Phys. 48, 5048 (1968).
8.Lee, W.J. and Fang, T.T.: Nonisothermal reaction kinetics of SrNb2O6 and BaNb2O6 for the formation of SrxBa1-xNb2O6. J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 81, 193 (1998).
9.Oliver, J.R., Neurgaonkar, R.R., and Cross, L.E.: A thermodynamic phenomenology for ferroelectric tungsten bronze Sr0.6Ba0.4Nb2O6 (SBN: 60). J. Appl. Phys. 64, 37 (1988).
10.Messing, G.L., Trolier-McKinstry, S., Sabolsky, E.M., Duran, C., Kwon, S., Brahmaroutu, B., Park, P., Yilmaz, H., Rehrig, P.W., Eitel, K.B., Suvaci, E., Seabaugh, M., and Oh, K.S.: Templated grain growth of textured piezoelectric ceramics. Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci. 29, 45 (2004).
11.Brosnan, K.H., Poterala, S.F., Meyer, R.J., Misture, S., and Messing, G.L.: Templated grain growth of <001> textured PMN-28PT using SrTiO3 templates. J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 92, s133 (2009).
12.Chang, Y.F., Poterala, S., Yang, Z.P., Trolier-McKinstry, S., and Messing, G.L.: Microstructure development and piezoelectric properties of highly textured CuO-doped KNN by templated grain growth. J. Mater. Res. 25, 687 (2010).
13.Duran, C., Trolier-McKinstry, S., and Messing, G.L.: Dielectric and piezoelectric properties of textured Sr0.53Ba0.47Nb2O6 ceramics prepared by templated grain growth. J. Mater. Res. 17, 2399 (2002).
14.Tani, T.: Crystalline-oriented piezoelectric bulk ceramics with a perovskite-type structure. J. Korean Phys. Soc. 32(3), S1217 (1998).
15.Cheng, C.T., Lanagan, M., Jones, B., Lin, J.T., and Pan, M.J.: Crystallization kinetics and phase development of PbO-BaO-SrO-Nb2O5-B2O3-SiO2-based glass-ceramics. J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 88(11), 3037 (2005).
16.Duran, C., Messing, G.L., and Trolier-McKinstry, S.: Densification and phase formation in seeded, reactively sintered Sr0.53Ba0.47Nb2O6 ceramics. J. Mater. Sci. 37, 5041 (2002).
17.Yang, Z.P., Wei, L.L., Chang, Y.F., and Liu, B.: Synthesis of anisometric KSr2Nb5O15 particles in the SrNb2O6-Nb2O5-KCl system. J. Mater. Sci. 42, 3627 (2007).
18.Lotgering, F.K.: Topotactical reactions with ferrimagnetic oxides having hexagonal crystal structures. J. Inorg. Nucl. Chem. 9, 113 (1959).
19.Lee, H.Y. and Freer, R.: Abnormal grain growth and liquid-phase sintering in Sr0.6Ba0.4Nb2O6, SBN40 ceramics. J. Mater. Sci. 33, 1703 (1998).
20.Carruthers, J.R. and Grasso, M.: Phase equilibria relations in the ternary system BaO-SrO-Nb2O5. J. Electrochem. Soc. 117, 1426 (1970).


A critical evaluation of reactive templated grain growth (RTGG) mechanisms in highly [001] textured Sr0.61Ba0.39Nb2O6 ferroelectric-thermoelectrics

  • Yunfei Chang (a1), Soonil Lee (a1), Stephen Poterala (a1), Clive A. Randall (a1) and Gary L. Messing (a1)...


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed