Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Corn stover–derived biochar for efficient adsorption of oxytetracycline from wastewater

  • Min Zhang (a1), Jun Meng (a2), Qingyu Liu (a1), Shiyan Gu (a1), Ling Zhao (a1), Mengyao Dong (a3), Jiaoxia Zhang (a4), Hua Hou (a5) and Zhanhu Guo (a6)...

Abstract

Biochar conversion from corn stover was evaluated under various process conditions, and the absorption capacity of biochar was investigated for the removal of oxytetracycline in wastewater. Biochar was prepared at lower carbonization temperatures (200–500 °C) and was used in three different concentrations of chemical oxygen wastewater. The results showed that the biochar prepared at the temperature range of 200–500 °C had a faster sorption rate and shorter sorption equilibrium time compared to biochar produced at higher temperatures. The longest time to reach sorption equilibrium was 9 h for biochar obtained at 200 °C. However, the biochar prepared at 500 °C required only 0.5 h to reach the sorption equilibrium. The corn stover-biochar had the highest sorption capacity of 246.3 mg/g for oxytetracycline at 30 °C. The adsorption kinetics was consistent with pseudo–second-order kinetics. This study provides a theoretical basis for the conversion of corn stover into biochar as efficient sorbents.

Copyright

Corresponding author

a)Address all correspondence to these authors. e-mail: mengjun1217@163.com

References

Hide All
1.Hu, Q., Zhou, N., Gong, K., Liu, H., Liu, Q., Sun, D., Wang, Q., Shao, Q., Liu, H., Qiu, B., and Guo, Z.: Intracellular polymer substances induced conductive polyaniline for improved methane production from anaerobic wastewater treatment. ACS Sustainable Chem. Eng. 7, 5912 (2019).
2.Zhang, J., Li, P., Zhang, Z., Wang, X., Tang, J., Liu, H., Shao, Q., Ding, T., Umar, A., and Guo, Z.: Solvent-free graphene liquids: Promising candidates for lubricants without the base oil. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 542, 159 (2019).
3.Zhao, Z., Bai, P., Misra, R., Dong, M., Guan, R., Li, Y., Zhang, J., Tan, L., Gao, J., Ding, T., Du, W., and Guo, Z.: AlSi10Mg alloy nanocomposites reinforced with aluminum-coated graphene: Selective laser melting, interfacial microstructure and property analysis. J. Alloys Compd. 792, 203 (2019).
4.Zhao, Z., Guan, R., Zhang, J., Zhao, Z., and Bai, P.: Effects of process parameters of semisolid stirring on microstructure of Mg–3Sn–1Mn–3SiC (wt%) strip processed by rheo-rolling. Acta Metall. Sin. 30, 66 (2017).
5.Xie, W., Cheng, H., Chu, Z., Chen, Z., and Long, C.: Effect of carbonization temperature on the structure and microwave absorbing properties of hollow carbon fibres. Ceram. Int. 37, 1947 (2011).
6.Zhao, Y., Qi, L., Jin, Y., Wang, K., Tian, J., and Han, P.: The structural, elastic, electronic properties and Debye temperature of D022-Ni3V under pressure from first-principles. J. Alloys Compd. 647, 1104 (2015).
7.Hou, C., Wang, J., Du, W., Wang, J., Du, Y., Liu, C., Zhang, J., Hou, H., Dang, F., Zhao, L., and Guo, Z.: One-pot synthesized molybdenum dioxide–molybdenum carbide heterostructures coupled with 3D holey carbon nanosheets for highly efficient and ultrastable cycling lithium-ion storage. J. Mater. Chem. A 7, 13460–13472 (2019).
8.Xie, W., Chen, Z., Cheng, H., Chu, Z., and Kuang, J.: Effect of oxidation time on the complex permittivity of hollow, porous carbon fibers. N. Carbon Mater. 26, 441 (2011).
9.Kirubasankar, B., Murugadoss, V., Lin, J., Ding, T., Dong, M., Liu, H., Zhang, J., Li, T., Wang, N., Guo, Z., and Angaiaha, S.: In situ grown nickel selenide onto graphene nanohybrid electrodes for high energy density asymmetric supercapacitors. Nanoscale 10, 20414 (2018).
10.Sheng, Y., Yang, J., Wang, F., Liu, L., Liu, H., Yan, C., and Guo, Z.: Sol–gel synthesized hexagonal boron nitride/titania nanocomposites with enhanced photocatalytic activity. Appl. Surf. Sci. 465, 154 (2019).
11.Jiang, D., Wang, Y., Li, B., Sun, C., Wu, Z., Yan, H., Xing, L., Qi, S., Li, Y., Liu, H., Wei, W., Wang, X., Ding, T., and Guo, Z.: Flexible sandwich structural strain sensor based on silver nanowires decorated self-healing substrate. Macromol. Mater. Eng., 1900074 (2019). doi: 10.1002/mame.201900074.
12.Ma, R., Wang, Y., Qi, H., Shi, C., Wei, G., Xiao, L., Huang, Z., Liu, S., Yu, H., Teng, C., Liu, H., Murugadoss, V., Zhang, J., Wang, Y., and Guo, Z.: Nanocomposite sponges of sodium alginate/graphene oxide/polyvinyl alcohol as potential wound dressing: In vitro and in vivo evaluation. Composites, Part B 167, 396 (2019).
13.Xie, W., Cheng, H., Kuang, J., Chen, Z., and Chu, Z.: Effect of heating rate on the complex permittivity of hollow-porous carbon fibers. J. Inorg. Mater. 26, 939 (2011).
14.Jiang, D., Murugadoss, V., Wang, Y., Lin, J., Ding, T., Wang, Z., Shao, Q., Wang, C., Liu, H., Lu, N., Wei, R., Angaiah, S., and Guo, Z.: Electromagnetic interference shielding polymers and nanocomposites—A review. Polym. Rev. 59, 280 (2019).
15.Liang, T., Qi, L., Ma, Z., Xiao, Z., Wang, Y., Liu, H., Zhang, J., Guo, Z., Liu, C., Xie, W., Ding, T., and Lu, N.: Experimental study on thermal expansion coefficient of composite multi-layered flaky gun propellants. Composites, Part B 166, 428 (2019).
16.Dong, M., Li, Q., Liu, H., Liu, C., Wujcik, E., Shao, Q., Ding, T., Mai, X., Shen, C., and Guo, Z.: Thermoplastic polyurethane-carbon black nanocomposite coating: Fabrication and solid particle erosion resistance. Polymer 158, 381 (2018).
17.Dong, M., Wang, C., Liu, H., Liu, C., Shen, C., Zhang, J., Jia, C., Ding, T., and Guo, Z.: Enhanced solid particle erosion properties of thermoplastic polyurethane-carbon nanotube nanocomposites. Macromol. Mater. Eng. 304, 1900010 (2019).
18.Zhao, W., Li, X., Yin, R., Qian, L., Huang, X., Liu, H., Zhang, J., Wang, J., Ding, T., and Guo, Z.: Urchin-like NiO–NiCo2O4 heterostructure microsphere catalysts for enhanced rechargeable non-aqueous Li–O2 batteries. Nanoscale 11, 50 (2019).
19.Shi, Z., Wu, C., Gu, Y., Liang, Y., Xu, G., Liu, H., Zhang, J., Hou, H., Zhang, J., and Guo, Z.: Preparation and characterization of mesoporous CuO/ZSM-5 catalysts for automotive exhaust purification. Sci. Adv. Mater. (2019). (in press). doi: 10.1166/sam.2019.3559.
20.Guo, J., Song, H., Liu, H., Luo, C., Ren, Y., Ding, T., Khan, M., Young, D., Liu, X., Zhang, X., Kong, J., and Guo, Z.: Polypyrrole-interface-functionalized nano-magnetite epoxy nanocomposites as electromagnetic wave absorber with enhanced flame retardancy. J. Mater. Chem. C 5, 5334 (2017).
21.Cheng, C., Fan, R., Ren, Y., Ding, T., Qian, L., Guo, J., Li, X., An, L., Lei, Y., Yin, Y., and Guo, Z.: Radio frequency negative permittivity in random carbon nanotubes/alumina nanocomposites. Nanoscale 9, 5779 (2017).
22.Zhao, Z., Li, J., Bai, P., Qu, H., Liang, M., Liao, H., Wu, L., Huo, P., Liu, H., and Zhang, J.: Microstructure and mechanical properties of TiC-reinforced 316L stainless steel composites fabricated using selective laser melting. Metals 9, 267 (2019).
23.Le, K., Wang, Z., Wang, F., Wang, Q., Shao, Q., Murugadoss, V., Wu, S., Liu, W., Liu, J., Gao, Q., and Guo, Z.: Sandwich-like NiCo layered double hydroxides/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite cathode for high energy density asymmetric supercapacitors. Dalton Trans. 48, 5193 (2019).
24.Hao, L., Zhao, W., Peng, Y., Sun, N., Li, D., Liu, H., Wang, X., Umar, A., and Guo, Z.: Precise determination of trace hydrogen in SA508-3 steel for nuclear reactor pressure vessels. Sci. Adv. Mater. 10, 1651 (2018).
25.Wang, C., He, Z., Xie, X., Mai, X., Li, Y., Li, T., Zhao, M., Yan, C., Liu, H., Wujcik, E., and Guo, Z.: Controllable cross-linking anion exchange membranes with excellent mechanical and thermal properties. Macromol. Mater. Eng. 3, 1700462 (2018).
26.Shi, Z., Wu, C., Wu, Y., Liu, H., Xu, G., Deng, J., Gu, H., Liu, H., Zhang, J., Umar, A., Ma, Y., and Guo, Z.: Optimization of epoxypinane synthesis by silicotungstic acid supported on SBA-15 catalyst using response surface methodology. Sci. Adv. Mater. 11, 699 (2019).
27.Shi, Z., Jia, C., Wang, D., Deng, J., Xu, G., Wu, C., Dong, M., and Guo, Z.: Synthesis and characterization of porous tree gum grafted copolymer derived from Prunus cerasifera gum polysaccharide. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 133, 964 (2019).
28.Hou, C., Tai, Z., Zhao, L., Zhai, Y., Hou, Y., Fan, Y., Dang, F., Wang, J., and Liu, H.: High performance MnO@C microcages with a hierarchical structure and tunable carbon shell for efficient and durable lithium storage. J. Mater. Chem. A 6, 9723 (2018).
29.Jiao, Y., Zhang, J., Liu, S., Liang, Y., Li, S., Zhou, H., and Zhang, J.: The graphene oxide ionic solvent-free nanofluids and their battery performances. Sci. Adv. Mater. 10, 1706 (2018).
30.Zhao, Z., Bai, P., Li, L., Li, J., Wu, L., Huo, P., and Tan, L.: The reaction thermodynamics during plating Al on graphene process. Materials 12, 330 (2019).
31.Xu, G., Shi, Z., Zhao, Y., Deng, J., Dong, M., Liu, C., Murugadoss, V., Mai, X., and Guo, Z.: Structural characterization of lignin and its carbohydrate complexes isolated from bamboo (Dendrocalamus sinicus). Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 126, 376 (2019).
32.Zhao, Y., Zhang, B., Hou, H., Chen, W., and Wang, M.: Phase-field simulation for the evolution of solid/liquid interface front in directional solidification process. J. Mater. Sci. Technol. 35, 1044 (2019).
33.Zhao, Y., Tian, X., Zhao, B., Sun, Y., Guo, H., Dong, M., Liu, H., Wang, X., Guo, Z., Umar, A., and Hou, H.: Precipitation sequence of middle Al concentration alloy using the inversion algorithm and microscopic phase field model. Sci. Adv. Mater. 10, 1793 (2018).
34.Samsuri, A.W., Sadegh-Zadeh, F., and Seh-Bardan, B.J.: Characterization of biochars produced from oil palm and rice husks and their adsorption capacities for heavy metals. Int. J. Environ. Sci. Technol. 11, 967 (2014).
35.Ameloot, N., Graber, E.R., and Verheijen, F.G.A.: Interactions between biochar stability and soil organisms: Review and research needs. Eur. J. Soil Sci. 64, 379 (2013).
36.Aghababaei, A., Ncibi, M.C., and Sillanpää, M.: Optimized removal of oxytetracycline and cadmium from contaminated waters using chemically-activated and pyrolyzed biochars from forest and wood-processing residues. Bioresour. Technol. 239, 28 (2017).
37.Chen, X., Chen, G., Chen, L., Chen, Y., Lehmann, J., McBride, M.B., and Hay, A.G.: Adsorption of copper and zinc by biochars produced from pyrolysis of hardwood and corn stover in aqueous solution. Bioresour. Technol. 2, 8877 (2011).
38.Cruz, E., Fournier, M.L., García, F., Molina, A., Chavarría, G., Alfaro, M., Ramírez, F., and Rodríguez, C.: Hazard prioritization and risk characterization of antibiotics in an irrigated Costa Rican region used for intensive crop, livestock and aquaculture farming. J. Environ. Biol. 35, 85 (2014).
39.Luo, J., Li, X., Ge, C., Müller, K., Yu, H., Huang, P., Li, J., Tsang, D.C.W., Bolan, N.S., Rinklebe, J., and Wang, H.: Under single and ternary systems biochar by KOH-modified oxytetracycline of norfloxacin, sulfamerazine and sorption. Bioresour. Technol. 263, 385 (2018).
40.Gong, K., Hu, Q., Yao, L., Li, M., Sun, D., Shao, Q., Qiu, B., and Guo, Z.: Ultrasonic pretreated sludge derived stable magnetic active carbon for Cr(VI) removal from wastewater. ACS Sustainable Chem. Eng. 6, 7283 (2018).
41.Xie, X., Huang, J., Zhang, Y., Tong, Z., Liao, A., Guo, X., Qin, Z., and Guo, Z.: Aminated cassava residue-based magnetic microspheres for Pb(II) adsorption from wastewater. Korean J. Chem. Eng. 36, 226 (2019).
42.Sun, S., Zhu, L., Liu, X., Wu, L., Dai, K., Liu, C., Shen, C., Guo, X., Zheng, G., and Guo, Z.: Superhydrophobic shish-kebab membrane with self-cleaning and oil/water separation properties. ACS Sustainable Chem. Eng. 6, 9866 (2018).
43.Kang, H., Cheng, Z., Lai, H., Ma, H., Liu, Y., Mai, X., Wang, Y., Shao, Q., Xiang, L., Guo, X., and Guo, Z.: Superlyophobic anti-corrosive and self-cleaning titania robust mesh membrane with enhanced oil/water separation. Sep. Purif. Technol. 201, 193 (2018).
44.Li, Z., Wang, B., Qin, X., Wang, Y., Liu, C., Shao, Q., Wang, N., Zhang, J., Wang, Z., Shen, C., and Guo, Z.: Superhydrophobic/superoleophilic polycarbonate/carbon nanotubes porous monolith for selective oil adsorption from water. ACS Sustainable Chem. Eng. 6, 13747 (2018).
45.Zhang, H., Lyu, S., Zhou, X., Gu, H., Ma, C., Wang, C., Ding, T., Shao, Q., Liu, H., and Guo, Z.: Super light 3D hierarchical nanocellulose aerogel foam with superior oil adsorption. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 536, 245 (2019).
46.Zhang, X., Wang, X., Liu, X., Lv, J., Wang, Y., Zheng, G., Liu, H., Liu, C., Guo, Z., and Shen, C.: Porous polyethylene bundles with enhanced hydrophobicity and pumping oil-recovery ability via skin-peeling. ACS Sustainable Chem. Eng. 6, 12580 (2018).
47.Gong, K., Hu, Q., Xiao, Y., Cheng, X., Liu, H., Wang, N., Qiu, B., and Guo, Z.: Triple layered core-shell ZVI@carbon@polyaniline composites enhanced electron utilization in Cr(VI) reduction. J. Mater. Chem. A 6, 11119 (2018).
48.Zhao, Z., An, H., Lin, J., Feng, M., Murugadoss, V., Ding, T., Liu, H., Shao, Q., Man, X., Wang, N., Gu, H., Angaiah, S., and Guo, Z.: Progress on the photocatalytic reduction removal of chromium contamination. Chem. Rec. 19, 873–882 (2019).
49.Huang, J., Cao, Y., Shao, Q., Peng, X., and Guo, Z.: Magnetic nanocarbon adsorbents with enhanced hexavalent chromium removal: Morphology dependence of fibrillar vs particulate structures. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 56, 10689 (2017).
50.Huang, J., Li, Y., Cao, Y., Peng, F., Cao, Y., Shao, Q., Liu, H., and Guo, Z.: Hexavalent chromium removal over magnetic carbon nanoadsorbent: Synergistic effect of fluorine and nitrogen co-doping. J. Mater. Chem. A 6, 13062 (2018).
51.Gong, K., Guo, S., Zhao, Y., Hu, Q., Liu, H., Sun, D., Li, M., Qiu, B., and Guo, Z.: Bacteria cell templated porous polyaniline facilitated detoxification and recovery of hexavalent chromium. J. Mater. Chem. A 6, 16824 (2018).
52.Das, O., Kim, N.K., Hedenqvist, M.S., Lin, R.J.T., Sarmah, A.K., and Bhattacharyya, D.: An attempt to find a suitable biomass for biochar-based polypropylene biocomposites. Environ. Manage. 62, 403 (2018).
53.Thorsten, J., Nicola, C., Andreas, S., and Schmidt, B.: Fate of the veterinary antibiotic 14C-difloxacin in soil including simultaneous amendment of pig manure with the focus on non-extractable residues. J. Environ. Sci. Health, Part B 47, 858 (2012).
54.Wang, X. and Xing, B.: Sorption of organic contaminants by biopolymer-derived chars. Environ. Sci. Technol. 41, 8342 (2007).
55.Xu, R., Xiao, S., Yuan, J., and Zhao, A.: Adsorption of methyl violet from aqueous solutions by the biochars derived from crop residues. Bioresour. Technol. 102, 10293 (2011).
56.Yang, Y., Lin, X., Wei, B., Zhao, Y., and Wang, J.: Evaluation of adsorption potential of bamboo biochar for metal-complex dye: Equilibrium, kinetics and artificial neural network modeling. Int. J. Environ. Sci. Technol. 11, 1093 (2014).
57.Chen, Y., Zhang, H., and Luo, Y.: Occurrence and dissipation of veterinary antibiotics in two typical swine wastewater treatment systems in east China. Environ. Monit. Assess. 184, 2205 (2012).
58.Luo, X., Pei, F., Wang, W., Qian, H., Miao, K., Pan, Z., Chen, Y., and Feng, G.: Microwave synthesis of hierarchical porous materials with various structures by controllable desilication and recrystallization. Microporous Mesoporous Mater. 262, 148 (2018).
59.Liu, M., Meng, Q., Yang, Z., Zhao, X., and Liu, T.: Ultra-long-term cycling stability of an integrated carbon–sulfur membrane with dual shuttle-inhibiting layers of graphene “nets” and a porous carbon skin. Chem. Commun. 54, 5090 (2018).
60.Qian, Y., Yuan, Y., Wang, H., Liu, H., Zhang, J., Shi, S., Guo, Z., and Wang, N.: Highly efficient uranium adsorption by salicylaldoxime/polydopamine graphene oxide nanocomposites. J. Mater. Chem. A 6, 24676 (2018).
61.Zhao, J., Ge, S., Liu, L., Shao, Q., Mai, X., Zhao, C.X., Hao, L., Wu, T., Yu, Z., and Guo, Z.: Microwave solvothermal fabrication of zirconia hollow microspheres with different morphologies using pollen templates and their dye adsorption removal. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 57, 231 (2018).
62.Sun, Z., Zhang, L., Dang, F., Liu, Y., Fei, Z., Shao, Q., Lin, H., Guo, J., Xiang, L., Yerra, N., and Guo, Z.: Experimental and simulation understanding of morphology controlled barium titanate nanoparticles under co-adsorption of surfactants. CrystEngComm 19, 3288 (2017).
63.Wang, Y., Zhou, P., Luo, S., Guo, S., Lin, J., Shao, Q., Guo, X., Liu, Z., Shen, J., Wang, B., and Guo, Z.: In situ polymerized PAA/alumina nanocomposites for Pb2+ adsorption. Adv. Polym. Technol. 37, 2981 (2018).
64.Wang, Y., Zhou, P., Luo, S., Liao, X., Wang, B., Shao, Q., Guo, X., and Guo, Z.: Controllable synthesis of monolayer poly(acrylic acid) on channel surface of mesoporous alumina for Pb(II) adsorption. Langmuir 34, 7859 (2018).
65.Du, W., Wang, X., Zhan, J., Sun, X., Kang, L., Jiang, F., Zhang, X., Shao, Q., Dong, M., Liu, H., Murugadoss, V., and Guo, Z.: Biological cell template synthesis of nitrogen-doped porous hollow carbon spheres/MnO2 composites for high-performance asymmetric supercapacitors. Electrochim. Acta 296, 907 (2019).
66.Sun, H., Yang, Z., Pu, Y., Dou, W., Wang, C., Wang, W., Hao, X., Chen, S., Shao, Q., Dong, M., Wu, S., Ding, T., and Guo, Z.: Zinc oxide/vanadium pentoxide heterostructures with enhanced day-night antibacterial activities. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 547, 40 (2019).
67.Lin, B., Lin, Z., Chen, S., Yu, M., Li, W., Gao, Q., Dong, M., Shao, Q., Wu, S., Ding, T., and Guo, Z.: Surface intercalated spherical MoS2xSe2(1−x) nanocatalysts for highly efficient and durable hydrogen evolution reactions. Dalton Trans. 48, 8279–8287 (2019).
68.Wu, N., Xu, D., Wang, Z., Wang, F., Liu, J., Liu, W., Shao, Q., Liu, H., Gao, Q., and Guo, Z.: Achieving superior electromagnetic wave absorbers through the novel metal-organic frameworks derived magnetic porous carbon nanorods. Carbon 145, 433 (2019).
69.Xie, W., Zhu, X., Yi, S., Kuang, J., Cheng, H., Tang, W., and Deng, Y.: Electromagnetic absorption properties of natural microcrystalline graphite. Mater. Des. 90, 38 (2016).
70.Liu, M., Yang, Z., Sun, H., Lai, C., Zhao, X., Peng, H., and Liu, T.: A hybrid carbon aerogel with both aligned and interconnected pores as interlayer for high-performance lithium–sulfur batteries. Nano Res. 9, 3735 (2016).
71.Gu, H., Xu, X., Dong, M., Xie, P., Shao, Q., Fan, R., Liu, C., Wu, S., Wei, R., and Guo, Z.: Carbon nanospheres induced high negative permittivity in nanosilver-polydopamine metacomposites. Carbon 147, 550 (2019).
72.Wu, N., Liu, C., Xu, D., Liu, J., Liu, W., Liu, H., Zhang, J., Xie, W., and Guo, Z.: Ultrathin high-performance electromagnetic wave absorbers with facilely fabricated hierarchical porous Co/C crabapples. J. Mater. Chem. C 7, 1659 (2019).
73.Qu, Z., Shi, M., Wu, H., Liu, Y., Jiang, J., and Yan, C.: An efficient binder-free electrode with multiple carbonized channels wrapped by NiCo2O4 nanosheets for high-performance capacitive energy storage. J. Power Sources 410–411, 179 (2019).
74.Zhu, G., Cui, X., Zhang, Y., Chen, S., Dong, M., Liu, H., Shao, Q., Ding, T., Wu, S., and Guo, Z.: Poly(vinyl butyral)/graphene oxide/poly(methylhydrosiloxane) nanocomposite coating for improved aluminum alloy anticorrosion. Polymer 172, 415 (2019).
75.Liu, M., Li, B., Zhou, H., Chen, C., Liu, Y., and Liu, T.: Extraordinary rate capability achieved by a 3D “skeleton/skin” carbon aerogel-polyaniline hybrid with vertically aligned pores. Chem. Commun. 53, 2810 (2017).
76.Yang, J., Yang, W., Wang, X., Dong, M., Liu, H., Wujcik, E.K., Shao, Q., Wu, S., Ding, T., and Guo, Z.: Synergistically toughening polyoxymethylene by methyl methacrylate-butadiene-styrene copolymer and thermoplastic polyurethane. Macromol. Chem. Phys., 1800567 (2019). doi: 10.1002/macp.201800567.
77.Lin, Z., Lin, B., Wang, Z., Chen, S., Wang, C., Dong, M., Gao, Q., Shao, Q., Wu, S., Ding, T., Liu, H., and Guo, Z.: Facile preparation of 1T/2H-Mo(S1−xSex)2 nanoparticles for boosting hydrogen evolution reaction. Chemcatchem 11, 2217 (2019).
78.Amenta, J.S.: A rapid chemical method for quantification of lipids separated by thin-layer chromatography. J. Lipid Res. 5, 270–572 (1964).

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed