Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

A new paradigm in thin film indentation

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  31 January 2011

Barton C. Prorok
Affiliation:
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama 36849
Corresponding
E-mail address:
Get access

Abstract

A new method to accurately and reliably extract the actual Young's modulus of a thin film on a substrate by indentation was developed. The method involved modifying the discontinuous elastic interface transfer model to account for substrate effects that were found to influence behavior a few nanometers into a film several hundred nanometers thick. The method was shown to work exceptionally well for all 25 different combinations of five films on five substrates that encompassed a wide range of compliant films on stiff substrates to stiff films on compliant substrates. A predictive formula was determined that enables the film modulus to be calculated as long as one knows the film thickness, substrate modulus, and bulk Poisson's ratio of the film and the substrate. The calculated values of the film modulus were verified with prior results that used the membrane deflection experiment and resonance-based methods. The greatest advantages of the method are that the standard Oliver and Pharr analysis can be used, and that it does not require the continuous stiffness method, enabling any indenter to be used. The film modulus then can be accurately determined by simply averaging a handful of indents on a film/substrate composite.

Type
Articles
Copyright
Copyright © Materials Research Society 2010

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below.

References

1.Pethica, J.B., Hutchings, R., Oliver, W.C.Hardness measurement at penetration depths as small as 20 nm. Philos. Mag. A 48, 593 (1983)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
2.Doerner, M.F., Nix, W.D.A method for interpreting data from depth-sensing indentation instruments. J. Mater. Res. 1, 601 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
3.Gao, H., Chiu, C-H., Lee, J.Elastic contact versus indentation modelling of multi-layered materials. Int. J. Solids Struct. 29, 2471 (1992)Google Scholar
4.Pharr, G.M., Callahan, D.L., McAdams, S.D., Tsui, T.Y., Anders, S., Anders, A., Ager, J.W. III, Brown, I.G., Bhatia, C.S., Silva, S.R.P.Hardness, elastic modulus, and structure of very hard carbon films produced by cathodic-arc deposition with substrate pulse biasing. Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 779 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
5.Chen, X., Vlassak, J.J.Numerical study on the measurement of thin film mechanical properties by means of nanoindentation. J. Mater. Res. 16, 2974 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
6.King, R.B.Elastic analysis of some punch problems for a layered medium. Int. J. Solids Struct. 23, 1657 (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
7.Nix, W.D.Mechanical properties of thin films. Metall. Mater. Trans. A 20, 2217 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
8.Knapp, J.A., Follstaedt, D.M., Myers, S.M., Barbour, J.C., Friedmann, T.A.Finite-element modeling of nanoindentation. J. Appl. Phys. 85, 1460 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
9.Buckle, H.The Science of Hardness Testing and its Research Applications (ASM, Materials Park, OH 1973)Google Scholar
10.Hay, J.Measuring substrate-independent modulus of dielectric films by instrumented indentation. J. Mater. Res. 24, 667 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
11.Menčík, J., Munz, D., Quandt, E., Weppelmann, E.R., Swain, M.V.Determination of elastic modulus of thin layers using nanoindentation. J. Mater. Res. 12, 2475 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
12.Xu, H., Pharr, G.M.An improved relation for the effective elastic compliance of a film/substrate system during indentation by a flat cylindrical punch. Scr. Mater. 55, 315 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
13.Li, H., Vlassak, J.J.Determining the elastic modulus and hardness of an ultra-thin film on a substrate using nanoindentation. J. Mater. Res. 24, 1114 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
14.Roche, S., Bec, S., Loubet, J.L.Analysis of the elastic modulus of a thin polymer filmMechanical Properties Derived from Nanostructuring Materials edited by D.F. Bahr, H. Kung, N.R. Moody, and K.J. Wahl (Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 778, Warrendale, PA 2003)117Google Scholar
15.Saha, R., Nix, W.D.Effects of the substrate on the determination of thin film mechanical properties by nanoindentation. Acta Mater. 50, 23 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
16.Yu, H.Y., Sanday, S.C., Rath, B.B.The effect of substrate on the elastic properties of films determined by the indentation test—Axisymmetrical Boussinesq problem. J. Mech. Phys. Solids 38, 745 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
17.Han, S.M., Saha, R., Nix, W.D.Determining hardness of thin films in elastically mismatched film-on-substrate systems using nanoindentation. Acta Mater. 54, 1571 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
18.Bec, S., Tonck, A., Georges, J.M., Georges, E., Loubet, J.L.Improvements in the indentation method with a surface force apparatus. Philos. Mag. A 74, 1061 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
19.Chudoba, T., Griepentrog, M., Duck, A., Schneider, D., Richter, F.Young's modulus measurements on ultra-thin coatings. J. Mater. Res. 19, 301 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
20.Schwarzer, N., Richter, F., Hecht, G.The elastic field in a coated half-space under Hertzian pressure distribution. Surf. Coat. Technol. 114, 292 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
21.Zhou, B., Prorok, B.C.A discontinuous elastic interface transfer model of thin film nanoindentation. Exp. Mech. 50, 793 (2010) DOI: 10.1007/s11340-009-9309-7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
22.Pharr, G.M., Strader, J.H., Oliver, W.C.Critical issues in making small-depth mechanical property measurements by nanoindentation with continuous stiffness measurement. J. Mater. Res. 24, 653 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
23.Wei, Z., Zhang, G., Chen, H., Luo, J., Liu, R., Guo, S.A simple method for evaluating elastic modulus of thin films by nanoindentation. J. Mater. Res. 24, 801 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
24.Prorok, B.C., Espinosa, H.D.Effects of nanometer-thick passivation layers on the mechanical response of thin gold films. J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 2, 427 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
25.Espinosa, H.D., Prorok, B.C., Fischer, M.A methodology for determining mechanical properties of freestanding thin films and MEMS materials. J. Mech. Phys. Solids 51, 47 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
26.Espinosa, H.D., Prorok, B.C., Peng, B.Plasticity size effects in free-standing submicron polycrystalline FCC films subjected to pure tension. J. Mech. Phys. Solids 52, 667 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
27.Espinosa, H.D., Prorok, B.C.Size effects on the mechanical behavior of gold thin films. J. Mater. Sci. 38, 4125 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
28.Wang, L., Prorok, B.C.Characterization of the strain rate dependent behavior of nanocrystalline gold films. J. Mater. Res. 23, 55 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
29.Wang, L., Prorok, B.C.Investigation of the influence of grain size, texture and orientation on the mechanical behavior of freestanding polycrystalline gold filmsMechanics of Nanoscale Materials and Devices edited by A. Misra, J.P. Sullivan, H. Huang, K. Lu, S. Asif (Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 924E, Warrendale, PA 2006)Z0313Google Scholar
30.Espinosa, H.D., Prorok, B.C., Peng, B., Kim, K.H., Moldovan, N., Auciello, O., Carlisle, J.A., Gruen, J.A., Mancini, D.C.Mechanical properties of ultrananocrystalline diamond thin films relevant to MEMS/NEMS devices. Exp. Mech. 43, 256 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
31.Espinosa, H.D., Peng, B., Prorok, B.C., Moldovan, N., Auciello, O., Carlisle, J.A., Gruen, J.A., Mancini, D.C.Fracture strength of ultrananocrystalline diamond thin films—Identification of Weibull parameters. J. Appl. Phys. 94, 6076 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
32.Zhou, B., Wang, L., Mehta, N., Morshed, S., Erdemir, A., Eryilmaz, O., Prorok, B.C.The mechanical properties of freestanding near-frictionless carbon films relevant to MEMS. J. Micromech. Microeng. 16, 1374 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
33.Zhou, B., Prorok, B.C., Erdemir, A., Eryilmaz, O.Annealing effects on the mechanical properties of near-frictionless carbon thin films. Diamond Relat. Mater. 15, 2051 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
34.Zhou, B., Prorok, B.C., Erdemir, A., Eryilmaz, O.Fabrication issues in constructing freestanding membranes of near-frictionless carbon and diamond-like films. Diamond Relat. Mater. 16, 342 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
35.Wang, L., Liang, C., Prorok, B.C.A comparison of testing methods in assessing the elastic properties of sputter-deposited gold films. Thin Solid Films 515, 7911 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
36.Liang, C., Prorok, B.C.Measuring the thin film elastic modulus with a magnetostrictive sensor. J. Micromech. Microeng. 17, 709 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
37.Liang, C., Morshed, S., Prorok, B.C.Correction for longitudinal mode vibration in thin slender beams. Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 221912 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
38.Oliver, W.C., Pharr, G.M.An improved technique for determining hardness and elastic-modulus using load and displacement sensing indentation experiments. J. Mater. Res. 7, 1564 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
39.Mizuno, S., Verma, A., Tran, H., Lee, P., Nguyen, B.Dielectric constant and stability of fluorine doped PECVD silicon oxide thin films. Thin Solid Films 283, 30 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
40.Li, X., Diao, D., Bhushan, B.Fracture mechanisms of thin amorphous carbon films in nanoindentation. Acta Mater. 45, 4453 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
41.Bhushan, B., Li, X.Micromechanical and tribological characterization of doped single-crystal silicon and polysilicon films for microelectromechanical systems devices. J. Mater. Res. 12, 54 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
42.Gupta, R.R., Lechner, M.D.Landolt-Bonstein-Group III Condensed Matter (Springer, New York 2005)Google Scholar
43.Shackelford, J.F., Alexander, W.CRC Materials Science and Engineering Handbook (CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL 2001)Google Scholar
44.El Khakani, M.A., Chaker, M., Jean, A., Boily, S., Kieffer, J.C., O'Hern, M.E., Ravet, M.F., Rousseaux, F.Hardness and Young's modulus of amorphous a-SiC thin films determined by nanoindentation and bulge tests. J. Mater. Res. 9, 96 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
45.Boch, P., Glandus, J.C., Jarrige, J., Lecompte, J.P., Mexmain, J.Sintering, oxidation and mechanical properties of hot pressed aluminum nitride. Ceram. Int. 8, 34 (1982)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
46.Hess, P.Laser diagnostics of mechanical and elastic properties of silicon and carbon films. Appl. Surf. Sci. 106, 429 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
47.Pang, X., Gao, K., Yang, H., Qiao, L., Wang, Y., Volinsky, A.Interfacial microstructure of chromium oxide coatings. Adv. Eng. Mater. 9, 594 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Full text views

Full text views reflects PDF downloads, PDFs sent to Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle and HTML full text views.

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 116 *
View data table for this chart

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 19th January 2021. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Hostname: page-component-77fc7d77f9-vchrx Total loading time: 0.559 Render date: 2021-01-19T03:29:28.710Z Query parameters: { "hasAccess": "0", "openAccess": "0", "isLogged": "0", "lang": "en" } Feature Flags last update: Tue Jan 19 2021 02:56:22 GMT+0000 (Coordinated Universal Time) Feature Flags: { "metrics": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "peerReview": true, "crossMark": true, "comments": true, "relatedCommentaries": true, "subject": true, "clr": true, "languageSwitch": true, "figures": false, "newCiteModal": false, "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true }

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

A new paradigm in thin film indentation
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

A new paradigm in thin film indentation
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

A new paradigm in thin film indentation
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *