Hostname: page-component-5d59c44645-mhl4m Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-02-20T20:39:22.165Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Microstructure and properties of a novel wear- and corrosion-resistant stainless steel fabricated by laser melting deposition

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  17 April 2020

Yurou Han
School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shenyang University of Technology, Shenyang, Liaoning 110870, People's Republic of China
Chunhua Zhang
School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shenyang University of Technology, Shenyang, Liaoning 110870, People's Republic of China
Xue Cui
School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shenyang University of Technology, Shenyang, Liaoning 110870, People's Republic of China
Song Zhang*
School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shenyang University of Technology, Shenyang, Liaoning 110870, People's Republic of China
Jiang Chen
Shenyang Dalu Laser Technology Co., Ltd., Shenyang, Liaoning 110136, People's Republic of China
Shiyun Dong
National Key Laboratory for Remanufacturing, Army Academy of Armored Forces, Beijing 100072, China
Adil Othman Abdullah
Stomatology Research Center, School and Hospital of Stomatology, China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110002, People's Republic of China
a)Address all correspondence to this author. e-mail:
Get access


The study investigated novel wear and corrosion resistance of stainless steel and 316 stainless steel samples which were successfully prepared by laser melting deposition. Phase composition, microstructure, microhardness, wear resistance, and electrochemical corrosion resistance were studied. The experimental results showed that novel stainless steel was mainly composed of α-Fe and a few carbide phase (Cr, Fe)7C3. The microhardness of novel stainless steel was about 2.7 times greater than 316 stainless steel. Meanwhile, the specific wear rate of novel stainless steel and 316 stainless steel was 2.63 × 10−5 mm3/N m and 1.63 × 10−4 mm3/N m, respectively. The wear volume of 316 stainless steel was 6.19 times greater than novel stainless steel. The corrosion current and the corrosion potential of novel stainless steel and 316 stainless steel were 1.02 × 10−7 A/cm2 and 1.5 × 10−7 A/cm2, and −138.8 mV, −135.9 mV, respectively, in 3.5 wt% NaCl solution. Therefore, both microhardness and wear resistance of novel stainless steel were greatly improved, with high corrosion resistance.

Copyright © Materials Research Society 2020

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Gu, D.D., Ma, J., Chen, H.Y., Lin, K.J., and Xi, L.X.: Laser additive manufactured WC reinforced Fe-based composites with gradient reinforcement/matrix interface and enhanced performance. Compos. Struct. 192, 387 (2018).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Girelli, L., Giovagnoli, M., Tocci, M., Pola, A., Fortini, A., Merlin, M., and Marina La Vecchia, G.: Evaluation of the impact behaviour of AlSi10Mg alloy produced using laser additive manufacturing. Mater. Sci. Eng., A 748, 38 (2019).10.1016/j.msea.2019.01.078CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Armelin, E., Moradi, S., Hatzikiriakos, S.G., and Aleman, C.: Designing stainless steel surfaces with anti-pitting properties applying laser ablation and organofluorine coatings. Adv. Eng. Mater. 20, 1 (2018).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
de Lima, M.S.F. and Sankaré, S.: Microstructure and mechanical behavior of laser additive manufactured AISI 316 stainless steel stringers. Mater. Des. 55, 526 (2014).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ran, X.Z., Liu, D., Li, A., Wang, H.M., Tang, H.B., and Cheng, X.: Microstructure characterization and mechanical behavior of laser additive manufactured ultrahigh-strength AerMet100 steel. Mater. Sci. Eng., A 663, 69 (2016).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zhu, Y., Peng, T., Jia, G.F., Zhang, H., Xu, S.M., and Yang, H.Y.: Electrical energy consumption and mechanical properties of selective-laser-melting-produced 316L stainless steel samples using various processing parameters. J. Cleaner Prod. 208, 77 (2019).10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.10.109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pasang, T., Kirchner, A., Jehring, U., Aziziderouei, M., Tao, Y., Jiang, C.P., Wang, J.C., and Aisyah, I.S.: Microstructure and mechanical properties of welded additively manufactured stainless steels SS316L. Met. Mater. Int. 25, 1278 (2019).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zhao, Y.H., Sun, J., Li, J.F., Wang, P.F., Zheng, Z.C., Chen, J.W., and Yan, Y.Q.: The stress coupling mechanism of laser additive and milling subtractive for FeCr alloy made by additive-subtractive composite manufacturing. J. Alloys Compd. 769, 898 (2018).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Oyesola, M., Mathe, N., Mpofu, K., and Fatoba, S.: Sustainability of additive manufacturing for the South African aerospace industry: A business model for laser technology production, commercialization, and market prospects. Procedia CIRP 72, 1530 (2018).10.1016/j.procir.2018.03.072CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bi, J., Lei, Z.L., Chen, X., Li, P., Lu, N.N., and Chen, Y.B.: Microstructure and mechanical properties of TiB2-reinforced 7075 aluminum matrix composites fabricated by laser melting deposition. Ceram. Int. 45, 5680 (2019).Google Scholar
Javaid, M. and Haleem, A.: Additive manufacturing applications in medical cases: A literature based review. Alexandria J. Med. 54, 411 (2018).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zhang, Y., Qiu, C.J., Chen, Y., Yu, J.S., Zhou, J., Li, L.S., and Wang, Z.C.: Influence of high-frequency micro-forging on microstructure and properties of 304 stainless steel fabricated by laser rapid prototyping. Steel Res. Int. 84, 870 (2013).10.1002/srin.201200259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Manca, D.R., Churyumov, A.Y., Pozdniakov, A.V., Prosviryakov, A.S., Ryabov, D.K., Krokhin, A.Y., Korolev, V.A., and Daubarayt, D.K.: Microstructure and properties of novel heat resistant Al–Ce–Cu alloy for additive manufacturing. Met. Mater. Int. 25, 633 (2018).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Knoll, H., Ocylok, S., Weisheit, A., Springer, H., Jagle, E., and Raabe, D.: Combinatorial alloy design by laser additive manufacturing. Steel Res. Int. 88, 1 (2017).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Li, R.D., Chen, H., Chen, C., Zhu, H.B., Wang, M.B., Yuan, T.C., and Song, B.: Selective laser melting of gas atomized Al–3.02Mg–0.2Sc–0.1Zr alloy powder: Microstructure and mechanical properties. Adv. Eng. Mater. 21, 1800650 (2019).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wang, H.B., Song, G.L., and Tang, G.Y.: Effect of electropulsing on surface mechanical properties and microstructure of AISI 304 stainless steel during ultrasonic surface rolling process. Mater. Sci. Eng., A 662, 456 (2016).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Byun, Y., Lee, S., Seo, S.M., Yeom, J., Kim, S.E., Kang, N., and Hong, J.: Effects of Cr and Fe addition on microstructure and tensile properties of Ti–6Al–4V prepared by direct energy deposition. Met. Mater. Int. 24, 1213 (2018).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wang, C., Zhang, C.H., Zhang, S., Wu, C.L., Zhang, J.B., Liu, Y., and Pu, X.X.: Microstructure and wear resistance of in situ synthesized particle reinforced novel stainless steel by laser melting deposition. Mater. Res. Express 6, 086561 (2019).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cui, X., Zhang, S., Zhang, C.H., Wu, C.L., Zhang, J.B., Liu, Y., and Abdullah, A.O.: The impact of powder oxygen content on formability of 12CrNi2 alloy steel fabricated by laser melting deposition. Powder Metall. 62, 186 (2019).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zhang, S., Wang, S., Wu, C.L., Zhang, C.H., Guan, M., and Tan, J.Z.: Cavitation erosion and erosion-corrosion resistance of austenitic stainless steel by plasma transferred arc welding. Eng. Fail. Anal. 76, 115 (2017).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wu, C.L., Zhang, S., Zhang, C.H., Zhang, H., and Dong, S.Y.: Phase evolution and cavitation erosion-corrosion behavior of FeCoCrAlNiTix high entropy alloy coatings on 304 stainless steel by laser surface alloying. J. Alloys Compd. 698, 761 (2017).10.1016/j.jallcom.2016.12.196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cui, X., Zhang, S., Wang, C., Zhang, C.H., Chen, J., and Zhang, J.B.: Microstructure and fatigue behavior of a laser additive manufactured 12CrNi2 low alloy steel. Mater. Sci. Eng., A 772, 138685 (2019).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shen, B.W., Du, B.R., Wang, M.H., Xiao, N., Xu, Y.F., and Hao, S.: Comparison on microstructure and properties of stainless steel layer formed by extreme high-speed and conventional laser melting deposition. Front. Mater. 6, 248 (2019).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Contaldi, V., Del Re, F., Palumbo, B., Squillace, A., Corrado, P., and Di Petta, P.: Mechanical characterization of stainless steel parts produced by direct metal laser sintering with virgin and reused powder. Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 105, 3337 (2019).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Majumdar, J.D., Pinkerton, A., Liu, Z., Manna, I., and Li, L.: Mechanical and electrochemical properties of multiple-layer diode laser cladding of 316L stainless steel. Appl. Surf. Sci. 247, 373 (2005).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Xu, X., Mi, G.Y., Luo, Y.Q., Jiang, P., Shao, X.Y., and Wang, C.M.: Morphologies, microstructures, and mechanical properties of samples produced using laser metal deposition with 316L stainless steel wire. Optic Laser. Eng. 94, 1 (2017).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ziętala, M., Durejko, T., Polański, M., Kunce, I., Płociński, T., Zieliński, W., Łazińska, M., Stępniowski, W., Czujko, T., Kurzydłowski, K.J., and Bojar, Z.: The microstructure, mechanical properties, and corrosion resistance of 316L stainless steel fabricated using laser engineered net shaping. Mater. Sci. Eng., A 677, 1 (2016).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zhang, H., Zhang, C.H., Wang, Q., Wu, C.L., Zhang, S., Chen, J., and Abdullah, A.O.: Effect of Ni content on stainless steel fabricated by laser melting deposition. Optic Laser. Technol. 101, 363 (2018).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Huang, G., Wan, X.L., and Wu, K.M.: Effect of Cr content on microstructure and impact toughness in the simulated coarse-grained heat-affected zone of high-strength low-alloy steels. Steel Res. Int. 87, 1426 (2016).10.1002/srin.201500424CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ayyagari, A., Hasannaeimi, V., Grewal, H., Arora, H., and Mukherjee, S.: Corrosion, erosion and wear behavior of complex concentrated alloys: A review. Metals 8, 603 (2018).10.3390/met8080603CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wu, Q.L., Li, W.G., Zhong, N., and Wang, G.Q.: Microstructure and properties of laser-clad Mo2NiB2 cermet coating on steel substrate. Steel Res. Int. 86, 293 (2015).10.1002/srin.201400065CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Godec, M., Donik, Č., Kocijan, A., Podgornik, B., and Skobir Balantič, D.A.: Effect of post-treated low-temperature plasma nitriding on the wear and corrosion resistance of 316L stainless steel manufactured by laser powder-bed fusion. Addit. Manuf. 32, 101000 (2020).Google Scholar
Azuma, S., Kudo, T., Miyuki, H., Yamashita, M., and Uchida, H.: Effect of nickel alloying on crevice corrosion resistance of stainless steels. Corros. Sci. 46, 2265 (2004).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lippold, J.C. and Kotecki, D.J.: Welding Metallurgy and Weldability of Stainless Steels, Vol. 1 (John Wiley and Sons Inc, Hoboken, 2005); p. 376.Google Scholar
Li, K.B., Li, D., Liu, D.Y., Pei, G.Y., and Sun, L.: Microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of multiple-layer laser cladding coating of 308L stainless steel. Appl. Surf. Sci. 340, 143 (2015).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mallaiah, G., Kumar, A., Reddy, P.R., and Reddy, G.M.: Influence of grain refining elements on mechanical properties of AISI 430 ferritic stainless steel weldments—Taguchi approach. Mater. Des. 36, 443 (2012).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ghiban, B., Safta, C.A., Ion, M., Crângaşu, C.E., and Grecu, M.: Structural aspects of silt erosion resistant materials used in hydraulic machines manufacturing. Energy Procedia 112, 75 (2017).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zhang, L. and Kannengiesser, T.: Austenite grain growth and microstructure control in simulated heat affected zones of microalloyed HSLA steel. Mater. Sci. Eng., A 613, 326 (2014).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chen, Y., Guo, Y.B., Xu, M.J., Ma, C.F., Zhang, Q.L., Wang, L., Yao, J.H., and Li, Z.G.: Study on the element segregation and Laves phase formation in the laser metal deposited IN718 superalloy by flat top laser and Gaussian distribution laser. Mater. Sci. Eng., A 754, 339 (2019).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yang, X.Y., Peng, X., Chen, J., and Wang, F.H.: Effect of a small increase in the Ni content on the properties of a laser surface clad Fe-based alloy. Appl. Surf. Sci. 253, 4420 (2007).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Merakeb, N., Messai, A., and Ayesh, A.I.: Investigation of phase transformation for ferrite–austenite structure in stainless steel thin films. Thin Solid Films 606, 120 (2016).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Madec, R. and Kubin, L.P.: Dislocation strengthening in FCC metals and in BCC metals at high temperatures. Acta Mater. 126, 166 (2017).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dai, J.H.: Technology and Properties of 17-4PH Stainless Steel by Laser Solid Solution and Alloying Hybrid Strengthening (Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou, China, 2011).Google Scholar
Irrinki, H., Nath, S.D., Alhofors, M., Stitzel, J., Gulsoy, O., and Atre, S.V.: Microstructures, properties, and applications of laser sintered 17-4PH stainless steel. J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 102, 5679 (2019).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dréano, A., Fouvry, S., and Guillonneau, G.: A tribo-oxidation abrasive wear model to quantify the wear rate of a cobaltbased alloy subjected to fretting in low-to-medium temperature conditions. Tribol. Int. 125, 128 (2018).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Xu, P., Lin, C.X., Zhou, C.Y., and Yi, X.P.: Wear and corrosion resistance of laser cladding AISI 304 stainless steel/Al2O3 composite coatings. Surf. Coat. Technol. 238, 9 (2014).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wang, S., Zhang, S., Zhang, C.H., Wu, C.L., and Chen, J.: Effect of Cr3C2 content on 316L stainless steel fabricated by laser melting deposition. Vacuum 147, 92 (2018).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lienert, T.J. and Lippold, J.C.: Improved weldability diagram for pulsed laser welded austenitic stainless steels. Sci. Technol. Weld. Join. 8, 1 (2003).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tanaka, M., Matsuo, K., Yoshimura, N., Shigesato, G., Hoshino, M., Ushioda, K., and Higashida, K.: Effects of Ni and Mn on brittle-to-ductile transition in ultralow-carbon steels. Mater. Sci. Eng., A 682, 370 (2017).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Feng, X.G., Zhang, X.Y., Xu, Y.W., Shi, R.L., Lu, X.Y., Zhang, L.Y., Zhang, J., and Chen, D.: Corrosion behavior of deformed low-nickel stainless steel in groundwater solution. Eng. Fail. Anal. 98, 49 (2019).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wen, D.H., Wang, Q., Jiang, B.B., Zhang, C., Li, X.N., Chen, G.Q., Tang, R., Zhang, R.Q., Dong, C., and Liaw, P.K.: Developing fuel cladding Fe–25Cr–22Ni stainless steels with high microstructural stabilities via Mo/Nb/Ti/Ta/W alloying. Mater. Sci. Eng., A 719, 27 (2018).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Liu, X.C., Ming, H.L., Zhang, Z.M., Wang, J.Q., Tang, L.C., Qian, H., Xie, Y.C., and Han, E.H.: Effects of temperature on fretting corrosion between alloy 690TT and 405 stainless steel in pure water. Acta Metall. Sin. (Engl. Lett.) 32, 1437 (2019).CrossRefGoogle Scholar